Concepts & Trends

Planning Theories

How does planning theory differ from the practice of planning? What is the major difference between public planning and private planning? List and discuss three theoretical approaches to the process of planning. Which approach do you feel is most
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  Planning Theories How does planning theory differ from the practice of planning? What is the major difference  between public planning and private planning? List and discuss three theoretical approaches to the process of planning. Which approach do you feel is most effective for urban planners? Why? Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings. ANSWER 01 There is always a difference between theory and action. n urban development! this becomes the difference between planning theory and the practice of planning. The difference between these two things is that "theory is developed and tested on the basis of the e#perience ac$uired in  practice!% &Levy! '()*+ while "the e#perience of practice is li,ely to ma,e the theoretician  better!% &Levy! '(*+. n other words! theory is thin,ing about what to plan and practice is the actual act of planning. These two concepts hold a symbiotic relationship since one cannot  properly e#ist without the there.There is also a difference between public and private planning! a seemingly obvious one. -ublic  planning is used to satisfy many different ends! many different people while private planning is done to satisfy one end or a small group of end. The main difference in this is simply the number of people that need to be considered when planning and what these people are loo,ing to accomplish in the project.While there are different approaches to planning! there are three that will be addressed here the rational model/ disjointed incrementalism/ and middle0range models.The first approach! which of the rational model! ta,es one end of the spectrum on planning. This end means to "ma,e the planning process as rational and systematic as possible!% &Levy! '(*+. n this model of planning has eight main steps define the problem/ clarify values/ select goals/ formulate alternative plans or programs/ forecast the conse$uences of the alternatives developed in the previous step/ evaluate and select one or more courses of action/ develop detailed plans for implementing the alternative selected/ and review and evaluate. 1s can be seen! this model relies heavily on speculation and review. There isn’t as much of an emphasis on action and moving forward. This is one of the numerous criticism s of the model.2n the other end of the spectrum from the rational model is the disjointed incrementalism model.This model relies on achieving agreement on goals! not the constant evaluation of the goals decide upon. This is seen as "the most practical route!% &Levy! '()*+. n this model the planners  ,eep moving forward with the decisions. The only time this is not good is "the situation in whicha decision to move in a new direction must be made!% &Levy! '()*+. 1t other times! this model relies upon past e#periences and ,nowing "what wor,s% in order to move forward! but not loo,ing at new alternatives that may be better. 1 third model is the middle range models. These models are in the middle of the spectrum!  between the rational model and the disjointed incramentalism. The model mi#es the views and  practices of the first two models. t "avoids e#cessive commitment to precedent and past e#perience inherent in the incremental model . . . and is far more feasible than a doctrinaire rational model approach!% &Lev! '()*+. This model is probably the one that most planners use! even if they don’t reali3e it. This plan is the compromise that most people would naturally gravitate towards in order to gain the best of both e#tremes. thin, that the middle range model is the best one to utili3e when loo,ing at urban development  planning. 1s  stated earlier! this model allows the planner to choose the better of both the other two models. 4sing this model! the planner is able to loo, at what will wor, for him and then act upon it. ReferenceLevy! 5ohn 6. &'()*+. 7ontemporary 4rban -lanning. &)( th  ed.+. 4pper 8addle River! 95 -earson -rentice Hall -ress. ANSWER 02  The theory of planning is the set of ideas and principles of why the eld exists, how it can or should be carried out, the reasons for it and the actors involved in the process. Planning theory is science or methodology used as the practitioner goes about the practice of planning. The actual practice is putting the ideas, principles and methodology to work to complete planning tasks. Clearly, the two concepts are symbiotic because practice should typically be done based on theory, which is further developed or expanded upon by the outcomes of practice and lessons learned through practice. Practice gives life to theory and theory guides practice. The dierence between public planning and private planning is reminiscent of the dierence between business administrationmanagement and public administration in that public planning is a department of public  administration and therefore is expected to be in the best interest of the general public and to serve non!partisan factions by operating in terms of the greater good for the masses. Public planning is challenging in its service to many masters and sub"ection to public knowledge, rules and scrutiny. Private planning may serve multiple partiesfactions, but they are on a much smaller more protected scale. Private planning is not sub"ect to the regulations of the public or the same level of consideration of a greater good for non!partisan #ohn $ #oan %. Public, rather to the established decision makers that have the nal say so or the authority, such as a C&' or () in a private company or even a corporation with limited stakeholders. The four planning theories are the *ational )odel, +ncrementalism, )iddle!*ange )odels, and Collaborative *ationality. The *ational )odel is a lengthy process that involves up to eight steps that dene the problem, clarify the values, determine goals, alternative solutions,predict problems, decide on action, plan and evaluate the action. The benet it of this plan is that it attempts to cover all possible goals, solutions and outcomes and it allows for revisiting previous steps if one goes awry. owever, the model is time consuming and every variation dictates a return to s-uare one to reinvent the wheel./ This theory is best served by new situationsproblems for which there is no past experience or success and for situations of ample resources and time. +ncrementalism asserts that values cannot be fully claried at outset. This theory concentrates on achieving goals and compromising. +ncrementalism reaches an acceptable solution, not necessarily the optimal solution. This theory argues for a short list of solutions on which to focus and ad"ust or ne!tune incrementally. This theory is best when there is no large amount of past experience to work from, when resources and time are less plentiful. +t is not advocated when going in a new direction is imperative because innovation needs a basis to build and experience would be a better teacher in this situation. This is a theory for risk taking. The theory of )iddle *ange )ixed 0canning combines elements of the rational model and the incremental model in that it allows for a shortened, big picture scan of the issue, pulls out the key issues that re-uire more detailed review and then allows for a more time to review those threats 1partof 02'T3.  2hile + believe dierent circumstance could best be approached using dierent theories, the theory that + believe best suites the public urban planner is the collaborative rationality theory. This theory is more recent, which says it is more suitable to the current times. +t re-uires acknowledgment of diversity, interdependence and authentic dialogue. This theory is indicative of the diversity of our population, the interdependence isa model for how the greater good for the masses operates in that solutions should be as mutually benecial to as many as is possible4 and the authentic dialogue includes the values, interests and opinions of all involved. This theory doesn5t look to one best plan, rather to a plan that is representative of the compromise of all parties. 6evy, ). 1789:3. Contemporary urban planning  198 th  ed.3 ;pper 0addle *iver, <#= Pearson &ducation, +nc.  
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