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R. Klingbeil & F. Byiringiro, 2013. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development.

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Klingbeil, R. & Byiringiro, F., 2013. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development. Presentation at the SHARAKA conference “EU-GCC Regional Security Cooperation: Lessons Learned & Future Challenges”, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, 28-29 Oct 2013.
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  • 1. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development EU-GCC Regional Security Cooperation Doha, Qatar, 28-29 Oct 2013 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer
  • 2. Opening Quotes “Nobody is qualified to become a statesman who is entirely ignorant of the problems of wheat.” Socrates “There are no water wars because food wars are not judged to be necessary.” J.A. Allan, 1981 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 2
  • 3. Outline • Definitions: – Food security – Water security – Water-Food-Energy Nexus • Challenges / Opportunities for Food & Water Security – Reducing food losses and food waste – Water – a keys to sustainable food production – Securing food through securing international trade – Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) – Securing food & rural livelihoods: improving value chains • Opportunities for International Cooperation 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 3
  • 4. UN ESCWA 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 4
  • 5. Sustainable Development and Productivity Division Implementation Approach Regional Convening Power for Intergovernmental Mechanisms Informing Regional Processes for Global Negotiations and National Action Partnerships Green Economy Energy Section Water Resources Section Energy Productive Sectors Section Shared Water Resources Efficiency Climate Change Adaptation Food Security Renewable Energy MDGs Sustainable Development Goals Energy Security Integrated Water Resources Management Support to Intergovernmental Mechanisms www.escwa.un.org 29 October 2013 ESCWA Committees (Water Resources / Energy); LAS Councils: CAMRE (JCEDAR), AMWC, AMCE 5
  • 6. MENA: Water, Food, Energy Challenges Demographics Energy Governance Food Water & Land 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 6
  • 7. • Ongoing Drought since at least 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internal displacements • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 7 irinnews.org, 2009. Syria’s drought-affected provinces as of Aug 2009. Syria’s Ongoing Drought
  • 8. Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? Demographics Drought and water scarcity Water shortages Crop failure Natural resource mismanagement Climate change Internal displacement Rural disaffection Political unrest ... 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org CCS, CAP and Stimson, 2013. Arab Spring and Climate Change. • • • • • • • • • • 8
  • 9. Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East. Estimated Change in Length of Dry Season 9
  • 10. Definition: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Four pillars / dimensions of food security: • Availability • Access • Utilization • Stability 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 10 FAO, 2009. Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security (WSFS). Food Security
  • 11. FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Food Security Indicators: Based on Four Dimensions of Food Security 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 11
  • 12. FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Global Undernourishment Trends: Increases in Western Asia 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 12
  • 13. Khouri, N. 2013. Food Security in Saudi Arabia - A Framework. Combining Indicators: Hunger, Food Balance and Price Risk 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 13
  • 14. Definition: “The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.” 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 14 UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water Security
  • 15. UN Water, 2013. What Is Water Security? Water Security 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 15
  • 16. UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water – Food – Energy The Nexus 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 16
  • 17. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security • Reducing food losses and food waste • Water – a keys to sustainable food production • Securing food through securing international trade – Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) • Securing food & rural livelihoods: improving value chains 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 17
  • 18. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Food Losses and Food Waste 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 18
  • 19. http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa Qatar: “Massive amount of food wasted” Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA): “(...) more than half of the municipal waste generated (...) contains discarded food.” The Peninsula, 05 Jun 2013 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 19
  • 20. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 20
  • 21. Lundqvist, J. et al., 2008. Saving Water: From Field to Fork – Curbing Losses and Wastage in the Food Chain. Food Losses – Food Waste 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 21
  • 22. Gustavsson, J., et al., 2011. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention. Food Supply Chains: Losses of Food – and Water Production Volumes per Commodity Group (million tonnes) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 22
  • 23. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Carbon Footprint, GB 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 23
  • 24. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Carbon Footprint per Category, GB 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 24
  • 25. www.waterfootprint.org Food Losses – Food Waste: Water Footprint 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 25
  • 26. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Water Footprint, GB X million m3 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 26
  • 27. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Water Footprint per Category, GB 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 27
  • 28. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Economic Impact along Supply Chain, ITA XXX million euro 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 28
  • 29. Inamo, 2001. 7 (27), www.inamo.de. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Water 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 30
  • 30. Agricultural Water Use e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia 1991 2000 2012 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 31
  • 31. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia (WaterWatch, 2006) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 32
  • 32. Transboundary / Shared Water Resources and Aquifers in Middle East 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 33
  • 33. UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in WA. Water Resources in Agricultural Areas: Wajid Aquifer, Saudi Arabia and Yemen Wajid Aquifer is used by the population living in Najran area, with estimated 450,000 people, and Sa’dah Governorate in Yemen. Water resources shared with Yemen. Water use: mainly agricultural, limited municipal and industrial Sustainability: water level decline and salinization due to overexploitation, resulting in partial exhaustion of the resource 29 October 2013 35
  • 34. UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in WA. Water Resources in Agricultural Areas: Wadi Najran Basin, Saudi Arabia and Yemen 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 36
  • 35. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Trade 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 37
  • 36. The Economist, 2012. Food. How to feed a planet, continued, 28 May 2012, www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/05/food Food Surpluses and Deficits by Region 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 38
  • 37. Jordan Saudi Arabia UAE 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org Keulertz, M., 2013. Arab Vulnerability in Global Food Supply Chains. Based on : Water and Food data base and COMTRADE. Average Annual Wheat Imports, 2008-2012 39
  • 38. Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2012. The Water Footprint of Humanity. Net Virtual Water Imports per Country, 1996-2005 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 40
  • 39. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Cereal Trade Globally and in the Region: Net Cereal Import 1980-2011 (million tons) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 41
  • 40. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Major Cereal Traders: Export & Import Countries, 2010 (million tons) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 42
  • 41. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Agricultural Trade in the UN ESCWA Region 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 43
  • 42. GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground. Saudi Arabia: Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 44
  • 43. Woertz, E., 2013. Food Security in the UAE. Agro-Projects and MoUs Announced in the UAE, 2008-2011 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 45
  • 44. GeoEconomica, 2013. Assessing the Governance and Transparency Standards of Sovereign Wealth Funds: Santiago Compliance Index. GeoEconomica: Santiago Compliance Index 2013 www.escwa.un.org 46
  • 45. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Improving Value Chains 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 47
  • 46. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Green Value Chains: Characteristics • Addresses socio-economic and environmental development : – – – – higher income, jobs, equity, conservation, etc. • Global companies increasingly looking at issues such as safety, fairness, etc. • Need to prove performance standards • Given the continuously rising global ramifications:  Adapt or be left out • Covers economic, social and environmental (and institutional) issues 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 48
  • 47. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Green Value Chains: Tasks Seven implementation tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 29 October 2013 Prioritization, Assessments & design of strategies, Upgrading & replication, Vertical & horizontal linkages, Value, quality & competitiveness, Support services for better environment, Monitoring & evaluation. www.escwa.un.org 49
  • 48. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Repositioning of Moroccan Vegetable Market for Export 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 50
  • 49. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Other Measures • Investing in GCC-based (global) food trading house: – Competition to ABCD (US-EU), NOWS (Easter Asia), • Increasing food storage options: – Regional approaches instead of national, • Increasing storage option for water (surplus desalination and treated wastewater): – Strategic subsurface groundwater storage, Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR), 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 51
  • 50. Opportunities for International Cooperation: EU, Maghreb, Mashreq and the GCC 1/2 • Inter-regional cooperation with focus on socio-economic development and its contributions to sustainable development, • EU & Europe to offer GCC experience sharing and cooperation on – environmental and water statistics, – transboundary water and environmental cooperation, – contribute to better cooperative environment within and beyond GCC to the wider Middle East, • EU & Europe to assist in improving governance of national investment funds (Sovereign Wealth Funds) towards more transparency and accountability; ensuring positive impacts of agricultural investments. 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 52
  • 51. Opportunities for International Cooperation: EU, Maghreb, Mashreq and the GCC 2/2 • EU, Europe & GCC to cooperate and support local and regional initiatives for improving Green Value Chains in Mashreq, Maghreb & GCC to – provide more socio-economic development opportunities for rural populations, – improve environmental deterioration resulting from overuse of natural resources, – offer chances to improve local livelihoods in more remote areas, – reduce migration to already overcrowded urban centres, – reduce social tension in urban fringes, ... 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 53
  • 52. Conclusions and Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. Food security as described in this paper has many facets and requires holistic approaches to the management of natural resources and its inter-linkages with national, regional and global socio-economic policies. International trade can contribute to securing food and to sustainable development in both, food producing, i.e. “surplus” and deficit countries if handled in cooperative and transparent manner. Primary focus of food security measures should be on local vulnerable population, rural poor, often located in rural areas with less access to urban infrastructure and resources as local food producers and preservers of natural habitats. If global trade continues to impose non-equitable and unjust trade relations, if national governments continue to ignore the plight of the rural, disadvantaged and poor for more affordable food, equitable use of natural resources and better distribution of wealth the region may not come to a rest easily and further food-related conflicts are likely to influence the fate of governing elites. 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 54
  • 53. Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food. Today ! – Tomorrow ? 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 55
  • 54. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development EU-GCC Regional Security Cooperation Doha, Qatar, 28-29 Oct 2013 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer
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