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Solution Manual for Business and Administrative Communication 11th Edition by Locker

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Business and Administrative Communication (BAC) is flexible, comprehensive & up-to-date, specific & interesting. BAC uses a rhetorical emphasis of audience, purpose, and context allowing communicators to shape their messages appropriately for all channels and purposes. BAC conveys the best possible advice to students while Connect Business Communication allows students to apply concepts and practice skills. In short - Connect + BAC = An effective communicator Product detail: language: English ISBN-13: 978-0073403250 ISBN-10: 0073403253 Link download full: https://digitalcontentmarket.org/download/solution-manual-for-business-and-administrative-communication-11th-edition-by-locker/
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  • 1. 2-1 LINK DOWNLOAD FULL: Solution Manual for Business and Administrative Communication 11th Edition by Locker https://digitalcontentmarket.org/download/solution-manual-for-business-and-administrative- communication-11th-edition-by-locker CHAPTER 2 Adapting Your Message to Your Audience TABLE OF CONTENTS 1) Description of the Chapter 3 2) Essentials to Cover 3 3) Exercise Planning Table 5 4) Continuing Case Analysis 7 5) Answers and Analysis for In-Text Exercises 7 6) PPT Lecture Outline 21 7) Strategies for Increasing Student Learning 22 8) Possible Lesson Plans 23 9) Question of the Day 27 10) Additional Online Exercises 28
  • 2. 2-2
  • 3. 2-3 1 ) Description of the Chapter This chapter introduces students to audience analysis and channels of communication to reach audiences. In addition to identifying five layers of audiences, the chapter discusses specific strategies for adapting messages to different types of audiences and how to identify and develop audience benefits. Students should return to the concepts in Chapter 2 throughout the semester as they analyze audiences for the messages they write and the presentations they deliver. The student learning objectives include:  LO 2-1 How to identify your audience  LO 2-2 Ways to analyze different kinds of audiences  LO 2-3 How to choose channels to reach audiences  LO 2-4 How to adapt your message to the audience  LO 2-5 How to characterize good audience benefits  LO 2-6 How to create audience benefits  LO 2-7 How to communicate with multiple audiences 2) Essentials to Cover LO 2-1 How to identify your audience  There are five kinds of audiences: o A gatekeeper has the power to stop a message instead of sending it on to other audiences. A gatekeeper therefore controls whether a message even gets to the primary audience. Sometimes the supervisor who assigns the message is the gatekeeper; sometimes the gatekeeper is higher in the organization. In some cases, gatekeepers may exist outside the organization. o The primary audience decides whether to accept your recommendations or acts on the basis of your message. You must reach the primary audience to fulfill your purposes in any message. o The secondary audience may be asked to comment on your message or to implement your ideas after they've been approved. Secondary audiences also include lawyers who may use your message—perhaps years later—as evidence of your organization's culture and practices. o The auxiliary audience may encounter the message but will not have to interact with it. This audience includes the “read only” people.
  • 4. 2-4 o A watchdog audience, though it does not have the power to stop the message and will not act directly on it, has political, social, or economic power. The watchdog pays close attention to the transaction between you and the primary audience and may base future actions on its evaluation of your message. LO 2-2 Ways to analyze your audience  The most important tools in audience analysis are common sense and empathy.  The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can help you analyze individuals.  Demographic and psychographic characteristics can help you analyze groups.  A discourse community is a group of people who share assumptions about what channels, formats, and styles to use for communication, what topics to discuss and how to discuss them, and what constitutes evidence. LO 2-3 How to choose channels to reach your audience  A communication channel is the means by which you convey your message to an audience.  Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses, which need to be matched to the audience. LO 2-4 How to adapt your message to your audience  The following questions provide a framework for audience analysis: 1. What will the audience’s initial reaction be to the message? 2. How much information does the audience need? 3. What obstacles must you overcome? 4. What positive aspects can you emphasize? 5. What expectations does the audience have about the appropriate language, content, and organization of messages? 6. How will the audience use the document? LO 2-5 How to characterize good audience benefits  Audience benefits are advantages that the reader gets by using your services, buying your products, following your policies, or adopting your ideas. Benefits can exist for policies and ideas as well as for goods and services.  Good benefits are o adapted to the audience. o based on intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators. o supported by clear logic and explained in adequate detail. o phrased in you-attitude. LO 2-6 How to create audience benefits  To create audience benefits 1. Identify the feelings, fears, and needs that may motivate the audience.
  • 5. 2-5 2. Identify the features of your product or policy that could meet the needs you’ve identified. 3. Show how the audience can meet their needs with the features of the policy or product. LO 2-7 How to communicate with multiple audiences  When a document will go to multiple audiences, the writer should use the primary audience to determine the level of detail, organization, level of formality, and use of technical terms and theory. For suggestions on ways to teach this material, see the lesson plans in Section 8. 3) Exercise Planning Table Learning Objective Difficulty: Easy Difficulty: Medium Difficulty: Hard 2-1 How to identify your audience 2.1.1 2.3, 2.4 2-2 Ways to analyze different kinds of audiences 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 2.1.5, 2.11 2.5, 2.6, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20 2-3 How to choose channels to reach your audience 2.1.6, 2.1.7, 2.1.8, 2.13 2-4 How to adapt your message to your audience 2.1.9, 2.2, 2.10 2.8, 2.17 2.16 2-5 How to characterize good audience benefits 2.1.10 2.7, 2.8, 2.17 2-6 How to create audience benefits 2.1.11 2.7, 2.8, 2.17 2-7 How to communicate with multiple audiences 2.1.12, 2.9, 2.14 2.12, 2.15 Exercises with multiple learning objectives 2.1 2.7, 2.8, 2.17 In-class exercises: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16 Out-of-class exercises: 2.10, 2.17, 2.18, 2.20
  • 6. 2-6 Best if you teach in a computer classroom: 2.5, 2.10, 2.12, 2.14, 2.19
  • 7. 2-7 4) Continuing Case Analysis The All-Weather Case, set in an HR department in a manufacturing company, extends through all 19 chapters and is available at www.mhhe.com/locker11e. The portion for this chapter asks students to prepare an audience analysis for an in-house presentation. Students should begin this assignment by determining the primary and secondary audiences and answer the six questions for audience analysis found in the chapter. Students should then use the guidelines for creating audience benefits. You may want to ask them to do some additional research about Web-based performance appraisal systems. This research may help them when developing benefits for Linda and Miguel. 5) Answers and Analysis for In-Text Exercises Answers for each problem in Chapter 2 of BAC are given below. 2.1 Reviewing the Chapter (LO 2-1 through 2-7) Difficulty Level: Easy 1. Who are the five different audiences your message may need to address? (LO 2-1)  Gatekeeper  Primary  Secondary  Auxiliary  Watchdog 2. What are some characteristics to consider when analyzing individuals? (LO 2-2) The four pairs of the dichotomies from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator will help you understand characteristics of individuals. The four dichotomies include: extraversion- introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. 3. What are some characteristics to consider when analyzing groups? (LO 2-2) Although generalizations won’t be true for all members of group, they can be helpful if you need to appeal to a large group of people with one message. Two characteristics that can be used to analyze groups are demographic and psychological characteristics. 4. What are some questions to consider when analyzing organizational culture? (LO 2-2) An organization’s culture is its values, attitudes, and philosophies. To analyze organizational culture, ask the following questions: o Is the organization tall or flat? Are there lots of levels between the CEO and the lowest worker, or only a few?
  • 8. 2-8 o How do people get ahead? Are the organization’s rewards based on seniority, education, being well-liked, saving money, or serving customers? Are rewards available only to a few top people, or is everyone expected to succeed? o Does the organization value diversity or homogeneity? Does it value independence and creativity or being a team player and following orders? o What stories do people tell? Who are the organization’s heroes and villains? o How important are friendship and sociability? To what extent do workers agree on goals, and how intently do they pursue them? o How formal are behavior, language, and dress? o What are the organization’s goals? Making money? Serving customers and clients? Advancing knowledge? Contributing to the community? o What media, formats, and styles are preferred for communication? o What do people talk about? What topics are not discussed? o What kind of and how much evidence is needed to be convincing? 5. What is a discourse community? Why will discourse communities be important in your career? (LO 2-2) A discourse community is a group of people who share assumptions about what channels, formats, and styles to use for communication, what topics to discuss and how to discuss them, and what constitutes evidence. Understanding discourse communities will be important in your career because you’ll be able to effectively communicate within the organizational culture. 6. What are the standard business communication channels? (LO 2-3) A communication channel is the means by which you convey your message. Communication channels vary in speed, accuracy of transmission, cost, number of messages carried, number of people reached, efficiency, and ability to promote goodwill. 7. What kinds of electronic channels will seem most useful to you? Why? (LO 2-3) The answers will vary based on the student’s career choice. 8. What are considerations to keep in mind when selecting channels? (LO 2-3) Considerations depend on your audience, purpose and situation. 9. What are 12 questions to ask when considering how to adapt your message to your audience? (LO 2-4) The following questions provide a framework for audience analysis. o What will the audience’s initial reaction be to the message? o How will the audience see this message as important? o How will the fact that the message is from you affect the audience’s reaction? o How much information does the audience need? o How must dos the audience already know about the subject? o Does the audience’s knowledge need to be updated or corrected? o What aspects of the subject does the audience need to be aware of to appreciate your points? o What obstacles must you overcome?
  • 9. 2-9 o Is your audience opposed to what you have to say? o Will it be easy for your audience to do as you ask? o What positive aspects can you emphasize? o From the audience’s point of view, what are the benefits of your message? o What experiences, interests, goals, and values do you share with the audience? o What expectations does the reader have about the appropriate language, content, and organization of messages? o What style of writing does the audience prefer? o Are there hot buttons or red flag words that may create an immediate negative response? o How much detail does the audience want? o Does the audience prefer the direct or indirect organization? o How will the audience use the document? o Under what physical conditions will the audience use the document? o Will the audience use the document as a general reference? As a specific guide? 10. What are four characteristics of good audience benefits? (LO 2-5) Good benefits are o adapted to the audience. o based on intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators. o supported by clear logic and explained in adequate detail. o phrased in you-attitude. 11. What are three ways to identify and develop audience benefits? (LO 2-6) To develop audience benefits, 1) Identify the feelings, fears, and needs that may motivate the audience. 2) Identify the features of your product or policy that could meet the needs you’ve identified. 3) Show how the audience can meet their needs with the features of the policy or product. 12. What are considerations to keep in mind when addressing multiple audiences? (LO 2-7) When a document will go to multiple audiences, the writer should use the primary audience to determine the level of detail, organization, level of formality, and use of technical terms and theory. 2.2 Reviewing Grammar (LO 2-4) Difficulty Level: Easy The error(s) in the original sentence are italicized; the corrections are bolded. 1. I didn’t appreciate him assuming that he would be the group’s leader. I didn’t appreciate his assuming that he would be the group’s leader.
  • 10. 2-10 2. Myself and Jim made the presentation. Jim and I made the presentation. 3. Employees which lack experience in dealing with people from other cultures could benefit from seminars in international business communications. Employees who lack experience in dealing with people from other cultures could benefit from seminars in international business communications. 4. Chandra drew the graphs after her and I discussed the ideas for them. Chandra drew the graphs after she and I discussed the ideas for them. OR Chandra drew the graphs after we discussed the ideas for them. 5. Please give your revisions to Cindy, Tyrone, or myself by noon Friday. Please give your revisions to Cindy, Tyrone, or me by noon Friday. 2.3 Identifying Audiences I (LO 2-1) Difficulty Level: Medium 1. Kent, Carol, and Jose Primary audience: Financial institutions Secondary audiences: Employees who will manage the website Employees of the financial institutions who will process the paper work. Auxiliary: Other people interested in opening a small business website Watchdog: Lawyers State/city agencies 2. Barbara Gatekeeper: Barbara’s boss Primary audience: Potential customers over 65 years old Secondary audiences: Workers of the travel agency Auxiliary: People less than 65 years old who may come in contact with the letter Watchdog: Travel review websites AARP/Senior advocate groups 3. Paul Gatekeeper: Paul’s boss, the mayor Primary audience: Council members who will vote Secondary audiences: Citizens, mayor’s offices in other cities Union representatives Department heads
  • 11. 2-11 Blue-ribbon panel Lobbying groups who will comment on the proposal City workers who will be affected if it passes Auxiliary: Anyone else in the city who takes an interest in the proposal Watchdog: Voters or any other groups that have economic, social, or political power over the mayor and the council 4. Bigster Corporation Primary audience: All employee’s in Sharon’s division Gatekeeper: Sharon, Steve’s boss Secondary audiences: Those who will conduct the training session HR Department Auxiliary: Other Bigster employees who may come in contact with the email but are not required to attend the training or have already attended the training session 2.4 Identifying Audiences II (LO 2-1) Difficulty Level: Medium 1. Coin Powell’s Audiences Gatekeeper: U.S. press secretary, speech writer, or public relations specialist Primary audience: American troops Reporters Auxiliary: Americans listening and watching Watchdog: Political and military leaders, plus their fellow citizens in other countries The enemy 2.5 Analyzing Multiple Audiences (LO 2-2) Difficulty Level: Medium This exercise works best as an in-class activity where you can hold a large class discussion. Some students are who not familiar with government agencies, in particular the U.S. Census Bureau, may have more difficulty analyzing the different types of audiences involved. At a minimum, this exercise should help to demonstrate to students how complex audiences can be and how messages need to be tailored for each.
  • 12. 2-12 2.6 Choosing a Channel to Reach a Specific Audience (LO 2-3) Difficulty Level: Medium This exercise is effective for in-class brainstorming. Use it to make these key points:  No channel will reach all the people in that group.  The best channel depends on budget and purpose. For example, lists of people who take the PSAT, SAT, and ACT will reach students who definitely plan to go to college, but not those who are still undecided.  Commercial mailing lists are available from list brokers, but the lists may be too expensive for a local company, government agency, or nonprofit group to use. There are many possible answers here. Below are some possibilities. 1. Parents of autistic children  Put notices on website devoted to autism  Post announcements in newsletters for parents of autistic children  Advertise in day care centers that specialize in autistic care 2. Ballroom dancers  Create web banners for websites dedicated to ballroom dancing  Make announcements during ballroom dancing competitions  Hang fliers in dance studios 3. Non-traditional college students  Send email notification to all students  Post notices around campus  Advertise at school sporting events  Rent ad space in the university’s newspaper  Use Facebook or similar social networking application 4. Parents whose children play basketball  Send email notification to all parents who enroll their children in basketball camps  Post announcement at sports complex  Make announcements over loud speakers at basketball games  Send notices to organizers of local basketball camps  Post notices in sporting goods stores  Use Facebook or similar social networking application 5. People who are blind  Advertise on stations that support closed captioning  Contact local assisted living facilities
  • 13. 2-13 6. Mothers who are vegan  Post announcements at whole food and nutritional stores  Advertise in newsletter specific to this target group  Use Facebook or similar social networking application 7. People who are interested in improve (improvisation)  Make announcements at theatre venues who showcase improve  Sent fliers to comedy clubs  Use Facebook or similar social networking application 8. Dog owners  Distribute notice at veterinarian’s offices  Post notices in stores that sell pet supplies 2.7 Identifying and Developing Audience Benefits (LO 2-5 and 2-6) Difficulty Level: Medium 1. Write fewer e-mails Security: saving money; conserving environmental resources Belonging: cooperating with coworkers face-to-face Recognition: having a good personal and corporate reputation 2. Volunteer at a local food pantry Security: satisfying curiosity; building groundwork for improving relationships in community Recognition: pride in performing job well; feeling good inside about helping others 3. Volunteering to recruit interns at a job fair Belonging: interacting with other people who also participate Promotion: volunteering may lead to bigger and better things Security: pride in helping others Recognition: (if one does well in the sport) Self-actualization: using talents, abilities 4. Attend team-building activities every other Friday afternoon 5. Security: building groundwork for improving relationships in workplace Self-actualization: desire to use talents Recognition: having a good personal and corporate reputation 6. Attend HR seminars on health policy changes 7. Belonging: belonging to a group; interacting with other people who also participate; cooperating with coworkers face-to-face Security: increase awareness of opportunities
  • 14. 2-14 2.8 Identifying Objections and Audience Benefits (LOs 2-4, 2-5, and 2-6) Difficulty Level: Medium Possible answers are included for each scenario; however, student responses may vary. 1. Your organization is thinking of creating a knowledge management system that requires workers to input their knowledge and experien
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