Government & Nonprofit

Phases in the Evolution of Public Administration

Traditional 1800 Modern Public Administration Development Administration (1950s to 1960s) New Public Administration (1970s) New Public Management (1980s to 1990s) Reinventing Government (1990s) PA as Governance
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  • 1. Phases in the Evolution of Public Administration
  • 2. Phases in the Evolution of Public Administration Phase Indicative Period Traditional / Classical Public Administration 1800s to 1950s Modern Public Administration Development Administration (1950s to 1960s) New Public Administration (1970s) New Public Management (1980s to 1990s) Reinventing Government (1990s) PA as Governance (1990s to the present) 1950 to the present
  • 3. Evolution of the Field of Public Administration A. Traditional and modern phase; B The different fields of public administration; C Selected major ongoing concerns of public administration in the Philippines (reorganization, decentralization and corruption). D. Home grown governance paradigm (Gawad Kalinga) as one that illustrates successful cooperation between government, business and civil society in the delivery of basic services, which after all is a core concern of modern public administration and good governance. E. For whom is public administration.
  • 4. Public administration as academic field of study formally begun with the establishment by the Americans of the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in the University of the Philippines (UP) in 1952. Hence, the close affinity of Philippine PA theory to American PA theory and practice can not be divorced
  • 5. • A Philippine Public Administration as far as there is an American, French and Thai public administration. • A Philippine public administration as far as there are institutions of public administration addressing specific sectoral concerns. • A Philippine public administration as far as it being a field of study is concerned. • A Philippine public administration considering the massive role of the bureaucracy in Philippine public administration. • A Philippine public administration when we consider its major institutions in education, politics and government. There is . . . .
  • 6. Basic Public Administration Structures and Processes • We have an executive branch with the bureaucracy at its core. • We have a Philippine legislature. • We have a Philippine judiciary. • We have Philippine electoral processes and procedures. • We have Philippine sub-national institutions and local governments, together with decentralization processes and procedures.
  • 7. Evolution of the Field of Public Administration • To retrace the history and evolution of the broad discipline and examine the various strands and influences that have influenced the theory and practice – the praxis - of public administration in the Philippines. • To examine the specific areas and fields of specialization of the field, taking cognizance of the many other emerging fields going beyond the traditional fields of public administration
  • 8. PA as a Developing Discipline Paradigm Discipline Period 1 Politics/Administration Dichotomy 1900-1926 2 The Principles of Administration 1926-1937 3 PA as a Political Science 1950-1970 4 PA as Management 1956-1970 5 PA as New Public Administration 1970 6 PA from Government to Governance 1990s to the present)
  • 9. Traditional / Classical Public Administration • Public Administration can be traced back to human history. It has been suggested that it is as old as the ancient empires of China, India, Egypt, Greece, Rome and Mesopotomia. • The institutionalization of administrative capacity for collective purposes is the foundation of public administration. Such arrangement has existed in all societies (Caiden (1982).
  • 10. Traditional / Classical Public Administration • All societies are devoted to advancing the general welfare or the public interest. The idea that “public administration should not be considered administration of the public but administration for the public” has been practiced and expressed in the Code of Hammurabi, in Confucianism and in the funeral oration of Pericles. (Caiden 1982: 7) • In other words, the idea of client-oriented public administration has its roots in ancient public administration.
  • 11. • Caiden (1982) also noted that the genesis of Public Administration must have had originated from monarchial Europe where household officials were divided into two groups: one in charge of public affairs, i.e. the administration of justice, finance, training of armies, and the other is responsible for personal services. Rutgers (1998) supports this claim that (i.e. royal) administration had already been manifested way back in the mid 17th century and early 18th century in Prussia.
  • 12. • F.K. Medikus (as cited in Rutgers 1998) likewise argued on the study of public administration and its positions amidst the sciences in the 18th century. He advocated “cameralism” and claimed that it should be treated as an autonomous field of study of great importance to the state. Cameral science is designed to prepare potential public officials for government service. This practice flourished in Europe until the 21st century but it was, in the long run, replaced by administrative law and legal studies.
  • 13. 1800s to 1950s. If the roots of Public Administration as a distinct field of study have to be traced, the tendency is to draw on classic essay, “The Study of Public Administration,” which was written at the height of Progressive Movement in the US. It was in that essay that there was a serious claim that public administration should be a self-conscious, professional field. Wilson suggested the distinction between politics and administration i.e. administration should be politics-free and that “the field of administration is the field of business;” (Wilson 1953: 71) thus, establishing what became known as the “politics- administration” dichotomy. Although Wilson set a demarcation line between politics and administration Woodrow Wilson’s 1887
  • 14. Wilson set a demarcation line between politics and administration “politics-administration” dichotomy. politics administration
  • 15. • Frank Goodnow (1900), the “Father of American Public Administration,” presented a more meticulous examination of politics- administration dichotomy in his book, “Politics and Administration” that “supplanted the traditional concern with the separation of powers among the various branches of the government.” (Shafritz and Hyde 1997: 2) Frank Goodnow (1900)
  • 16. • Politics administration dichotomy has provoked long-running debates which persist until today. It may be argued though that, as far as the Philippine experience is concerned, the dichotomy is artificial and that in practice, power and partisan politics have had a disproportionate influence upon the workings of public administration in the Philippines Frank Goodnow (1900)
  • 17. It was in 1926 that the first text in the field of public administration was written by Leonard D. White. His book, Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, is one of the most influential texts in public administration to date. One of his assumptions was that administration is still an art. He, however, recognized the ideal of transforming it into a science. Interestingly, his work avoided the potential pitfalls of the politics-administration dichotomy but rather concentrated on emphasizing the managerial phase of administration. Leonard D. White, 1926
  • 18. Max Weber (1946), • a German sociologist who is known as the “Father of Modern Sociology,” made a lucid descriptive analysis of bureaucratic organizations. He presented some major variables or features of bureaucracy such as: hierarchy, division of labor, formally written rules and procedures, impersonality and neutrality; hence, providing a reference point in evaluating both the good and bad effects of bureaucratic structures. (Weber 1946 as cited in Shafritz and Hyde 1997)
  • 19. Public Administration is a field with a rich heritage. To promote superior understanding of government and its relationship with the society it governs as well as to encourage public policies more responsive to social needs and institute managerial practice attuned to effectiveness, efficiency, and the deeper human requisites of the citizenry
  • 20. 3s Interdisciplinary Interface of Public Administration Law LAW POLITICS BUSINESS ECONOMICS ADMINISTRATIVE LAW • DISCRETIONARY POWERS MANAGEMENT PUBLIC POLICY Rationale Responsive to citizens need and preferences PUBLIC CHOICE Economic Man Man: The Decision Maker PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
  • 21. Occupation /Profession Academic Field ResearchTeaching Public Administration
  • 22. PRAXIS. From its beginning, the discipline has also enjoyed extensive interaction between those who practice it allowing more intensive experimentation than has been possible in some social sciences. 3s
  • 23. The interaction between those who study the subject and those who practice it allowing for more intensive experimentation than has been possible in some social sciences.
  • 24. Constitution Executive /Government Legislature Judiciary Public Administration
  • 26. Leonard D. White. His book, Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, is one of the most influential texts in public administration to date. One of his assumptions was that administration is still an art. He, however, recognized the ideal of transforming it into a science. emphasizing the managerial phase of administration.
  • 27. Is there a Philippine Public Administration or Better Still, for whom is Public Administration? By: Alex Brillantes, Jr. and Maricel Fernandez June, 2008 Prof. Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA LNU Dagupan City Reference:
  • 28. Prof. Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA From Classical, Neo-Classical to Integrative/Modern Organization Theories Topic 2
  • 29. • Frederick Taylor, dubbed as the “Father of Scientific Management,” is best known for his “one best way approach” in accomplishing task. Classical organization theory evolved from this notion. Taylor, Generally considered the father of scientific management pioneered the development of time and motion studies. He wrote the result of his studies in 1911 in the Principles of Scientific Management.
  • 30. Another popular manifestation of this approach was that of Luther Gulick’s POSDCORB methodologies. Gulick and Urwick (1937 as cited in Shafrtiz and Hyde 1997) integrated the ideas of earlier theorists like Henri Fayol into a comprehensive theory of administration. They believed that a single science of administration, which exceeds the boundaries of the private and the public sector, exists. The reasoning of the science of administration was largely borrowed from Fayol’s 14 principles of organization.
  • 31. Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol: • DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. • AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility. • DISCIPLINE: A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort. • UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager. • UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a common direction.
  • 32. • SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole. • REMUNERATION: Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a worker’s rate of pay. • CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working. • SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. Each manager, from the first line supervisor to the president, possess certain amounts of authority. The President possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.
  • 33. • ORDER: For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible. • EQUITY: All employees should be treated as equally as possible. • STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers. • INITIATIVE: Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self direction. • ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees.
  • 34. POSDCORB POSDCORB was coined by Gulick with Urwick. It stands for the functions of management - planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting & budgeting. POSDCORB, however, was seen as less influential in post-war American government. Thereafter, Simon, Waldo and Appleby attacked the idea of POSDCORB.
  • 35. Simon(1946) in his book, “Administrative Behavior,” created a distinction between theoretical and practical science. He introduced more common principles in the literature of administration administrative efficiency and specialization when he wrote the article, "The Proverbs of Administration.” (Simon 1946 as cited in Shafffritz and Hyde 1997; Stillman 1991)
  • 36. • in 1945, Appleby, led a postwar attack on the concept of politics- administration dichotomy by drafting a convincing case that “public administration was not something apart from politics” but rather at the “center of political life.” (Stillman 1991: 123)
  • 37. • In 1948, Dwight Waldo tried to establish the direction and thrust of Public Administration as a field of study in his book, “The Administrative State,” which hit the “Gospel of Efficiency” that dominated the administrative thinking prior to Word War II. That same year, Sayre attacked public personnel administration as “the triumph over purpose.” (Shafritz and Hyde 1997: 74)
  • 38. In 1949, Selznick introduced the so- called “cooptative mechanism” where he defined “cooptation” as “the process of absorbing new elements into the leadership or policy determining structure of an organization as a means of averting threats to its stability or existence.” (Shafritz and Hyde 1997: 147)
  • 39. Since administration is concerned will all patterns of cooperative behavior, it is obvious that any persons engaged in an activity is in COOPERATION with the other persons who is engaged in administration Everyone has cooperated with others throughout his life and he has some basic familiarity with administration and some of its problems. Simon, 1991
  • 40. A contemporary of Goodnow was William Willoughby (1918). Willoughby stressed the role of the trilogy covering all three branches of government but he was more known for his budgetary reforms. He discussed the movements for budgetary reforms in the US in view of the budget as an instrument for democracy, as an instrument for correlating legislative and executive action, and as an instrument for securing administrative efficiency and economy.
  • 41. Mary Parker Follet (1926) also made some significant contribution to the discourse of Public Administration as one of the proponents of participatory management and the “Law of Situation” which can be attributed to the concept of Contingency Management. She illustrated the advantages of participatory management in her article, “The Giving of Orders. “
  • 42. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Elton Mayo conducted the Hawthorne experiments on the theory of individuals within an organization which propelled the Human Relations School of Management thought.
  • 43. Chester Barnard (1938) presented a more comprehensive theory of organizational behavior when he wrote the functions of the executive. He argued that for the executive to become more effective, he should maintain an equilibrium between the needs of the employees and the organization.
  • 44. His concepts were later explored and developed into more comprehensive theories and principles as advocated by other researches in organizational behavior and management, such as, Herzberg’s “motivation hygiene theory,” Mc Gregor’s “Theory X and Y,” 11 Argyris’ “personality versus organization and Likert’s Systems 1 to 4, among others. (Shafritz and Hyde 1997)
  • 45. Maslow (1943), on the other hand, focused on the hierarchical needs of the individual. His “theory of human motivation,” states that the human being has five sets of needs: physiological, safety, love or affiliation, esteem and ultimately, and self- actualization.
  • 46. Public Administration is often characterized as a fragmented field – one that is pulled in competing directions by different intellectual and disciplinary perspective as well as by the concerns of practice and theory, Nevertheless, it does have a common core of knowledge and cohered intellectual history
  • 47. Is there a Philippine Public Administration or Better Still, for whom is Public Administration? By; Alex Brillantes, Jr. and Maricel Fernandez June, 2008 Reference:
  • 48. Modern Public Administration Topic 3
  • 49. Modern Public Administration The indicative period of modern public administration in the 50s. The sub phases include: (a) development administration; (b) new public administration; (c) new public management and reinventing government; and PA as governance.
  • 50. “identity crisis.” The discipline of public administration has been characterized as one with a continuing “identity crisis.” To a certain extent, it was that “identity crisis” that served as theme that led to the emergence of the New Public Administration movement in the 70s. Rutgers (1998) argued in “Paradigm lost: Crisis as Identify of the Study of Public Administration,” that public administration lacked an “epistemological identity.” epistemological is the "knowledge, understanding", and is a term first used by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier to describe the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge
  • 51. “Identify Crisis.” In the Philippines, Reyes (2003) revisited the so- called “identity crisis” of public administration initially raised by various scholars of the discipline in his various writings. He contended that the crisis revolved around the imperative to define a public administration rooted to the development aspirations of the Philippines. The identity crisis, however, continues up to today in the Philippines.
  • 52. Development Administration (1950s to 1960s) • Development A
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