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Section 9.1 Significance Tests: The Basics Section 9.1 Significance Tests: The Basics After this section, you should be able to STATE correct hypotheses for a significance test about a population proportion

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Section 9.1 Significance Tests: The Basics Section 9.1 Significance Tests: The Basics After this section, you should be able to STATE correct hypotheses for a significance test about a population proportion or mean. INTERPRET P-values in context. Statistical Inference Significance Tests- ASSESS the evidence provided by data about some claim concerning a population Reject or fail to reject (Yes vs. No) Confidence Interval - ESTIMATE a population parameter. Give range of possible values Significance Test A significance test is a formal procedure for comparing observed data with a claim (also called a hypothesis) whose truth we want to assess. The claim is a statement about a parameter, like the population proportion p or the population mean µ. We express the results of a significance test in terms of a probability (p-value) that measures how well the data and the claim agree. The Reasoning of Significance Tests Statistical tests deal with claims about a population. Tests ask if sample data give good evidence against a claim. A test might say, If we took many random samples and the claim were true, what is the probability we will get a result like this. For example: Suppose a basketball player claimed to be an 80% free-throw shooter. To test this claim, we have him attempt 50 free-throws. He makes 32 of them. His sample proportion of made shots is 32/50 = What can we conclude about the claim based on this sample data? What is the probability the player is telling the truth?!?! Applet: ats_applet_15_reasoning.html The Reasoning of Significance Tests We can use software to simulate 400 sets of 50 shots assuming that the player is really an 80% shooter. The Reasoning of Significance The observed statistic is so unlikely if the actual parameter value is p = 0.80 that it gives convincing evidence that the player s claim is not true. Tests You can say how strong the evidence against the player s claim is by giving the probability that he would make as as 32 out of 50 free throws if he really makes 80% in the long run. The Reasoning of Significance Tests Based on the evidence, we might conclude the player s claim is incorrect. In reality, there are two possible explanations for the fact that he made only 64% of his free throws. 1) The player s claim is correct (p = 0.8), and by horrible luck, a very unlikely outcome occurred. 2) The population proportion is actually less than 0.8, so the sample result is not an unlikely outcome. Basic Idea An outcome that would rarely happen if a claim were true is good evidence that the claim is not true. Stating Hypotheses The claim tested by a statistical test is called the null hypothesis (H 0 ). The test is designed to assess the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis. Often the null hypothesis is a statement of no difference or that the claim is true. The claim about the population that we are trying to find evidence for is the alternative hypothesis (H a ). In the free-throw shooter example, our hypotheses are H 0 : p = 0.80 H a : p 0.80 Parameter: p = the long-run proportion of made free throws. Stating Hypotheses In any significance test, the null hypothesis has the form H 0 : parameter = value The alternative hypothesis has one of the forms H a : parameter value H a : parameter value H a : parameter value To determine the correct form of H a, read the problem carefully. Stating Hypotheses The alternative hypothesis is one-sided if it states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis value or if it states that the parameter is smaller than the null value. It is two-sided if it states that the parameter is different from the null hypothesis value (it could be either larger or smaller). Use H a : parameter value for two sided. Hypotheses always refer to a population, not to a sample. Be sure to state H 0 and H a in terms of population parameters (p or μ). It is never correct to write a hypothesis about a sample statistic, such as p ˆ = 0.64 or x = 85. State the Hypothesis & Parameter: A high school junior running for student body president, Sally, claims that 70% of the student body favors her in the school election. Her opponent believes this percentage to be lower, write the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses. State the Hypothesis & Parameter: p= true proportion of students that favor Sally for president. Interpreting P-Values The null hypothesis H 0 states the claim that we are seeking evidence against. The probability that measures the strength of the evidence against a null hypothesis is called a P-value. The probability, computed assuming H 0 is true, that the statistic would take a value as extreme as or more extreme than the one actually observed is called the P- value of the test. The smaller the P-value, the stronger the evidence against H 0 provided by the data. Interpreting P-Values If the null hypothesis of (insert context here) is indeed true, there is a (insert p value) chance that we obtained a result as extreme as (insert sample value) due to random chance alone. Example: Ho: p = 0.90 sample : 0.85 Ha: p 0.90 p-val: p = ATM seniors attending college If the null hypothesis of 90% of ATM seniors attending college is indeed true, there is a 3.5% chance that we obtained a result as extreme as 85% college attendance due to random chance alone. H 0 : µ = 0 English Math Small P- value Evidence against Unlikely to occur if H 0 is true We reject H 0 Large P- value Not convincing evidence Could occur if H 0 is true We fail to reject H 0 Example: Studying Job Satisfaction Does the job satisfaction of assembly-line workers differ when their work is machine-paced rather than self-paced? One study chose 18 subjects at random from a company with over 200 workers who assembled electronic devices. Half of the workers were assigned at random to each of two groups. Both groups did similar assembly work, but one group was allowed to pace themselves while the other group used an assembly line that moved at a fixed pace. After two weeks, all the workers took a test of job satisfaction. Then they switched work setups and took the test again after two more weeks. The response variable is the difference in satisfaction scores, self-paced minus machine-paced. a) Describe the parameter of interest in this setting. b) State appropriate hypotheses for performing a significance test. Example: Studying Job Satisfaction a) Describe the parameter of interest in this setting. The parameter of interest is the mean µ of the differences (self-paced minus machine-paced) in job satisfaction scores in the population of all assembly-line workers at this company. (FYI- Matched pairs!!!) b) State appropriate hypotheses for performing a significance test. Because the initial question asked whether job satisfaction differs, the alternative hypothesis is two-sided; that is, either µ 0 or µ 0. For simplicity, we write this as µ 0. That is, H 0 : µ = 0 H a : µ 0 Example: Studying Job Satisfaction For the job satisfaction study, the hypotheses are H 0 : µ = 0 H a : µ 0 Data from the 18 workers gave x =17 and s x = 60. That is, these workers rated the self - paced environment, on average, 17 points higher. Researchers performed a significance test using the sample data and found a P - value of c) Explain what it means for the null hypothesis to be true in this setting. d) Interpret the given P-value in context. Example: Studying Job Satisfaction For the job satisfaction study, the hypotheses are H 0 : µ = 0 H a : µ 0 c) Explain what it means for the null hypothesis to be true in this setting. In this setting, the null hypothesis is that there is no mean difference in employee satisfaction scores (self-paced - machine-paced) for the entire population of assemblyline workers at the company. If null hypothesis is true, then the workers don t favor one work environment over the other, on average. Example: Studying Job Satisfaction d) Interpret the P-value in context. The P-value is the probability of observing a sample result as extreme as (or more extreme) by pure chance given that the null hypothesis is actually true. Since the test is two-sided, we have a 23% chance of observing a value that is 17 points or more from the mean, in either direction. An outcome that would occur so often just by chance (almost 1 in every 4 random samples of 18 workers) when the null is true is not convincing evidence against null. We fail to reject H 0 : µ = 0. Conclusion: Statistical Significance We will make one of two decisions based on the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis (and in favor of the alternative hypothesis) -- reject H 0 or fail to reject H 0. If our sample result is too unlikely to have happened by chance assuming H 0 is true, then we ll reject H 0. Otherwise, we will fail to reject H 0. A fail-to-reject H 0 decision in a significance test doesn t mean that H 0 is true. For that reason, you should never accept H 0 or use language implying that you believe H 0 is true. Statistically Significant There is no perfect rule for how small a P-value we should require in order to reject H 0 it s a matter of judgment and depends on the specific circumstances. We can compare the P-value with a fixed value (typically α = 0.05), called the significance level (alpha α). When our p-value is greater than the chosen α, there is no statistically significance. We fail to reject the null. When our P-value is less than the chosen α, we say that the result is statistically significant. In that case, we reject the null hypothesis H 0 and conclude that there is convincing evidence in favor of the alternative hypothesis H a. General conclusion in a significance test : P-value small reject H 0 conclude H a P-value large fail to reject H 0 cannot conclude H a Conclusion with fixed level of significance : P-value α reject H 0 conclude H a P-value α fail to reject H 0 cannot conclude H a Example: Better Batteries A company has developed a new deluxe AAA battery that is supposed to last longer than its regular AAA battery. However, these new batteries are more expensive to produce, so the company would like to be convinced that they really do last longer. Based on years of experience, the company knows that its regular AAA batteries last for 30 hours of continuous use, on average. The company selects an SRS of 15 new batteries and uses them continuously until they are completely drained. A significance test is performed using the hypotheses H 0 : µ = 30 hours H a : µ 30 hours where µ is the true mean lifetime of the new deluxe AAA batteries. The resulting P-value is a) What conclusion can you make for the significance level α = 0.05? b) What conclusion can you make for the significance level α = 0.01? Example: Better Batteries a) What conclusion can you make for the significance level α = 0.05? Since the P-value, , is less than α = 0.05, the sample result is statistically significant at the 5% level. We have sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and have sufficient evidence to conclude that the company s deluxe AAA batteries last longer than 30 hours, on average. b) What conclusion can you make at significance level α = 0.01? Since the P-value, , is greater than α = 0.01, the sample result is not statistically significant at the 1% level. We fail to reject the null hypothesis; therefore, we cannot conclude that the deluxe AAA batteries last longer than 30 hours, on average. Section 9.1 Significance Tests: The Basics A significance test assesses the evidence provided by data against a null hypothesis H 0 in favor of an alternative hypothesis H a. The hypotheses are stated in terms of population parameters. Often, H 0 is a statement of no change or no difference. H a says that a parameter differs from its null hypothesis value in a specific direction (one-sided alternative) or in either direction (two-sided alternative). The reasoning of a significance test is as follows. Suppose that the null hypothesis is true. If we repeated our data production many times, would we often get data as inconsistent with H 0 as the data we actually have? If the data are unlikely when H 0 is true, they provide evidence against H 0. The P-value of a test is the probability, computed supposing H 0 to be true, that the statistic will take a value at least as extreme as that actually observed in the direction specified by H a. Section 9.1 Significance Tests: The Basics Summary Small P-values indicate strong evidence against H 0. To calculate a P- value, we must know the sampling distribution of the test statistic when H 0 is true. There is no universal rule for how small a P-value in a significance test provides convincing evidence against the null hypothesis. If the P-value is smaller than a specified value α (called the significance level), the data are statistically significant at level α. In that case, we reject H 0. If the P-value is greater than or equal to α, we fail to reject H 0.

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