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Test Bank for Entrepreneurship Successfully Launching New Ventures 5th Edition by Barringer

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  Test Bank for Entrepreneurship Successfully Launching  New Ventures 5th Edition by Barringer Download: Test Bank for Entrepreneurship Successfully Launching  New Ventures 5th Edition by Barringer   More news on internet: Edward I (17/18 June 1239  –   7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward.[1] The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English  barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and  joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August. He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, however,  Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. After suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276  –  77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282  –  83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside and settled them with English people. Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a succession dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. The war that followed continued after Edward's death, even though the English seemed victorious at several  points. Simultaneously, Edward I found himself at war with France (a Scottish ally) after the French king Philip IV had confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine, which until then had been held in personal union with the Kingdom of England. Although Edward recovered his duchy, this conflict relieved English military pressure against Scotland. At the same time there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation, and Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition. These crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son Edward II an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and  political problems. Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname Longshanks . He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, and he often instilled fear in his contemporaries.  Nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward I: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility. Currently, Edward I is credited with many accomplishments during his reign, including restoring royal authority  after the reign of Henry III, establishing Parliament as a permanent institution and thereby also a functional system for raising taxes, and reforming the law through statutes. At the same time, he is also often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Welsh and Scots, and issuing the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from England. The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, and it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under Oliver Cromwell in 1657. Contents 1 Early years, 1239  –  63 1.1 Childhood and marriage 1.2 Early ambitions 2 Civil war and crusades, 1264  –  73 2.1 Second Barons' War 2.2 Crusade and accession 3 Early reign, 1274  –  96 3.1 Welsh wars 3.1.1 Conquest 3.1.2 Colonisation 3.2 Diplomacy and war on the Continent 3.3 The Great Cause 4 Government and law 4.1 Character as king  4.2 Administration and the law 4.3 Finances, Parliament and the expulsion of Jews 5 Later reign, 1297  –  1307 5.1 Constitutional crisis 5.2 Return to Scotland 6 Death and legacy 6.1 Death, 1307 6.2 Historiography 7 Family and children 7.1 First marriage 7.2 Second marriage 8 Ancestry 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links Early years, 1239  –  63 Childhood and marriage Inside an initial letter are drawn two heads with necks, a male over a female. They are both wearing coronets. The man's left eye is drawn different both from his right and those of the woman. Early fourteenth-century manuscript initial showing Edward and his wife Eleanor. The artist has perhaps tried to depict Edward's  blepharoptosis, a trait he inherited from his father.[2]
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