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USING THE LOST TWIN GAME TO IMPROVE PRONUNCIATION OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Sherly Rahmawati 1, Zul Amri 2 Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris FBS Universitas Negeri Padang
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USING THE LOST TWIN GAME TO IMPROVE PRONUNCIATION OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Sherly Rahmawati 1, Zul Amri 2 Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris FBS Universitas Negeri Padang Abstrak Penulisan artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana cara meningkatkan pelafalan siswa dengan menggunakan the lost twin game untuk siswa sekolah menengah pertama. Pengajaran pelafalan ini bukanlah hal yang mudah karena siswa sangat mudah bosan dalam belajar dan kurangnya motivasi untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara secara tepat dan lancar. Di awal pembelajaran (pre-teaching) guru mengaktifkan latar belakang pengetahuan siswa dengan memperlihatkan sebuah video atau gambar yang sesuai dengan materi yang diajarkan. Kemudian, (whilst-teaching) guru menerangkan ekspresi pada tindak tutur meminta dan memberi barang, melakukan kegiatan bermain peran, dan menerapkan the lost twin game di dalam kelas. Di akhir pembelajaran, (post-teaching) guru menyimpulkan pelajaran dan melakukan kegiatan yang mebuat siswa rileks belajar. Key words: Lost Twin Game, Improve, Pronunciation, Junior High School Student A. Introduction English has become compulsory subject stated in Indonesian national curriculum. It is taught from junior high school to senior high school, even in certain areas English has been introduced at elementary school and kindergarten. In addition, it becomes one of the major subjects at college or university. It means that English is substantial subject that should be mastered by students in all stages of educational level. Based on School Based Curriculum 2006, the purpose of teaching English is to develop students ability to communicate actively both oral and written English. Among all of the skills taught, speaking is considered as one of the important skills that have to be mastered. The ability of speaking is really needed in transferring message in order to have a good communication, especially 1 Student of English Language Teaching Program of FBS UNP graduated on March Advisor, lecturer of FBS Universitas Negeri Padang Using The Lost Twin Game Septia Wulan Dari, Zul Amri between speaker and listener who are from different linguistic background. In other words, speaking is tightly related to an ability to communicate orally to other people. Furthermore, Shumin (1997: 8) states that the problems faced by English language learners in speaking English might be caused by some factors. There are internal factors and external factors. The internal factors are grammar, vocabulary, intonation, and pronunciation. On the other hand, the external factors are materials, classroom environment, techniques, and others. There are some components that should be learned by language learners in speaking. They are stress, intonation and pattern and pronunciation. As an aspect in speaking skill, pronunciation should be mastered by the students. Richard and Renandya (2004: 222) describes that there are some components of speaking skill. They are pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Besides, they also state that the components of speaking cannot be separated from pitch, stress, intonation, gesture, body language/posture, facial expression and so on (2004: 204). It means that the components of speaking include not only how someone speaks but also how someone acts. By mastering speaking English as target language both fluently and appropriately the goal of the speaking can be achieved. Similarly, according to Brown (2004: 157) there are five components that may influence someone s speaking, namely grammar, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, and pronunciation. In this writing the discussion is focused on pronunciation Pronunciation is a key to create a good communication with others, although they are not native speakers. According to Louma (2004: 11) pronunciation refers to many features of the speech stream, such as individual sounds, pitch, volume, speed, pausing, stress, and intonation. The speakers have to put those features in the proper place because it will affect to the meaning, and wrong pronunciation may lead to misunderstanding in the interaction. The speakers need to be aware of the above features of speech when they are communicating as they will impact on listeners understanding of speech or the meaning they convey in speech. Learners with good pronunciation in English are more easily to understand even if they make mistakes in grammar. Celce-Muria (2000: 117) gives the definition to teaching pronunciation usually focusing on the articulation of consonants and vowels and the discrimination of minimal pairs. Clear pronunciation is essential in oral communication. Poor pronunciation skills can decrease learners self-confidence, restrict social interactions, and negatively affect estimations of a speaker s credibility and abilities. Pronunciation has a great deal in successful communication between speaker and listener in teaching activities. Besides, based on the writer s observation in some of junior high schools, there were two problems in teaching speaking. First, the students had low motivation to practice English. They were afraid to make mistakes when expressing their ideas. They felt ashamed to do the interaction in front of their friends. Some students who just practice to speak based on what they have read on the students worksheet (LKS) without knowing whether it is appropriate or not 557 Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol. 1 No. 2, Maret 2013, Serie G in terms of pronunciation. As a result, they had poor fluency, intonation, vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Then, teachers did not create interesting classroom techniques in teaching and learning process. They just had monotone activities to give to their students. Many teachers preferred to use one material which is well known as LKS (Lembar Kerja Siswa) to teach their students. All the teaching activities depended on instruction in the LKS which had insufficient explanation and instruction for practice. Students just practiced English when teacher asked them to practice the dialogue in the LKS. After that, teachers asked the students to make a dialogue to be practiced in pairs about the topic that they have learned. Due to some reasons above, the teachers have to find good solution and make the students interested in speaking English to improve their pronunciation. There are many techniques that can be used in teaching pronunciation to encourage students creativity to speak. The lost twin game can be used by the teacher to carry out speaking activities, especially in pronunciation in the junior high school classroom. Most of junior high school students like learning while playing because when they do this activity they do not realize that they are in learning process. In this paper the writer tries to explain about teaching pronunciation by using the lost twin game. Based on what had been described above, the problems are formulated as follow: How can the lost twin game be used in teaching pronunciation as a part of speaking skill for the first grade of junior high school. Sanchez (2007: 61) states that the lost twin game is one of interactive games in the teaching and learning process of a foreign language. That is why they are generally used in an end-of-lesson activity to check students retention what they have learned. While playing, students have fun, relax, exercise, and tease their friends. Apart from having fun, students learn at the same time. They acquire new vocabulary along with its spelling and pronunciation. Students begin to realize that they have to speak or pronounce the words clearly if they want others to understand what they are saying. The purpose of this paper is to explain how The Lost Twin Game can be used in pronunciation as a part of speaking skill for the first grade of junior high school students. Moreover, it is also expected that teachers will apply this game in the classroom in order to make students interested and to motivate the students in learning speaking. According to Wright (2006: 108) using the lost twin game is kind of matching words pair s game which includes rhyming word, phonetic pairs, and phonemic script and so on. In this stage, the game is focused on the rhyming word such as heart /hɑːrt/ and part /pɑːrt/ related to pronunciation. Students need to pronounce the word to find the matching word or twin in his/her pair. The rhyming words that they have heard can help them to find the appropriate matching word. The older children and adults can take the big part to play that game. Here, students need to work in pairs. The teacher should provide students with different slips of paper twice. For example the word ship /ʃɪp/ on two slips of paper, the word sheep /ʃiːp/ on another two slips. Each student cannot show his/her slip of paper to other in order Using The Lost Twin Game Septia Wulan Dari, Zul Amri to keep the secret word that he/she gets from the teacher or instructor. Explain that when teacher claps her/his hands, students will stand up and walk around pronouncing the word in the right way in order to find their twin word. Therefore, by using the lost twin game as a technique of teaching speaking for the first grade of junior high school students, it is expected that students will enjoy learning speaking and can easily understand the speaking material at the same time they play it. B. Discussion 1. Preparation Preparing appropriate material for the students is one thing that should be considered by the teacher in order to make successful teaching and learning process. The teacher has to be able to choose the material which is suitable for the level and the needs of the students. Beside the material, the teacher has to choose the good technique of teaching English language, especially teaching speaking skill. One of the useful techniques is by using the lost twin game. Before using the lost twin game in improving students pronunciation as a part of speaking skill for the first grade of junior high school, teacher must do the preparation in determining the learning material, preparing the lesson plan video or pictures related to the topic, and preparing the slips of paper as cards. 2. Procedure of the Lost Twin Game There are several steps to present the materials using the lost twin game to junior high school students. They are included in pre-teaching activities, whilstteaching activities, and post-teaching activities. This is the model of teaching speaking procedure by using the lost twin game as a technique to improve students pronunciation in speaking. As the first phase, pre-teaching activity is also known as the opening activity which gives students an overview about how the lesson will look like. The teacher will give overview to the students about the lesson that will be learned. It is started by greeting the students. In this stage, after greeting the students, the teacher activates the background knowledge of the students by showing a video about the material related to the lesson. By using video in the beginning of the lessons students more interested to follow the activities in the lesson. From the video, teacher leads a discussion about what they will do that day. Teacher can create interaction with students from the first time after she / he greets the students by asking a simple questions such as Do you like watching a video? or Have you ever watched the video about asking and giving things?. Then, the teacher provides them with the video related to the lesson of that day. After watching the video, teacher holds a discussion in the classroom with questions like What are they talking about?, How does he ask things for someone?, and How can people respond it? 559 Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol. 1 No. 2, Maret 2013, Serie G The last step of pre teaching stage is students being informed that they will study about asking and giving things for someone by playing the lost twin game and there will be a pair competition following as they will have to learn the speech act asking and giving things. The second stage of this activity is whilst-teaching. After activating the students background knowledge in pre teaching, it will be easier for teacher to teach students. In this stage, the teacher explains the material to the students. Teacher explains the learning objectives and the significance of learning the materials to the students. It will be better for the teacher to divide this stage into three parts. They are exploration, elaboration and confirmation. In exploration, the teacher explains all of the material of the expression of asking and giving things and drills it to the students. Students will learn about how to ask and give things to someone else. After the students understand the material, she/ he drill the expressions to familiarize students and help them to remember. Teacher can drill the expression as many times as needed, before asking students to do some little role-playing guided with a dialogue. This mini role play trains the students to use the expressions they have drilled before. Expression of asking for and giving things Asking for things: Giving things: May I have.. (a pen)? This is for you. Can I have.. (three chairs)? Here you are. Can you give me.. (a cup of tea)? Here it is. Would you kindly pass the..( books)? Sure. Pass me the.(glasses), please? I d like to give Certainly. Example: asking and giving things Barbara : Excuse me, May I have the science and social books, please? Ms. Anne : Yes, here you are. Barbara : Thank you. Ms. Anne : you are welcome dear. For the second stage of whilst teaching activity is elaboration of performed as playing the lost twin game. Teacher explains all the words in slip of papers to the students. In playing the lost twin game, teacher tells the rules of the game to the students at the beginning. The teacher has to prepare a list of minimal pairs in advance. Then, the teacher writes the words on different slips of paper twice (E.g. the word may on two slips of paper, the word my on another two slips, etc.). All the words are chosen by the teacher based on the topic of asking Using The Lost Twin Game Septia Wulan Dari, Zul Amri and giving things that they learn in some conversations. The teacher will give one slip or half of that twin to each student and tells them not to show it to anyone. After that, when teacher claps his/her hands the students will stand up and walk freely in the classroom pronouncing the word in the right way. When they walk in the class they have to find their twin word in his/her pair. After getting his/her pair, students stop to walk and stand up without showing his/her card to the pair. All of the students have to get his/her pair. Then, the teacher will point out one of the pairs, they will not show each other the word each one has; in contrast, the students have to stand back to back. Next, the teacher asks each twin to pronounce the words they have without looking at the other one s paper. She/he will check each pair s correct word pronunciation by making students show their papers and pronouncing the word again. Here, the slip of paper cards may contents the word with the phonetic symbols and picture to help students understand how to pronounce the word. After the students finish in pronouncing the word at the same time, the teacher will tell the students about the winners will be the students who find their pairs. The pairs which find their correct twin are the winners. May Find the twin words and your pair! My Find the twin words and your pair! /meɪ/ /maɪ/ Figure 1 Then, when the first word has been played, the teacher prepares the students with the other words that are being played. The teacher will choose the difficult words from one of the sentences in the conversation based on what expression that have been taught to them about asking and giving things or the conversation that students being learned in the stage of confirmation. 561 Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol. 1 No. 2, Maret 2013, Serie G Here Find the twin words and your pair! Hair Find the twin words and your pair! /hɪr/ /heə r/ Figure 2 The last stage of whilst teaching activity is confirmation. In this step, the teacher checks the students understanding what they have learned before by giving some tasks. One of the tasks is to complete the dialog orally. Here, teacher presents an incomplete dialog on the white board. Then, she/he asks one student to complete the dialog based on the expression that have been learned before. After that, they have to practice the dialogue in front of the class with the appropriate pronunciation. The students will pronounce all the word including the words which are given when they played the game in the form of conversation. Then, as the closing phase of post teaching activities, Teacher should make this phase as memorable as possible in order to make students remember the day s lesson and wait for the next lesson. In this phase, teacher leads the students to summarize the material that has been taught by asking some questions to recall the students memory. Finally, the teacher shows a singing video and ask the students to follow the song. They sing together. 3. The Advantages of Using the Lost Twin Game The use of the lost twin game in the classroom has many advantages. a. The lost twin game gives a variety of tools to facilitate the teachinglearning process. Teachers can make use of games as they are one of the complementary tasks of a syllabus and with which students can better develop their learning strategies in learning pronunciation. b. The game is flexible. It means that they can be used for teaching any aspect of the language. One game can even be used to teach two or three language features at the same time. c. It makes the lesson less monotonous which is help to maintain students attention and interest in the language without getting bored. By using this game the lesson will be variety and will not do the same activity everyday. d. It can use to familiarize English to students. It means student will not be shy and afraid of making mistake anymore in speaking because they have get used to English as a common thing in their learning. Using The Lost Twin Game Septia Wulan Dari, Zul Amri e. The lost twin game stimulates students participation and give them confidence. They usually feel much more confident with their performance and this makes them learn and practice new structures, learn from their mistakes in order to increase students ability in pronunciation. C. Conclusions and Suggestions From the explanation above, it can be concluded that there are many techniques that can be used by the teacher in teaching speaking to junior high school students. One of them is the lost twin game. The lost twin game is a kind of game that can be used to improve students pronunciation as a part of speaking skill while learning English. It is designed as a game that used slips of paper twice as the card. This card will be used as a media in order to practice students pronunciation in the class. This game will make the students enjoy while they are speaking because it will be easy and relax in the classroom atmosphere. Moreover, the use of the lost twin game as a technique in teaching speaking to junior high school students brings many advantages to the English classroom. It creates a lively and enjoyable classroom that increases students interest and motivation. Besides, the activity using the lost twin game allows students to develop their social interaction as they learn from their environment. In order to be successful in teaching speaking in junior high school, teacher is suggested to be able to create an interesting and effective way to improve their student s ability. They should not teach their children with the monotone activities every day because it can make the students easy to feel bored. The teacher needs to be selective in choosing the interesting tech
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