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Pemetaan Dan Analisis Kemiskinan Di Indonesia

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  95 POVERTY MAPPING AND POVERTY ANALYSIS IN INDONESIA Deffi Ayu Puspito Sari and Shigekazu Kawashima   POVERTY MAPPING AND POVERTY ANALYSIS IN INDONESIA  Pemetaan dan Analisis Kemiskinan di Indonesia Deffi Ayu Puspito Sari and Shigekazu Kawashima * International Program of Human Security, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University. 1-1 Tsutsumi dori Amamiya machi, Sendai Shi, Aoba Ku, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan E-mail: deffi_sari@bios.tohoku.ac.jp *School of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Miyagi University, Department of Farm Management, 2-2-1 Hatatate, Sendai Shi, Taiha Ku, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan E-mail: kawashim@myu.ac.jp  ABSTRAK Tulisan ini menganalisis data-data kemiskinan di Indonesia di tingkat kabupaten dan kota. Pertama, peta kemiskinan dibuat dalam pembagian kabupaten atau kota untuk memberikan gambaran visual tentang kemiskinan. Kedua, menguji hubungan antara kemiskinan berdasarkan konsumsi dan kemiskinan berdasarkan ketidakmampuan memenuhi kebutuhan dasar hidup dengan analisis regresi menggunakan prinsip analisis komponen. Pendekatan ini memperjelas pengaruh tersedianya kebutuhan dasar hidup dan karakteristik kemiskinan lainnya terhadap kemiskinan berdasarkan konsumsi. Persentase penduduk yang berada di bawah garis kemiskinan, Indeks Kedalaman Kemiskinan, dan Indeks Keparahan Kemiskinan tersebar di seluruh kabupaten dan kota, menunjukkan kecenderungan indeks kemiskinan yang lebih tinggi dan lebih parah di pulau-pulau timur Indonesia dibandingkan daerah lainnya. Tidak hanya pengeluaran untuk makanan, tapi kebutuhan dasar hidup dan sektor kerja juga sangat berhubungan dengan kemiskinan berdasarkan konsumsi. Ketersediaan kamar kecil, akses ke air bersih dan pelayanan kesehatan umum dan pendidikan, yang sering diukur sebagai dimensi kemiskinan berdasarkan ketidakmampuan memenuhi kebutuhan dasar hidup, sangat mempengaruhi kemiskinan berdasarkan konsumsi. Untuk mengurangi tingkat keparahan kemiskinan, akses terhadap air bersih paling penting diantara faktor-faktor dalam kesehatan umum. Faktor pendidikan juga berkaitan dengan Indeks Keparahan Kemiskinan; kelulusan dari sekolah dasar dan sekolah lanjutan tingkat atas berbanding terbalik dengan keparahan kemiskinan dan lebih berpengaruh daripada pengeluaran untuk makanan. Kata kunci : kemiskinan, Indonesia, kebutuhan dasar, pendapatan, pengeluaran    ABSTRACT This paper analyzes poverty-related data in Indonesia at regency and city level. First, poverty mapping is carried out at disaggregated levels by regency or city to visually identify the prevalence of poverty. Second, the relationship between consumption-based poverty and capability-based poverty is examined using principal component regression. This approach clarifies the influence of basic needs availability and other poverty characteristics on consumption-based poverty. Poverty rate, poverty gap and severity  96 Jurnal Agro Ekonomi, Volume 28 No.1, Mei 2010 : 95 – 111 poverty are scattered in all regencies and cities, showing the tendency that poverty indices are higher and more severe in eastern islands of the country compared to other regions. In addition to food expenditure, the basic needs and working sector are closely related to consumption-based poverty. The toilet availability, access to safe water and public health services and education, often measured as the dimensions of capability based poverty, are very important to have bearing on consumption-based poverty. To reduce severity of poverty, safe water access is especially the most important factor among other public health variables. Severity poverty also turns out to be correlated with education variables. Completion of elementary and higher education is negatively correlated with severity poverty and more important than food expenditures. Key words : poverty, Indonesia, basic needs, income, expenditure   INTRODUCTION Indonesia is a large and heterogeneous country. Total population stands at 237.556.363 people and consists of more than 300 ethnic groups with more than 400 different languages (BPS, 2010; Nababan, 1991). The majority population has been concentrated in Java Island, around 59 percent of the total population, occupied only 7.0 percent areas of the whole Indonesia. Since the regional autonomy put in place, the total administrative areas of the Republic of Indonesia are divided into 33 provinces, the number of the administrative areas at lower level also increased to 349 regencies (Kabupaten in Indonesian), 91 municipalities (Kota in Indonesian), 5,656 sub districts, and 71,563 villages (CAS, 2007). Regency and city are not only different in size but both also in demographics and economics. Even regency and city are same in administrative level, but commonly, regencies own larger area and more agricultural activities based economy than cities. Both regency and city have their own local government and legislative body. Such local governments gained greater administrative roles due to the onset of the enactment of Law Number 22 regarding Local Government in 1999 (the law was revised by Law Number 32 Year 2004). Poverty is one of basic problems facing by developing countries and debate about poverty is not new issue and is still challenging in Indonesia. Under the process of decentralization, each regency and city government are expected to play greater roles to decrease poverty in their regions. In particular, the local government unit had responsibility in the provision of basic needs such as infrastructure, public school, and public health. However, the design and implementation of antipoverty programs have been often hindered by the lack of poverty information at geographically disaggregated levels (Ahmad and Goh, 2007). Moreover, the definition of poverty itself is problematic. Consumption based poverty reflects only a piece of household activities related to income. Sen (1999) called poverty as “capability deprivation”. He noted that the more inclusive the reach of basic education and health care, the more likely it is that  97 POVERTY MAPPING AND POVERTY ANALYSIS IN INDONESIA Deffi Ayu Puspito Sari and Shigekazu Kawashima   even the potentially poor would have a better chance of overcoming penury. His capability approach highlights the importance of poverty reduction and elimination from non-income dimensions. Dhanani and Islam (2000) explained the distinction between capability poverty and consumption poverty and state that the official poverty data series (i.e. consumption poverty) as an inadequate indicator of capability poverty. The important point to eradicate capability poverty which is an underlying structural -and even chronic- phenomenon will change only gradually as a result of sustained economic growth and government interventions targeted at the poor. They measured non-income dimensions of poverty as education and health and found that 25% of Indonesians were unable to meet basic needs. Thus, capability poverty was found to be considerably higher than the 11% incidence of consumption poverty in 1996, suggesting the gap and inconsistency in poverty measurements. This gap and inconsistency could create confusion for policy makers in designing the best policy to tackle poverty problem. Increasing or decreasing in poverty is used as basic consideration in economic, educational, social, health and political decision. Consumption based poverty data is used not only by Indonesian government and NGO but also by international organizations to estimate the budget for unconditional cash transfers to the poor, to select beneficiary areas, to develop program for cross checking and referencing, and to follow up nutrition maps (Ahmad and Goh, 2007). Since the definition of poverty is multi-dimension and difficult to measure. Therefore, there would be often inconsistency in policy making depending upon which poverty variables are to be considered. For example Simatupang and Timmer (2008) and Mc Culloch (2008) suggest Indonesia’s government to reform its rice policy to avoid increasing in rice’s price using consumption based poverty, and Dawe (2008) similarly suggest Indonesia’s policy makers to open rice import ban and engaging fully with the world market. In other side, capability poverty issues is used by Indonesian researchers to defend rice policy and support high rice price for the sake of poor people especially farmers (Sawit, 2007). In this case, one could see how sensitive and important poverty issues as basic of decision making. Any decision taken would greatly affect the prosperity of the population.  Apart from the debate between consumption based poverty and capability poverty, Sen (1999) has mentioned the relation of income poverty and capability poverty. Enhanced capabilities in leading life would tend, typically, to expand a person’s ability to be more productive and earn a higher income, but a connection going from capability improvement to greater earning power is also would be expected (Sen, 1999). Unfortunately, no recent studies focus on the relationships between capability poverty and consumption poverty. To characterize poverty from different perspectives, this paper analyzes many of poverty related data in Indonesia at regency and city level. First, poverty mapping is carried out at disaggregated levels to visually identify the prevalence of poverty. Second, this paper examines the relationship between consumption  98 Jurnal Agro Ekonomi, Volume 28 No.1, Mei 2010 : 95 – 111 based poverty and capability based poverty using principal components regression. This approach clarifies to what extent the availabilities of basic needs and other poverty characteristics are correlated with consumption based poverty. METHODOLOGY Data The poverty data used in this paper are from the National Socio Economic Survey (Susenas) Kor held by Central Bureau of Statistic Indonesia in 2007. Central Agency of Statistic (CAS) is using different method to calculate poverty in district/city level and national and province level. Susenas Consumption Module and Susenas Kor are used to calculate poverty at national and province level and total sample is 68,000 households. At district/city level, CAS is using Susenas Kor with total sample 280,000 households. Susenas Consumption Module includes household expenditure in value and quantity where Susenas Kor includes only household expenditure in value (CAS, 2008). The datasets include poverty information in 2005, 2006 and 2007, basic needs variables and other social-economic characteristics related to poverty. The consumption based poverty indices are; (1) poverty ratio ( P0, (2) poverty gap index (P1) and (3) poverty severity index or squared poverty gap (P2). Theoretical Framework Consumption based Poverty Poverty ratio (P0) also known as headcount index, is the proportion of the population whose consumption (or other measures of living standard) is less than the poverty line. It indicates the incidence of poverty, but it ignores the differences in well-being between different poor households. Poverty ratio (P0) is described as follow: Figure 1. Poverty Ratio (P0) Figure 2. Poverty Gap Index (P1)

3:14-cv-00089 #11

Jul 28, 2017

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Jul 28, 2017
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