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https://getbooksolutions.comSolution Manual for Personality Psychology Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature 5th Edition by Larsen Link full download: https://getbooksolutions.com/download/solution-manual-forpersonality-psychology-domains-of-knowledge-about-human-nature-5th-edition-bylarsenTest Bank for Personality Psychology Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature 5th Edition by Larsen Link full download:https://getbooksolutions.com/download/test-bank-for-personalitypsychology-domains-of-knowledge-about-human-nature-5th-edition-by-larsenChapter 2 Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design Chapter Outline Sources of Personality Data Self-Report Data (S-Data)  Information provided by a person, such as through a survey or interview  Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else  S-data personality tests  Unstructured items—open-ended  Structured items—response options provided  Limitations of S-data  People may not respond honestly  People may lack accurate self-knowledge Observer-Report Data (O-Data)  Information provided by someone else about another person  Key features of O-data  Provide access to information not attainable through other sources  Multiple observers can be used to assess a person  Selecting observers  Professional personality assessors  People who actually know the target person.https://getbooksolutions.comOften in better position to observe target’s natural behaviors than professional personality assessors  Allows for assessment of multiple social personalities  Because of relationship to target, however, observer may be biased Naturalistic versus artificial observation  Naturalistic observation: Observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of lives of the participants  Artificial observation: Occurs in artificial settings or situations  Naturalistic observation has the advantage of being able to secure information in realistic context, but at the cost of not being able to control events witnessed  Artificial observation has the advantage of controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behavior, but at the cost of sacrificing realismTest-Data (T-Data)  Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations  Idea is to see if different people behave differently in identical situations  Situation designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality  Elicited behavior ―scored‖ without reliance on inference  Limitations  Participants might try to guess what trait is being measured and then alter their behavior to create certain impressions  Difficult to know if participants define testing situation as intended by experimenter  Researcher might influence how participants behave  Mechanical recording devices  ―Actometer‖ used to assess children’s activity  Strengths  Not hampered by biases of human observer  May be used in naturalistic settings  Disadvantage: few personality dispositions lend themselves to mechanical assessment  Physiological data  Includes information about a person’s level of arousal, reactivity to stimuli—potential indicators of personality  Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)  Key benefit is that it is difficult to fake responses  Disadvantages  Often used in artificial laboratory setting  Accuracy of recording hinges on whether participant perceives situation as experimenter intended  Projective Techniques.https://getbooksolutions.comPerson presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to describe what she sees; assumption is that person ―projects‖ personality onto ambiguous stimuli  Strengths: May provide useful means for gathering information about wishes, desires, fantasies that a person is not aware of and could not report  Disadvantages: Difficult to score, uncertain validity, and reliability Life-Outcome Data (L-Data)  Information that can be gleaned from events, activities, and outcomes in a person’s life that is available for public scrutiny—e.g., marriage, speeding tickets  Can serve as important source of ―real life‖ information about personality Issues in Personality Assessment  Links among different data sources  When they do and do not exist and how to interpret these linkages  Fallibility of personality measurement  All sources of data have limitations  Results that replicate through ―triangulation‖ (across different data sources) are most powerful Evaluation of Personality Measures Reliability  Degree to which measure represents ―true‖ level of trait being measured  Types of reliability  Test-retest reliability: scores at one administration positively correlate with scores at second administration  Inter-rater reliability: applicable only to observer-based personality measures; ratings provided by one observer correlate with ratings provided by another observer  Internal consistency reliability: items within test positively correlate Response Sets  Acquiescence: Tendency to agree with items, regardless of content; psychologists counteract by reverse-keying some items  Extreme responding: Tendency to give endpoint responses  Social desirability: Tendency to answer items in such a way so that one comes across as socially attractive or likable  Two views on social desirability:  Represents distortion and should be eliminated or reduced  Resolved by (1) measuring and statistically removing, (2) designing surveys that are less susceptible to this response set, or (3) using forced-choice format.https://getbooksolutions.comValidity  Valid part of other desirable personality traits, such as agreeableness, and should be studied  Self-deceptive optimism versus impression managementDegree to which test measures what it claims to measure Types of validity  Face validity: whether test appears to measure what it is supposed to measure  Predictive or criterion validity: whether test predicts criteria external to the test that it is expected to predict  Convergent validity: whether test score correlates with other measures that it should correlate with  Discriminant validity: whether test score does not correlate with other measures it should not correlate with  Construct validity: subsumes other types of validity; broadest type of validityGeneralizability  Degree to which measure retains validity across different contexts, including different groups of people and different conditions  Generalizability subsumes reliability and validity  Greater generalizability not always better; what is important is to identify empirical contexts in which a measure is and is not applicable Research Designs in Personality Experimental Methods  Used to determine causality—whether one variable causes another  Two key requirements:  Manipulation of variables—experimenter manipulates independent variable and measures effects on dependent variable  Ensuring that participants in each experimental condition are equivalent to each other—accomplished through random assignment Correlational Studies  Correlation is a statistical procedure for determining whether there is a relationship between two variables  Designed to identify ―what goes with what‖ in nature, and not designed to identify causal relationships  Major advantage is that it allows us to identify relationships among variables as they occur naturally  Correlation coefficient varies from–1 (perfect negative relationships) through 0 (no relationship) to +1 (perfect positive relationship).https://getbooksolutions.comCorrelation does not indicate causation  Directionality problem  Third variable problemCase Studies  In-depth examination of the life of one person  Advantages  Can find out about personality in great detail  Can give insights into personality that can be used to formulate a more general theory that is tested on a larger sample  Can provide in-depth knowledge about an outstanding figure, such as a political or religious figure  Disadvantages  Results based on the study of single person cannot be generalized to others When to Use Experimental, Correlational, and Case Study Designs  Each design has strengths and weakness; strength of one is weakness of another  Which design a researcher uses depends on the research question and the goal of research  Taken together, three designs provide complementary methods for exploring personality SUMMARY AND EVALUATION    Decisions about data source and research design depend on the purpose of study There is no perfect data source There is no perfect research design But some data sources and some methods are better suited for some purposes than for others.https://getbooksolutions.comKEY TERMS Self-Report Data (S-Data) Structured and Unstructured Likert Rating Scale Experience Sampling Observer-Report Data (O-Data) Inter-Rater Reliability Multiple Social Personalities Naturalistic Observation Test-Data (T-Data) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Projective Techniques Life-Outcome Data (L-Data) Reliability Repeated Measurement Response Sets Non content Responding Acquiescence Extreme Responding Social Desirability Forced-Choice Questionnaire Validity Face Validity Predictive ValidityCriterion Validity Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity Construct Validity Theoretical Constructs Generalizability Experimental Methods Manipulation Random Assignment Counterbalancing Statistically Significant Correlational Method Correlation Coefficient Directionality Problem Third Variable Problem Case Study MethodChapter Overview This chapter provides students with an introduction to the sources of personality data, how personality measures are evaluated, and to research designs in personality. The authors first address the four primary sources of data collected by personality psychologists. These are Selfreport data (S-data), Observer-report data (O-data), Test-data (T-data), and Life-outcome data (L-data). The authors then address the conditions under which links are and are not expected among data collected from the different sources. Because personality data are fallible, the authors recommend collecting data from more than one data source. Results that transcend data sources are more powerful. The authors then discuss how personality measures are evaluated. This section of the chapter includes discussions of a measure’s reliability, validity, and generalizability. Next the authors discuss the three key research methods used by personality psychologists. These are experimental designs, correlational designs, and case studies. Each research method has strengths and weaknesses. The strength of one design is a weakness of another, and the weakness of one design is a strength of another. The authors note that the type of design one uses will depend on the research question and the purpose of the investigation. The authors close by noting that no source of data is perfect and that no research method is perfect. Whether a data source or method is appropriate will depend on the research question and the purpose of the research..https://getbooksolutions.comLearning Objectives 1. Describe and provide examples of the four sources of data collected by personality psychologists: Self-report data (S-data), Observer-report data (O-Data), Test-data (T-data), and Life-outcome data (L-data). 2. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each source of personality data. 3. Discuss how each source of data can provide information not provided by the other sources of data. 4. For O-data, discuss the problems of selecting observers and of naturalistic versus artificial observations. 5. For T-data, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of mechanical recording devices and physiological recording devices, and provide examples of each type of device. 6. For T-data, discuss and provide examples of projective techniques, including identifying the strengths and weaknesses of these sources of data. 7. Discuss the conditions under which one might expect links among different sources of data, and how the presence or absence of these links can be interpreted. 8. Define reliability, including a discussion of test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and internal consistency reliability. 9. Define validity, including a discussion of face validity, predictive or criterion validity, convergent validity, discriminative validity, and construct validity. 10. Define and discuss generalizability, including a discussion of the different ―contexts‖ to which a measure might be generalizable. 11. Describe and provide examples of the three types of research methods used by personality psychologists: experimental methods, correlational designs, and case studies. 12. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each type of research method 13. Identify and discuss when it might be appropriate to use one of the three research methods instead of the others. 14. Discuss how each type of research method can provide information not provided by the other research methods.Lecture Topics and Lecture Suggestions.https://getbooksolutions.com1. Personality and Mate Preferences: Five Factors in Mate Selection and Marital Satisfaction (Botwin, Buss, & Shackelford, 1997). Students will appreciate the presentation of a research paper in personality psychology that employs multiple sources of data. In addition, the topics of mate preferences, mate selection, and relationship satisfaction are consistently well received. Instructors can use this study as a spring board for discussions of the different sources of data, including such issues as the limitations of self-report and observer-report, as well as the relationship of personality to ―real world‖ outcomes such as relationship satisfaction.    Personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate (see, e.g., Buss, 2004, for a review) Little is known, however, about  which personality characteristics are most important among mate preferences  whether men and women differ in their personality preferences  whether individual men and women differ in what they want in a mate, and  whether individuals actually get what they want in a mate To explore these issue, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216) The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality (proposing five major dimensions covering the range of personality variations: Surgency or Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Openness/Intellect) guided investigation The FFM, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics from three data sources  Self-report (S-data)  Partner-report (O-data)  Independent interviewer-report (O-data) Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates Results were consistent across both studies  Women expressed greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits  Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired  Personality characteristics of one’s partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower than desired on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Openness/IntellectReferences: Botwin, M. D., Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (1997). Personality and mate preferences: Five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 65, 107–136. Buss, D. M. (2004). The evolution of desire (rev. ed.). New York: Basic Books. 2. Personality and Day-to-Day Physical Symptoms (Larsen & Kasimatis, 1991). One of the.https://getbooksolutions.comresearch methodologies used to study personality and not explicitly discussed in Larsen and Buss is what is often called the ―daily diary design.‖ This design is similar to an experience sampling design, in that data are collected on an ongoing basis from the same set of participants. In daily diary studies, data are collected on a daily basis about events such as physical symptoms, emotions, and self-esteem. In addition, personality researchers often collect personality data either before or after the daily diary phase. Students will likely enjoy hearing about this sort of research design, which highlights the critical role of the participant in making personality research work. In addition, the topic of the relationships between personality and health is likely to capture the interest of a large portion of students enrolled in personality psychology courses.   Larsen & Kasimatis (1991) explored the relationship between personality and ongoing health status in 43 undergraduates The students completed mood and symptom reports three times a day for eight weeks A daily event approach was used to model three temporal parameters of day-to-day health  Occurrence rate of symptoms  Duration of symptoms, and  Covariation of symptoms and moods over time The researchers then determined if these variables related to three personality variables  Neuroticism (emotional instability)  Anger/hostility, and  Type A behavior (excessive achievement striving, competitiveness, impatience, hostility, and vigorous speech and motor mannerisms) Results  Occurrence of illness related most strongly to neuroticism  Duration of illness related most strongly to the trait of aggressive responding  Type A behavior related to less unpleasant affect reported during episodes of respiratory infection, aches, and depressive symptoms The researchers conclude with a discussion of how alternative models of health/illness are made possible by the daily event perspective.Reference: Larsen, R. J., & Kasimatis, M. (1991). Day-to-day physical symptoms: Individual differences in the occurrence, duration, and emotional concomitants of minor daily illnesses. Journal of Personality, 59, 387–423.Classroom Activities and Demonstrations 1. Distribute Activity Handout 2–1 on page 14 of this document (―Twenty Statements Test,‖ or TST) to students. Have student take about five minutes to complete the test during class. Ask for volunteers to share their responses. Use this discussion as a springboard to talk about the TST, in particular, and the value of self-report data, more generally. Highlight for the students that the TST requests self-report information that cannot be obtained from any other.https://getbooksolutions.comperson except the students themselves. Finally, ask students to discuss what they think this test reveals about them. 2. Distribute Activity Handout 2–2 on page 15 of this document (―How Accurately Can You Describe Yourself?‖). This is a measure of standings on the five factors of personality, or the ―Big Five.‖ The Big Five are Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness/Intellect. Give students about five minutes to complete the inventory. You will then need to allow students about 10 minutes to score their responses. Ask students to write down the scoring instructions because they will need them to complete a future exercise (see #3 below). This measure is scored as follows: To get a score for each of the five factors, take the mean of the indicated items. Items with an asterisk (*) should be reverse coded BEFORE entered into the mean. Reverse code as follows: 1 = 7, 2 = 6, 3 = 5, 5 = 3, 6 = 2, and 7 = 1 Surgency: 1, *6, *11, 16, 21, *26, 31, *36 Agreeableness: 2, *7, 12, *17, *22, 27, *32, 37 Conscientiousness: 3, 8, 13, 18, *23, *28, 33, *38 Emotional Stability: *4, *9, *14, 19, *24, 29, *34, 39 Openness/Intellect: 5, 10, 15, *20, 25, 30, *35, *40 This is a valuable exercise, not only because students will learn about their standings on five major personality dimensions,

Marusía (nº 13)

Sep 29, 2017
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