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The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at Analysis of interaction among the barriers to total quality management implementation using interpretive structural modeling approach Using ISM approach 563 Faisal Talib Mechanical Engineering Section, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University Polytechnic, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India Zillur Rahman Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology,
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  Analysis of interaction amongthe barriers to total qualitymanagement implementationusing interpretive structuralmodeling approach Faisal Talib  Mechanical Engineering Section, Faculty of Engineering and Technology,University Polytechnic, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India Zillur Rahman  Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India, and  M.N. Qureshi  DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,FacultyofEngineeringandTechnology, M S University of Baroda, Vadodara, India Abstract Purpose  – Previous research showed that there are some barriers which hinder the implementationof total quality management (TQM) in organizations. But no study has been undertaken to understandthe interaction among these barriers and to develop a hierarchy of TQM barriers model. There is anurgent need to analyze the behavior of these barriers so that TQM may be successfully implemented.This paper therefore, aims to understand the mutual interaction of these barriers and identify the“driving barriers” (i.e. which influence the other barriers) and the “dependent barriers” (i.e. which areinfluenced by others). Design/methodology/approach  – In this paper, an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) basedapproach has been utilized to understand the mutual influences among the barriers of TQM. Findings  – Inthepresent researchwork,12 TQMbarriersareidentifiedthrough theliteraturereviewand expert opinion. The research shows that there exist two groups of barriers, one having highdriving power and low dependency requiring maximum attention and of strategic importance(such as lack of top-management commitment, lack of coordination between departments) and theother having high dependence and low driving power and are resultant effects (such as high turnoverat management level, lack of continuous improvement culture, employees’ resistance to change). Practical implications  – The adoption of such an ISM-based model on TQM barriers in serviceorganizations would help managers, decision makers, and practitioners of TQM in betterunderstanding of these barriers and to focus on major barriers while implementing TQM in theirorganizations. Originality/value  – Presentation of TQM barriers in the form of an ISM-based model and thecategorization into driver and dependent clusters is a new effort in the area of TQM. Keywords Total qualitymanagement,Interpretivestructural modeling,Barriers,Serviceorganization,Managers, Modeling Paper type  Research paper The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at Using ISMapproach 563 Benchmarking: An International JournalVol. 18 No. 4, 2011pp. 563-587 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited1463-5771DOI 10.1108/14635771111147641  Introduction In the era of economic liberalization and increased competition with the emergence of new products and improved services as well as fast growth in customer needs andexpectations for quality service, the service organization face tremendous competitionandareunderimmensepressuretobecomemoreresponsivetocustomerneedsandgainan upper edge. There are demands for improvement in the quality of products andservices, transparency in policies and procedures, increased emphasis on pre and postproductandservicedeliveryprocedures,andcostofquality.Serviceorganizationsmustimprovethequalityoftheirservices,achievecompetitiveadvantage,andmoveonapathofgrowthandexcellence.Acustomercentricphilosophyofmanagementneedstobeallencompassing throughout the organization with an ultimate objective being customersatisfaction.In order to achieve and accomplish the above aspects of customer, serviceorganizations are making use of well-known quality approaches like ISO 9000, totalqualitymanagement(TQM),SixSigma,5S,qualityfunctiondeployment,andcontinuousquality improvement (CQI) programs which have helped them in achieving their goals.One of the important quality improvement techniques, which many organizations areusing to achieve excellence in business, is TQM. TQM has been widely accepted as adisciplined management process in different sector in order to cope with the changes inmarketplaceandfocusonqualityinboththeirproductsaswellasservices(Venkatraman,2007). Though TQM was considered and used mainly by manufacturing industry, therehas been a strong push for adopting TQM in service organizations (Kureshi  et al. , 2010;Kaluarachchi, 2010; Eraqi, 2006; Telford and Masson, 2005; Srikanthan and Dalrymple,2004). Implementation of TQM has given them positive results, particularly towardsachievingenhancedorganizationperformanceandcustomersatisfaction.Itisunderstoodthat the goals of TQM are to satisfy customers, prevent poor quality rather thancorrecting problems, develop an attitude of continuous improvement, understand thevalue of measuring performance to identify opportunities and maintain improvements,and to eliminate chronic sources of inefficiencies and costs (Evans and Lindsay, 1996;Burr, 1993; Mosadegh Rad, 2005). These goals could be achieved if there is a totalcommitment by entire organization (including top-management and employees) as wellas principles of TQM are fully understood by them.Moreover, TQM is the culture of an organization committed to total customersatisfaction through continuous improvement (Mosadegh Rad, 2005; Gunasekaranand McGaughey, 2003). TQM demands change in organization culture for improvedperformance(Kaluarachchi,2010).TQMalsodemandsconstancyofpurposethroughoutthe organization, and persistence in accordance with a clear and widely understoodvision. It is an environment that requires and nurtures total commitment at all levels of theorganizationbyprovidingpotentialbenefitssuchascustomersatisfaction,increasedproductivityandprofit,enhancedbusinesscompetitiveness,andincreasedmarketshare(Gunasekaran, 1999; Mosadegh Rad, 2004). TQM has enjoyed great popularity in allsectors since its evaluation and is adopted into their regular management activities(HanssonandEriksson, 2002; Gunasekaran, 1999). Recently, Ho(2010)has proposed an“integrated lean TQM model for global sustainability and competitiveness” to helporganizationstoreduceglobalresourcewastingandimprovethedamagescausedbythefinancial tsunami. Study by Leonard (2010) suggested that quality managementsystemsandqualityawardcriteriaarealsomakinganimpactinhomebuildingindustry. BIJ18,4 564  Further, the application of world class manufacturing techniques like TQM, JIT, leanmanufacturing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) enhance the productivity andquality of these industries (Gunasekaran, 2000).Further, studies showed that TQM was positively associated with performanceoutcome such as financial performance, business performance, and profitability(Brah  et al. , 2000; Yusuf   et al. , 2007; Hendricks and Singhal, 1997; Salaheldin, 2009;Reed  et al. , 1996; Rust  et al. , 1999; Prajogo and McDermott, 2005; Hafeez  et al. , 2006;Bou-Llusar andBeltran-Martin,2005)as wellas with human outcome, suchasemployeesatisfaction, supplier relationship, and customer satisfaction (Mehra and Ranganathan,2008; Yang, 2006; Sila and Ebrahimpour, 2005; Gunasekaran and McGaughey, 2003;Arumugam  et al. , 2008; Salaheldin, 2009). However, in practice, these TQM benefitsare not easy to achieve. There are quite a number of evidences that suggests TQMimplementation is often unsuccessful due to different focus of organizations in itsimplementation(Venkatraman,2007;Kendrick,1993;Eskildson,1995;Griffin,1988;KochandFisher, 1998;Fuchsberg,1993). Organizationsfound some barriers whichhindertheimplementation of TQM. Owing to these barriers, they have not achieved the desiredbenefits,whichtheyhaveexpectedafterimplementationofTQM.Asaresult,manyoftheTQM initiatives have been abandoned or are in the process of being abandoned. Somestudies even have asserted that approximately two-third of organizations have failed totheir attempt to implement TQM (Hubiak and O’Donnell, 1996; Guangming  et al. , 2000).Furthermore, the literature review suggest that no study has been taken thatinvestigate explicitly the interactions among the barriers of TQM and proposes aninterpretivestructural modeling (ISM) based model for the TQM barriers. Hence,this isperhaps the first study in this direction. To help address this gap, the present studyattempts to identify the barriers of TQM through extent literature review and expertopinions and further develops the contextual relationships among these identifiedbarriers using ISM approach. It also proposes a hierarchy of TQM barriers model thatwould help the managers and practitioners of service organizations to understand andpay attention to the identified barriers for successful implementation of TQM program.For this purpose the following objectives have been designed: . to identify and rank the barriers of TQM in service organizations; . to find out the interaction among identified barriers of TQM using ISMapproach; and . to discuss the managerial implications of this research study and suggestdirections for future research.The remainder of this paper has beenorganized as follows. The next sectionprovides areview of the literature and discusses the identification of TQM barriers. This isfollowed by discussion of ISM methodology and development of the relationshipsmodel using ISM.  Matrice d’Impacts Croise´  s Multiplication Applique´ e a´  un Classement  (MICMAC) analysis of developed ISM model is carried out subsequently. Finally, thediscussion and conclusion of this research study are presented, which is followed bymanagerial implications and scope for future work. Literature review Despite the fact that practices related to successful implementation of TQM havehelped in achieving the desired outcomes namely increased organization performance, Using ISMapproach 565  profitability, and improved customer satisfaction, practicing and implementing TQMpractices is still not free from barriers. This literature review aims to identify thebarriers that need to be addressed during the implementation of TQM in serviceorganizations, which influence organizational performance and customer satisfaction.Based on the extent literature review and discussion with the experts in the serviceorganizations, keeping the service sector in focus, 12 barriers were identified, whichcan serve as invaluable lesson to those organizations that are planning to implementTQM or are in the process of its implementation, and are presented in Table I.The above listed barriers are often cited in the TQM literature and are found to befrequently used by different researchers in their studies which suggest that thesebarriers hinder the successful implementation of TQM. Beside this, some barrierslike inadequate understanding of customer needs, lack of customer focus, lack of measurement, lack of awareness of quality at management level, lack of vision, lack of accounting systems, lack of access to data and result, lack of suppliers/contractorsparticipationandothersimilarbarriersarefoundtobeinsignificantinthepresenteraof digital technology and mass customization. Utmost importance to such barriers arenowadaysgivendueconsiderationbymanagementbycloselymonitoringthemthroughcompany-wideinformationnetwork.Therefore,suchbarriersarecloselycontrolledandmonitoredbymanagementandhence,consideredtobecontrollablewithvaryingefforts.Moreover, the barriers like incompatible organization structure, isolated individualsand departments, inability to change organizational culture, insufficient resources,short-term focus, and inappropriate rewards and recognition system which are oftencited with different names and headings are covered in this study under a commonbarrier name like lack of coordination between departments, lack of continuousimprovement culture, human resource barriers, no benchmarking, poor planning andinadequate use of empowerment and teamwork. Hence, these12 barriers are assumedto be the major TQM barriers that hinder the successful implementation of TQM.  Identification of TQM barriers Lack of top-management commitment  . A TQM program will succeed only if top-management is fully committed beyond public announcements (Whalen andRahim, 1994). Ellram (1991) emphasized top-management commitment as an enabler,while lack of top-management commitment as a barrier too. According to Brigham(1993),lackofproperleadershipisacommonbarriertobothmanufacturingandserviceindustryin implementing TQM. Kanji (1996) identified management’s failure to lead asthe primary obstacle to successful TQM. Van der Wiele and Brown (2002) foundmanagement-relatedfactorsasthecorefactorsthataffectthelong-termsustainabilityof quality management. Lack of top-management commitment may stem from variousreasons like lack of experience and training, resistance to change, and hesitation ininitiating improvement programs.  High turnover at management level  . High turnover and absenteeism at managementlevel have plagued many organizations and inhibited their efforts to implement TQMinitiatives effectively (Dowlatshahi, 1998; McDermott, 1994). Employees and managersin most of the organization encounter difficulties in adopting themselves to modernwork environments with new rules and organization hierarchies. Structural problemslike organization culture and performance appraisal problems like lack of rewardsystem and training program were the mostoften cited explanation for failing to return BIJ18,4 566
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