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Risk of Terrorist Abuse in Non Profit Organisations

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Terrorist organisations need funds, material, personnel and public influence to carry out their illegal activities. Non-profit organisations (NPO) rely on the same capabilities to further their legitimate and good causes. This typologies report examines in detail, how and where NPOs are at risk of terrorist abuse and provides a number of red flag indicators to help all stakeholders identify and investigate possible cases of abuse.
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  FATF REPORT Risk of Terrorist Abuse in Non-Proft Organisaons June 2014    FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE   The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an independent inter-governmental body that develops and promotes policies to protect the global financial system against money laundering, terrorist financing and the financing of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The FATF Recommendations are recognised as the global anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorist financing (CFT) standard. For more information about the FATF, please visit the website:   www.fatf-gafi.org © 2014 FATF/OECD. All rights reserved. No reproduction or translation of this publication may be made without prior written permission. Applications for such permission, for all or part of this publication, should be made to the FATF Secretariat, 2 rue André Pascal 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France (fax: +33 1 44 30 61 37 or e-mail: contact@fatf-gafi.org) . Photocredits coverphoto: ©Thinkstock  RISK OF TERRORIST ABUSE IN NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS    2014 i  CONTENTS GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS ............................................................................................... III   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 1  Understanding the Risk ......................................................................................................................... 2 Scope of the Project .............................................................................................................................. 3 Nature of the Threat ............................................................................................................................. 3 Mitigating the Risk ................................................................................................................................ 4 Categories of Risk .................................................................................................................................. 5 Detection and Disruption ...................................................................................................................... 6 Indicators ............................................................................................................................................... 7 Next Steps ............................................................................................................................................. 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 8  Background ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Scope and objectives ............................................................................................................................. 9 The Terrorism Support Continuum ..................................................................................................... 12 Terrorism Financing versus Money Laundering: Methods and Risks ................................................. 13 Data Collection and Sources ............................................................................................................... 14 Collection of Case Studies ......................................................................................................... 15 Collection of General Jurisdictional Data .................................................................................. 16 NPO Sector Questionnaires and Workshops ............................................................................ 16 Open-Source Research .............................................................................................................. 17 CHAPTER 2 THE NPO SECTOR AND THE RISK OF TERRORIST ABUSE ..................................................... 18  The Global Environment ..................................................................................................................... 18 The Non-Profit Sector.......................................................................................................................... 20 NPO Sector Operations and Vulnerabilities ........................................................................................ 23 The Current Nature of the Terrorist Threat ........................................................................................ 26 Terrorist Abuse and the Risk to NPOs ................................................................................................. 28 Strategic Issues .................................................................................................................................... 32 Issue 1—A Tension Created by Equally Necessary Imperatives ............................................... 32 Issue 2—National Responses to International Standards......................................................... 33 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 34  CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND RISK OF ABUSE ........................................................................................ 36  Diversion of Funds ............................................................................................................................... 37 Diversion of Funds by Actors Internal to NPOs ......................................................................... 38 Diversion of Funds by Actors External to NPOs ........................................................................ 41 Affiliation with a Terrorist Entity ......................................................................................................... 42 Abuse of Programming ........................................................................................................................ 44 Support for Recruitment ..................................................................................................................... 45 False Representation and Sham NPOs ................................................................................................ 47  RISK OF TERRORIST ABUSE IN NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS ii   2014  CHAPTER 4 METHODS OF DETECTION ................................................................................................ 49  NPO Regulatory Information ............................................................................................................... 51 Open Source Information .................................................................................................................... 52 FIU and Other Financial Information................................................................................................... 53 National Security Intelligence ............................................................................................................. 54 Law Enforcement Information ............................................................................................................ 55 Foreign Cooperation and Information ................................................................................................ 55 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 57 CHAPTER 5 METHODS OF DISRUPTION .............................................................................................. 58  Sector Outreach, Education, and Self-regulation ................................................................................ 59 Criminal Prosecution ........................................................................................................................... 59 Administrative Enforcement, Penalties, and Targeted Sanctions ....................................................... 61 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 64 CHAPTER 6 RISK INDICATORS AND TERRORIST ABUSE INDICATORS .................................................... 65  The Nature of Indicators ..................................................................................................................... 65 Indicator Categories ............................................................................................................................ 68 Category 1: Financial Support to Known or Suspected Terrorist Entities ................................. 68 Category 2: Material Support to Known or Suspected Terrorist Entities ................................. 69 Category 3: Financial, Material, or Logistical Support to Proscribed Terrorist Entities ............ 69 Category 4: Operations in Areas Where There are Active Terrorist Threats ............................ 70 Category 5: General Operations and Governance .................................................................... 71 Category 6: Support for Recruitment ....................................................................................... 72 Category 7: Other Criminal Activities ........................................................................................ 72 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 74  Strategic Considerations ..................................................................................................................... 75 Analytic Findings ................................................................................................................................. 76 Future Work ........................................................................................................................................ 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................................. 81   APPENDIX A – CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................................. 87  
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