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Stroebe, Margaret and Henk Schut - The Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement - Rationale and Description.pdf

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This article was downloaded by: [University Library Utrecht] On: 10 September 2014, At: 00:52 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Death Studies Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ udst20 THE DUAL PROCESS MODEL OF COPING WITH BEREAVEMENT: RATIONALE AND DESCRIPTION Margaret Stroebe, He
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  This article was downloaded by: [University Library Utrecht]On: 10 September 2014, At: 00:52Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales RegisteredNumber: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Death Studies Publication details, includinginstructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/udst20 THE DUAL PROCESSMODEL OF COPINGWITH BEREAVEMENT:RATIONALE ANDDESCRIPTION Margaret Stroebe, Henk SchutPublished online: 11 Nov 2010. To cite this article:  Margaret Stroebe, Henk Schut (1999)THE DUAL PROCESS MODEL OF COPING WITH BEREAVEMENT:RATIONALE AND DESCRIPTION, Death Studies, 23:3, 197-224, DOI:10.1080/074811899201046 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/074811899201046 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracyof all the information (the “Content”) contained in thepublications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations orwarranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness,or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions andviews of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsedby Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not  be relied upon and should be independently verified withprimary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not beliable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands,costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connectionwith, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content.This article may be used for research, teaching, and privatestudy purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction,redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply,or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   L   i   b  r  a  r  y   U   t  r  e  c   h   t   ]  a   t   0   0  :   5   2   1   0   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4  ```````````````````````````````````````````````````` THE DUAL PROCESS MODEL OF COPING WITHBEREAVEMENT: RATIONALE AND DESCRIPTION ```````````````````````````````````````````````````` MARGARET STROEBE and HENK SCHUT Utrecht University, The Netherlands There are shortcomings in traditional theorizing about e     ective ways of coping with bereavement  ,  most notably ,  with respect to the so - called ‘‘grief work hypothesis  . ’’ Criticisms include imprecise denition ,  failure to represent dynamic processing that is characteristic of grieving  ,  lack of empirical evidence and validation across cultures and historical periods  ,  and a limited focus on intrapersonal processes and on health outcomes  .  Therefore  ,  a revised model of coping with bereavement  ,  the dual process model  ,  is proposed  .  This model identies two types of stressors  ,  loss  -  and restoration - oriented  ,  and a dynamic  ,  regulatory coping process of oscillation ,  wherebythe grieving individual at times confronts  ,  at other times avoids  ,  the di     erent tasks of grieving  .  This model proposes that adaptive coping is composed of confrontation  –  avoidance of loss and restoration stressors  .  It also argues the need for dosage of   grieving  ,  that is  ,  the need to take respite from dealing with either of these stressors  , as an integral part of adaptive coping  .  Empirical research to support this concep-tualization is discussed  ,  and the model’s relevance to the examination of complicated  grief   ,  analysis of subgroup phenomena  ,  as well as interpersonal coping processes  ,  is described  .‘‘Grieving is crucial, necessary and unavoidable for successful adaptation.’’(Malkinson, 1996, p. 155)‘‘Those who show the most evidence of working through the loss are thosewho ultimately have the most difficulty in resolving what has happened.’’(Wortman & Silver, 1987, p. 207) The notion that one ‘‘has to do one’s grief work’’ is well-knownin popular as well as scientic literature on bereavement, although, We wish to thank Robert Neimeyer and three anonymous reviewers for their insightfulcomments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Address correspondence to M. Stroebe or H. Schut, Centre for Bereavement Research &Intervention, Research Institute for Psychology & Health, Utrecht University, P.O. Box80140, 3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Death Studies, 23: 197–224, 1999Copyright 1999 Taylor & Francis Ó 0748-1187 / 99 $12.00 1 .00  197    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   L   i   b  r  a  r  y   U   t  r  e  c   h   t   ]  a   t   0   0  :   5   2   1   0   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4  198  M  .  Stroebe and H  .  Schut  as the above statements illustrate, contemporary researchers di   erin their conclusions about the efficacy of working through grief incoming to terms with loss. In recent years, in fact, researchers havebegun to question this conceptualization of adaptive coping (e.g.,Rosenblatt, 1983; Silver & Wortman, 1980; Stroebe, 1992;Wortman & Silver, 1987). It is important to increase our under-standing of what comprises e   ective coping with bereavement, forbereavement is a life event associated with much distress and withphysical and mental health detriments (Parkes, 1996; Stroebe,Stroebe, & Hansson, 1993). There are good reasons to assume thatcertain coping strategies enable some people to come to terms withloss and avoid severe health consequences, whereas others adoptstrategies that are detrimental to health. Thus, better understand-ing of what comprises adaptive versus maladaptive coping shouldenable us to predict di   erential health outcome more accurately,and ultimately to work toward reduction of risk among vulnerableindividuals.The srcins of the grief work notion can be traced to the 1917paper of Sigmund Freud, and his concept of ‘‘Trauerarbeit’’ (grief work). Both Lindemann (1944) and Bowlby (1980) incorporatedthe concept into their own explanations of the grieving process. Itis probably true to say that the most impactful in the eld of bereavement today is Bowlby’s attachment theory. According toBowlby, working through grief is important for the purpose of rearranging representations of the lost person and, relatedly, of theself. Although this enabled detachment (labeled  reorganization  in hismore recent work) or the breaking of a   ectional bonds (Bowlby,1979), at the same time, it also furthered the continuation of thebond, a relocation of the deceased so that adjustment can grad-ually be made to the physical absence of this person in ongoing life(see Fraley & Shaver, in press, for a recent appraisal of Bowlby’sideas about loss and bereavement). The concept of grief work has,then, remained central in theoretical formulations, and it has alsocontinued to have inuence in applied elds, being incorporated inprinciples of a wide variety of counseling and therapy programs(cf. Parkes, 1996; Raphael, Middleton, Martinek, & Misso, 1993;Stroebe, 1992; Worden, 1991).How can we address the growing concern among bereavementtheorists in recent years about the adequacy of an explanation of     D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   L   i   b  r  a  r  y   U   t  r  e  c   h   t   ]  a   t   0   0  :   5   2   1   0   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   4
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