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Using the prototype willingness model to predict doping in sport

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To enable preventive measures to be designed, it is important to identify modifiable distal and proximal factors underlying doping behavior. This study investigated aspects of the prototype willingness model in relation to doping. A cross-sectional
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  RUNNING HEAD: DOPING PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO DOPEUsing the prototype willingness o!el to pre!i"t !oping in sport L# Whit$%er $ & '# Long $ & A# Petr(")i  * & S#H# +$"%ho,se  $$ Carnegie Research Institute, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK; b School of LifeSciences, Kingston University, Kingston Upon Thaes, UK  A,thor NoteCorrespon!en"e "on"erning this $rti"le sho,l! *e $!!resse! to Lis$ Whit$%er& C$rnegie Rese$r"h Instit,te& Lee!s -etropolit$n Uni.ersity& He$!ingley C$p,s& Lee!s& LS/01S& U2# Telephone n,*er: 344 567880 98 4/94E$il $!!ress: l#$#whit$%er;lee!set#$"#,%  1212345678910111213141516  RUNNING HEAD: DOPING PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO DOPE Abstract To en$*le pre.enti.e e$s,res to *e !esigne!& it is iport$nt to i!enti<y o!i<i$*le !ist$l $n! pro=i$l <$"tors ,n!erlying !oping *eh$.io,r# This st,!y in.estig$te! $spe"ts o< the  prototype willingness o!el in rel$tion to !oping# A "ross>se"tion$l st,!y w$s "on!,"te! in.ol.ing ?@ "opetiti.e $thletes# ollowing ethi"$l $ppro.$l& $thletes 5e$n $geB 9#9  86#8 ye$rs /0 $le7 "oplete! $n online F,estionn$ire whi"h $ssesse! !oping>rel$te! $ttit,!es& nors& prototype per"eptions& o,t"oe e=pe"t$n"ies $n! *eh$.io,r$l willingness# Using hier$r"hi"$l ,ltiple regression $n$lysis& 4#4 o< the tot$l .$ri$n"e in willingness to !ope w$s e=pl$ine!# Spe"i<i"$lly& p$st !oping& $ttit,!es $n! <$.o,r$*ility o< per<or$n"e enh$n"ing s,*st$n"e ,ser prototypes were the strongest ,niF,e pre!i"tors o< willingness to !ope# Athletes $ppe$re! ost willing to !ope i< they were to s,<<er $n in,ry& $ !ip in  per<or$n"e or thin% others $re !oping $n! getting $w$y with it# N$tion$l le.el $thletes !ispl$ye! signi<i"$ntly gre$ter willingness to !ope 52r,s%$l>W$llis  χ  ! B 0#@&  p   #6687 $n!  per"ei.e! thesel.es $s signi<i"$ntly ore siil$r to $ !oper 52r,s%$l>W$llis  χ  ! B 80#4&  p  B #6647 th$n $thletes "opeting $t $ny other le.el# The <in!ings highlight the iport$n"e o< e=ten!ing $nti>!oping pro.ision *eyon! elite le.el sport $n! the nee! to t$rget $thletesJ !oping>rel$te! per"eptions# Key words:  Per<or$n"e enh$n"ing s,*st$n"es possi*le sel.es pre.ention $nti>!oping e!,"$tion 3417181920212223242526272829303132333435363756  RUNNING HEAD: DOPING PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO DOPE Introduction Re",rring !oping he$!lines ill,str$te th$t $n $ppetite <or ,sing per<or$n"e enh$n"ing s,*st$n"es 5PES7 re$ins !espite $ gre$ter eph$sis on pre.ent$ti.e e!,"$tion $n! in"re$se! e<<orts to !ete"t s,"h ,se thro,gh !r,g testing# Howe.er& testing progr$es typi"$lly t$rget those "opeting $t the eliteKpro<ession$l le.el $n! this is pro*le$ti" *e"$,se rese$r"h h$s shown th$t PES ,se is ,*iF,ito,s $"ross the sporting l$n!s"$pe 5Pits"h  Eri"h 6887# EF,$lly& the "osts $n! logisti"s $sso"i$te! with "$rrying o,t !r,g testing $re $lso inherent liit$tions o< !ete"tion>*$se! !eterren"e# In light o< these liit$tions& the Worl!Anti>Doping Agen"y 5WADA7 eph$sises the iport$n"e o< pre.ent$ti.e e!,"$tion 5$hey 66@7& whi"h $is to inhi*it the initi$tion o< !oping *eh$.io,rs# To pre.ent !oping in sport& $n ,n!erst$n!ing o< the psy"hoso"i$l e"h$niss in.ol.e! in the !e"ision $%ing pro"esses whi"h sh$pe $thletesJ "hosen per<or$n"e enh$n"eent etho!s is ne"ess$ry 5Petr(")i  Ai!$n 6697# Th,s <$r& A)enMs theory o<  pl$nne! *eh$.io,r 5TP+ A)en 8@97 h$s *een the !oin$nt <r$ewor% $pplie! to e=$ine !oping *eh$.io,r in sport 5e#g#& Go,let et $l# 686 L,"i!i et $l# 6697# Rese$r"h ,tilising the TP+ or eleents o< the TP+ within integr$te! so"i$l "ognition o!els h$.e <o,n! $ttit,!es $n! so"i$l nors to eerge $s pre!i"tors o< !oping *eh$.io,r thro,gh the e!i$tor intentions5e#g#& L,"i!i et $l# 669 Wie<<erin% et $l# 6697# Howe.er& intentions !o not $""o,nt <or  *eh$.io,rs whi"h $y o"",r in response to $ ris%>"on!,"i.e "ir",st$n"e 5Gi**ons et $l# 66/7# There<ore& it is iport$nt to $"%nowle!ge the possi*ility th$t $n $thlete $y ,se PES i< $ "ert$in sit,$tion $rises& e.en tho,gh they $y h$.e no prior intention to !ope#The prototype willingness o!el 5PW- Gi**ons et $l# 6607 is $ !,$l>pro"essing o!el th$t "onsi!ers person$l& so"i$l $n! en.ironent$l <$"tors# Pre.io,s rese$r"h ,tilising the PW- h$s <o",se! on ris%y *eh$.io,rs s,"h $s $l"ohol "ons,ption $n! so%ing 5e#g#& ier$nn  Sie.er!ing 6867& *,t ore re"ently it h$s *een $pplie! to he$lth prooting 7838394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162910  RUNNING HEAD: DOPING PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO DOPE *eh$.io,rs 5e#g#& "on!o ,se& e=er"ise& he$lthy e$ting +l$nton et $l# 668 Ri.is  Sheer$n 6607# The PW- "oprises two p$thw$ys  the re$sone! $n! the re$"ti.e# The re$sone!  p$thw$y "onsists o< intentions $n! the $nte"e!entJs $ttit,!es $n! per"ei.e! nors $s  pre.io,sly e=plore! thro,gh the TP+# In "ontr$st to the TP+& the PW- in"orpor$tes !es"ripti.e nors 5i#e#& wh$t signi<i"$nt others $"t,$lly !o7 r$ther th$n in,n"ti.e nors 5i#e#& wh$t signi<i"$nt others thin% the person o,ght to !o7# This is pertinent *e"$,se the pre!i"ti.e .$li!ity o< the TP+ <ollowing the in"l,sion o< !es"ripti.e nors h$s *een enh$n"e! 5Ri.is  Sheer$n 6607# As s,"h& !es"ripti.e nors h$.e *een e=$ine! within !oping>rel$te! st,!ies,tilising the TP+ 5 L$),r$s  et $l# 686 Wie<<erin% et $l# 6697# In $!!ition& $thletes who ,se PES ten! to o.eresti$te !oping *eh$.io,r $ong other $thletes 5U.$"se% et $l# 66@7# There<ore& $thletes who per"ei.e others in their sport to *e ,sing PES $y *e ore willing to !ope thesel.es& w$rr$nting the in"l,sion o< !es"ripti.e nors in this st,!y# In "ontr$st to the re$sone! p$thw$y& the so"i$l re$"tion p$thw$y <o",ses on willingness to per<or $ *eh$.io,r $n! $"%nowle!ges th$t ris% *eh$.io,rs "$n o"",r in response to $ ris%>"on!,"i.e "ir",st$n"e !espite $n in!i.i!,$l pre.io,sly h$.ing no intentions o< per<oring the *eh$.io,r# An $thlete $y *e willing to !ope in response to $ reF,est <ro $ te$ $te or "o$"h# Siil$rly& $thletes $y *e willing to !ope to <it in with others in their tr$ining gro,p 52ir*y et $l# 6887# It is propose! th$t this oent$ry tept$tion $y gi.e rise to ore pl$nne! $n! $ssiste! !oping *eh$.io,rs in the <,t,re# ConseF,ently& $pplying the PW- to !oping will $llow <or $thletesJ openness to the opport,nity o< ,sing PES to *e e=$ine!& whi"h so <$r h$s not *een possi*le thro,gh the $ppli"$tion o< the TP+# The PW- $lso s,ggests th$t willingness to per<or $ gi.en  *eh$.io,r is in<l,en"e! *y $ttit,!es& so"i$l nors $n! ris% prototype per"eptions& whi"h re<er to the i$ges o< the type o< person $n in!i.i!,$l *elie.es to eng$ge in $ p$rti",l$r *eh$.io,r# The ore $n in!i.i!,$l per"ei.es the prototype to *e <$.o,r$*le $n! siil$r to the& the 1112636465666768697071727374757677787980818283848586871314  RUNNING HEAD: DOPING PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO DOPEore willing they $re to eng$ge in the *eh$.io,r 5ier$nn  Sie.er!ing 6867# At  present& prototype per"eptions in rel$tion to willingness to !ope h$.e yet to *e in.estig$te!# in$lly& pre.io,s rese$r"h h$s s,ggeste! th$t e=pe"t$n"ies "$n in<l,en"e *eh$.io,r e.en tho,gh they $y not *e $ tr,e re<le"tion o< $"t,$l *eh$.io,r$l o,t"oes 5H$s%ing  Oei 6697# There<ore& .$rio,s o,t"oe e=pe"t$n"ies $y pro.i!e insight into why $thletes initi$lly st$rt to ,se PES $n! s,*seF,ently $y "opleent the PW- in pre!i"ting $thletesJ willingness to !ope# In s,& the present st,!y is *$se! on the $ss,ption th$t willingness to !ope is the o,t"oe o< the interpl$y *etween $thletesJ $ttit,!es& nors& prototype per"eptions $n! o,t"oe e=pe"t$n"ies# There<ore& the %ey $i is to ,se the PW- to in.estig$te gen!er $n! le.el o< "opetition !i<<eren"es in $thletesJ willingness to !ope# In t,rn this will in<or $nti>!oping e!,"$tion *y highlighting whi"h $thletes $re ost willing to !ope $n! when $thletes $re ost willing to !ope# MethodsParticipants The st,!y in.ol.e! ?@ "opetiti.e $thletes with $ e$n $ge o< 9#9  86#8 ye$rs# The highest proportions o< p$rti"ip$nts were <ro "y"ling 5847& $thleti"s 58#07&  *$!inton 59#7& <oot*$ll 5?#7 $n! ho"%ey 5?7& with /0 o< the $thletes *eing $le# The s$ple in"l,!e! $ spe"tr, o< "opetiti.e le.els with 08 o< $thletes "opeting $t "l,*K,ni.ersity le.el& 8@ "o,nty& 6 n$tion$l $n! @ intern$tion$l le.el# Athletes were re"r,ite! ,sing $ "on.enien"e s$pling etho! .i$ $ n,*er o< g$te%eepers# N$tion$l go.erning *o!ies& lo"$l "l,*s& "o$"hes $n! %nown $thletes were $ppro$"he! to help with re"r,itent# ,rtherore& so"i$l networ%ing sites were ,se! to in"re$se the re$"h o< the st,!y# Ethi"$l $ppro.$l w$s g$ine! <ro the Uni.ersity rese$r"h ethi"s "oittee# P$rti"ip$nts were in<ore! o< the p,rpose $n! .ol,nt$ry n$t,re o< the st,!y# The $nonyo,s 15168889909192939495969798991001011021031041051061071081091101111121718
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