The DROVER REVIEW A JOURNAL OF STUDENT WRITING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND ARTS OF OKLAHOMA VOLUME The Drover Review proudly and exclusively publishes the work of students at the University
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The DROVER REVIEW A JOURNAL OF STUDENT WRITING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND ARTS OF OKLAHOMA VOLUME The Drover Review proudly and exclusively publishes the work of students at the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma. Authors retain full ownership of and rights to the work included here. The DROVER REVIEW VOLUME EDITOR IN CHIEF Dr. Ben Wetherbee MANAGING EDITOR Dr. Shelley Rees EDITORIAL BOARD Dr. Tonnia Anderson Dr. John Bruce Genevieve Gordon Emily Rand THE DROVER REVIEW C/O DR. BEN WETHERBEE THE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND ARTS OF OKLAHOMA 1727 W ALABAMA AVE CHICKASHA, OK subject line: Drover Review iv CONTENTS EDITOR S INTRODUCTION vii WRITING I The One Defining Facet of My Life CHRISTOPHER WILSON Killing a Pig LOGAN NITZEL Victory at Richmond WENDELL HIXSON WRITING II Saint Misfit KORBYN PEEBLES Chastity, Christ, and Camelot TIA McCARLEY WRITING ACROSS THE DISCIPLINES The Woman in the Mask: Fantomina and the Theatrics of Femininity BAYLEE BOZARTH Gulliver as Swift s Every-Proletarian: Dehumanization, Alienation, and Labor GENEVIEVE GORDON Undertale: Tales of Dystopia KYLEA CAUGHMAN Will You Accept this Rose? HANNAH FREEMAN v The Syntax and Phonetics of Hiberno-English Dialects SUMMER LAURICK Sociological Frameworks Applied to the Port Royal Experiment and Tuskegee Syphilis Study EMMA WILSON Review of the Effects of Depression on the Immune System ZACHARY WALDROUP Branch Rickey: Baseball s Lincoln BENJAMIN VERSER Race Relations in Chickasha, Oklahoma KATHERINE LOMAN How the Homosexual Civil Rights Movement Set a Precedent for the Transgender Fight for Equality EREN HALL JERNIGAN AWARD WINNER George Washington in America Today MANDY OZMENT 137 vi EDITOR S INTRODUCTION Editor s Introduction DR. BEN WETHERBEE I N EARLY SEPTEMBER OF 2018, a former student stopped me in the hall. She told me other students had been asking her about and congratulating her on an essay of hers a piece she had written at USAO a year before and then submitted to the inaugural volume of The Drover Review. After it was published, I had also assigned this piece in my Writing I sections to model essayistic strategies for using personal experience as argument. The tenor of the classroom suggested it was one of my students favorite readings from that unit. (We also read Virginia Woolf and George Orwell, among others so the competition was plenty stiff.) This is the sort of exchange that makes an English professor and editor s day. It s great to see student writing receive recognition. It s even better to see student writing circulate and stir up conversation. When we first conceptualized this journal in 2017, its purposes were two, both in keeping with this anecdote. First, we hoped to showcase outstanding student writing, in much the spirit that art shows and recitals exhibit student talent, and in which The Accent showcases creative writing and art by USAO students. Second, we hoped to begin a growing archive of teaching resources model essays by vii THE DROVER REVIEW VOL. II 2019 USAO students written for USAO classes that could be read, analyzed, discussed, critiqued, and debated in class. But limited hindsight now suggests a third, complementary purpose for the journal, which is simply to facilitate conversation and the exchange of interdisciplinary ideas. On that topic, the rhetorician and literary theorist Kenneth Burke offers this illustrative image of a parlor and its gregarious denizens: Imagine that you enter a parlor. You come late. When you arrive, others have long preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about. In fact, the discussion had already begun long before any of them got there, so that no one present is qualified to retrace for you all the steps that had gone before. You listen for a while, until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar. Someone answers; you answer him; another comes to your defense; another aligns himself against you, to either the embarrassment or gratification of your opponent, depending upon the quality of your ally's assistance. However, the discussion is interminable. The hour grows late, you must depart. And you do depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress. (110-11) This image a favorite of mine, and one I yammer about so often that I hear a few current and former students groaning instructs us of a few truths: First, knowledge is dialogic and collaborative; we speak and write as individuals, but our voices finally matter because of their relationships to other voices and fields of discourse. Second, the writer s job is never despite the contrary opinions trolls prowling YouTube comment sections to shut things down or have the last word. The writer, instead, should push conversation forward, so it continues even after the writer moves on. And third, in order to advance knowledge in this manner, we need a parlor a venue, a fo- viii EDITOR S INTRODUCTION rum, a gathering space for ideas. Academic journals, web communities, town hall meetings, literal parlors all exemplify Burke s ideal in one sense of another. The Drover Review ought to pose one more example: a parlor for the USAO community, devotees of the interdisciplinary liberal arts, and those who champion undergraduate writing and scholarship. I hope USAO students, faculty, and alumni continue to read, discuss, debate, annotate, laud, critique, and circulate the work featured here in the spirit Burke implies. SIXTEEN STUDENT WRITERS CONTRIBUTE novel ideas to this volume. Like the first volume, this one comprises three primary sections, the first two devoted to work from Writing I and II USAO s two-term first-year writing curriculum and the third devoted to scholarly and essayistic writing from a range of courses and disciplines. Every submission set is its own animal, though, and this one has yielded different a makeup from volume 1. Notably, volume 2 includes considerably more upper-level writing and represents several disciplinary perspectives including history, sociology, linguistics, and biology that were absent from or less pronounced in volume 1. This volume also features, for the first time, the winner of the Jernigan Scholarship essay contest as a final but important addendum. Two personal essays by Christopher Wilson and Logan Nitzel kick off the Writing I section. Wilson reflects incisively on how a college course changed his opinion of Islam after leaving the Marines, while Nitzel s vivid narrative condemns the use of military-grade weapons in hunting. The section concludes with Wendell Hixson s sharp rhetorical analysis of Patrick Henry s famous address at Richmond on the eve of the American Revolution. The Writing II section features two literary analyses. Korbyn Peebles offers an innovative religious reading of Flannery O Connor s renowned short story A Good Man Is Hard to Find, while Tia McCarley s investigates the oft-neglected trope of male chastity, drawing examples from Arthurian legend and latter-day popular culture. These Writing I and II essays offer an enlightening sample ix THE DROVER REVIEW VOL. II 2019 of the wide-ranging and sophisticated work USAO students are capable of, even in first-year courses. The lengthy Writing across the Disciplines section features numerous academic perspectives, which are organized thematically. It begins with four literary/textual analyses. First, Baylee Bozarth, reads Eliza Haywood s novella Fantomina as a sustained metaphor for gender performance in patriarchal society. Genevieve Gordon then analyzes Gulliver s Travels as a prescient commentary on class and labor exploitation. Two commentaries on dystopian narrative follow: Kylea Caughman interprets the indie video game Undertale as an innovative mosaic of tropes from dystopian film and literature, while Hannah Freeman argues we ought to understand the reality dating show The Bachelor as a dystopia (thus confirming our collective suspicion that, yes, reality TV is the beginning of the end). These four essays represent the wide breadth of work USAO students undertake in literature courses alone. The following essays represent diverse disciplinary methods. Summer Laurick s linguistic analysis poses a heavily researched commentary on how Gaelic continues to influence Irish English. Emma Wilson then employs several sociological frameworks to better understand the racist assumptions behind the notorious Port Royal Experiment and Tuskegee Syphilis Study. And Zachary Waldroup offers a meticulously researched synthesis of scholarship on connections between depression and the physiological wellbeing of the immune system. These works offer an impressive and illustrative snapshot of writing s role across disciplines and the complex intellectual moves USAO students adopt in their multidisciplinary research and analysis. Three longform essays conclude the section, including two history papers: Benjamin Verser recounts the story of Brooklyn Dodgers manager Branch Rickey, whose recruitment of Jackie Robinson helped shatter the color barrier in baseball, while Katherine Loman unearths the unique and troubling history of race relations in x EDITOR S INTRODUCTION USAO s home of Chickasha, Oklahoma. Finally, Eren Hall s interdisciplinary senior seminar essay investigates how the gay rights movement has set a social precedent for the current movement for transgender equality. All three essays exemplify the sort if in-depth, sustained research characteristic of senior-level capstone writing, both in the majors and in the interdisciplinary studies curriculum. As a separate addendum, this volume also includes a short essay by Mandy Ozment, who argues that George Washington s Farewell Address presages the modern problem of acrimony between political parties. Ozment is the winner of the Betty Baker Jernigan Endowed Scholarship Fund, which, each year, offers $1000 to the winner of a contest open to qualified continuing and incoming USAO students; applicants write words addressing the question: How is America doing politically, socially, economically? Beginning this year, The Drover Review offers to publish winning essays like Ozment s. We wish to celebrate these pieces alongside other examples of outstanding student writing and to help publicize this outstanding scholarship opportunity. THIS JOURNAL REMAINS A COLLECTIVE, campus-wide effort, and I offer my necessarily abridged gratitude to everyone who has contributed. I thank the Editorial Board Drs. Shelley Rees, John Bruce, and Tonnia Anderson, as well as English majors Genevieve Gordon and Emily Rand for their intelligence, hard work, and ability to make difficult decisions on a deadline. Genevieve, in her capacity as work-study for the English office, deserves additional thanks for hanging fliers around campus and otherwise acceding to my whims, running miscellaneous errands to promote the journal. Thanks, also, go to faculty, staff, and students across campus who publicize of The Drover Review, and to all those who integrate intellectually sophisticated writing into their curricula across the disciplines at USAO. Faculty members whose coursework yielded submissions to this volume include Brenda Brown, James Finck, Annick Bellemain, Rachel Jones, Aleisha Karjala, and Misty Steele, xi THE DROVER REVIEW VOL. II 2019 as well as faculty on the Editorial Board. At the Communications and Marketing office, Beckie Brennan has been especially helpful updating The Drover Review s information on the USAO website. I also thank all the students who have submitted work to this volume. Without fail, reading Drover Review submissions is just as rewarding as it is difficult to decide what to publish. Please keep sending in your good work. Reading it is one of the recurring joys of my job. And once again, I thank you the readers of this journal and of these exceptional student writers. Good writing wants to be read, so let s get to it. WORK CITED BURKE, KENNETH. The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action. 3 rd ed., U of California P, 1973 xii WRITING I THE DROVER REVIEW VOL. II 2019 The One Defining Facet of My Life CHRISTOPHER WILSON In this reflective personal essay, Christopher Wilson recounts learning to vilify and despise Islam during his career as a soldier, a disposition that would dramatically shift after reading the Qur an in a World Thought class at USAO. This essay was written for Writing I with Dr. Brenda Brown. D ECIDING ON THAT ONE FACET of your life that defines you seems easy when you re 20 years old, but when you re 43 with a lifetime of experiences, it s a little tougher. In my life, I ve been a foster child, a soldier, a journalist, a student, and so much more. Every experience in my life has turned me into the person I am today. I ve led men in combat, and I ve covered court room murder trials, but for most of my life, I was a soldier. Being a soldier was as much a part of my identity as my name or the color of my eyes. It s taken me years to realize and accept that I m no longer a soldier and even longer to realize that I needed a college class, like World Thought II, to change my life. This is how an innocuous class helped me come to the realization that everything I had been taught and everything I grew up knowing was wrong. Saying something changed your life is a dramatic statement and overused to the point that it s almost cliched; however, I proudly 2 WILSON THE ONE DEFINING FACET use this phrase without remorse. For me to discuss how an interdisciplinary studies course and a couple of off-the-wall professors accomplished this consequential feat, I must first explain where I come from and how I wound up in the military, which, in turn, led me feel the way I did about Islam and Muslims. I grew up poor. I was raised by adopted parents who made it clear from an early age that they didn t want me. I was picked on in school because of the cheap clothes I wore and the generic shoes on my feet. Because of this, as far back as I could remember, I wanted to be a soldier. I wasn t a war-hound. Nor did I have a desire to kill anyone. I wanted to be a hero, and outside of the Marvel Universe, who do we look at as heroes? Soldiers. In my mind, soldiers were infallible. Soldiers knew what to do in any situation, but most of all, soldiers had respect. Soldiers had everything I could never have. Bootcamp is designed from the moment you get off the bus and step on the yellow footprints till the day you graduate and earn the title Marine to destroy whoever you thought you were. During the first few hours your head is shaved and all personal articles of clothing on your body, including your underwear, are taken from you. Pronouns like I, you, or me are replaced with this recruit. I was no longer Chris Wilson. I was recruit, maggot, worm, or dirtbag, but so were my new peers. I was no longer an individual but a member of a platoon. For the first time in my life, my standing in society had nothing to do with who my family was, how much money we had, or brand of clothing I wore. I looked like everyone else. I had the exact same clothes as everyone else. The Marine Corps didn t care who I was or where I came from; I had the same opportunity for success or failure as everyone else. All I had to do was shut up and do what I was told. I thrived in this environment. I was finally able to succeed or fail based on my own merit. Because of this, I was very susceptible to the indoctrination of boot camp. The drill instructors at boot camp are there to teach you to be a basic soldier, capable of operating within a small unit and surviving 3 THE DROVER REVIEW VOL. II 2019 in combat. You re taught to obey orders, without question or hesitation, even if it means you will lose your life. To accomplish this, drill instructors must instill in you a sense of invincibility as well as a clear understanding of who the enemy is. During the early 90s, the United States had one main enemy: terrorism. From the 1983 Beirut bombing to the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, hijackings and the Battle of Mogadishu, it seemed terrorists were our greatest threat, and most terrorists just happened to be Muslim. So, it was easy for our instructors to point us like lean, mean, motivated missiles toward an enemy that was both vague and incredibly scary. We didn t study the Qur an or speak with Muslims. We watched videos of jihadists training in the dessert or beheading innocent civilians. We learned that Muslims hated the West in general and America specifically. We came to understand that the only good Muslim was a dead Muslim. And. I. Soaked. It. Up. These beliefs we reinforced in Somalia, but especially so on September 11, 2001, when Islamic terrorists attacked the United States, killing thousands. Since then, I ve fought in Iraq and Afghanistan. I ve led some of the finest men and women America has ever produced in combat. I ve buried some of those same people, people whose deaths I blamed on all Muslims and not skewed foreign policies or less-than-accurate intelligence. I carried these feelings throughout my career. For most of us, it was necessary to do our jobs in whatever zone we happened to be in so that we could hopefully come home. These feelings also justified, at least in my mind, necessary actions taken in order to protect my soldiers and myself. If the enemy was an evil jihadist, terrorist, or insurgent, I could sleep at night. On February 7, 2007, after 14 years of service, I was medically retired from the Army. For most of my adult life I was Sergeant First Class Wilson. I was a platoon sergeant; I was father-figure to warriors; I was a disciplinarian; I was a soldier. On that day it was all taken away from me not because of wounds in combat or anything 4 WILSON THE ONE DEFINING FACET heroic, but because over the years of running and gunning, my back gave out on me. I no longer had an identity. I was right back where I was fifteen years earlier, but now I was also carrying memories of battles, of friends who didn t come home or who returned home less than whole. I questioned my decisions, the orders I gave or didn t give, but I never questioned who the enemy was until the Fall semester of 2018 at USAO. For most students, the World Thought courses are a series of classes that every student is required to take. Unless you re a history major, these classes aren t very exciting, just a necessary nuisance to get through on your way to a degree in whatever. By this point I had already taken both World Thoughts I and III and wasn t looking forward to another semester of boring reading. I was especially concerned when I saw the course materials included the Qur an. Why on earth would anyone, outside of the Middle East, want to read that thing? I mean, that s the holy grail of my enemy, the entire reason for the Crusades, 9/11, Beirut. That book was why my friends were dead. Because of that book, I had to sit in a funeral and listen to a three-year-old little girl tell her mom to go wake daddy up. The Qur an was, in my opinion, the reason for my hate, my anger, my depression, loss, and guilt. I couldn t wait to hear Drs. Simpson and Crow corroborate everything I knew about that book to my fellow classmates. Then I began reading it. I m not going to explain every nuance or all the various similarities between Christianity and Islam, but suffice it to say, there are many. Simpson and Crow guided me through the history of Christianity and Islam, the connections, the parallels and the differences. They destroyed everything I held to be true, everything I believed in, in just a few short weeks. Not through propaganda or baseless assumptions: rather, they used facts, history, and the Qur an itself. Drs. Crow and Simpson didn t laugh at me when I asked the inevitable questions regarding violence and Islam. The professors calmly
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