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Modal Verbs.pdf

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Modal Verbs 1 www.first-certificate.com Modal Verbs What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are a type of auxiliary verb, like DO, BE and HAVE. However, they differ in that regular auxiliaries only express the idea of time and not meaning; or in the case of DO, cannot be translated into Spanish. The main Modal Verbs are CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, SHOULD and OUGHT TO. There are also some rules to follow when using Modal Verbs. Rules of Modal Verbs: MEANINGS/USES/OBSERVAT
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  Modal Verbs1www.first-certificate.com Modal Verbs   What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are a type of auxiliary verb, like DO , BE and HAVE . However, they differ in that regular auxiliaries onlyexpress the idea of time and not meaning; or in the case of DO  , cannot be translated into Spanish. The main Modal Verbs are CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, SHOULD and OUGHT TO  .There are also some rules to follow when using Modal Verbs.   Rules of Modal Verbs:   MEANINGS/USES/OBSERVATIONSEXAMPLES 1. The conjugation is the same for all persons - I can - you can - he can , etc. NO! he cans 2.  They are not  used with the auxiliary Do - Can you run? NO!  Do you can run? 3.  They are followed by the infinitive without TO - I must take  my medicine. Exception: Ought TO4.  They can be made negative by adding not  or thecontraction  –n’t - I ca n’t  play the piano. Exception: may not   cannot be contracted - mayn't  Note: HAVE TO  and NEED TO  are semi-modals and don´t follow the same rules as full modals, but they do havemeaning. Rules of semi-modals MEANINGS/USESEXAMPLES 1. In the third person singular they add S - I have to, he ha s  to - You need to, he need s  to 2.  The emphatic DO may be used - I DO need to go, can’t you understand that? 3.  HAVE TO means OBLIGATION (often routine)DON'T HAVE TO - DON'T NEED TO - NEEDN'Tall mean ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION    They are followed by TO and the infinitive (except thenegative of need to - needN'T  ) - I have to   work on Saturdays - I have to wear  a uniform - I don't have to wear  a uniform - I don't need  to wear  a uniform - She needn’t wear  a uniform today  NO! I needn't to go 4.  The negative NEED NOT + INF without to can becontractedThe negative HAVE TO can not be contracted - They need n’t go.  NO!  They haven’t to go. Linguapuncture1  Modal Verbs2www.first-certificate.com  List of meanings and uses of Modals   As mentioned above, modal and semi-modals verbs express meaning. Here is a list of modals and semi-modals withtheir meanings and uses. MEANINGS/USESEXAMPLES CAN 1. Ability2. Permission3. Request4. Possibility 1. I can  speak English.2. Can I borrow your pen.3. Can you open the window?4. I can come next Monday. COULD 1. Ability2. Polite request3. Permission in Reported Speech4. Possibility5. Second Conditional 1. I could run fast when I was a child.2. Could you open the window, please?3. Mary said she could go out tonight.4. Where’s Mary? I don’t know, she could be in heroffice.5. If it didn’t rain, we could go to the park. WILL 1. Certainty2. For the future: - spontaneous decisions - predictions 3. Promises4. Commands 5. First Conditional 1. He will definitely come to the party2a. I will call Mary before she leaves.2b. I think the economy will get better soon.3. I will return your money tomorrow.4. You will do as I tell you.5. If it stops raining we will play football. WOULD 1. Polite offers2. Conditionals3. Habits in the past 1. Would  you like some cheese?2. If I had a car I would change my job.3. On Sundays we would go to the park to playfootball. SHALL 1. Future 2. Promise3. To ask for advice4. Polite offers5. To ask for instructions6. Order 1. I shall visit Mary next week.2. I shall help you with your homework.3. Shall I invite Jim to the party?4. Shall I open the window for you?5. Where shall I put this box?6. You shall go there immediately MAY 1. Possibility2. Permission3. Polite request4. Polite offers1. I may be able to take a day off.2. May I use your phone?3. May I have some more cake, please?4. May I help you? MIGHT 1. Possibility1. We might be able to join you in London next week. SHOULD 1. Recommendation2. Suggestion3. Probability/Supposition4. Advice 1. You should read this book, it’s great.2. Perhaps we should consider a different option.3. They should be at home by now.4. You should see a doctor at once Linguapuncture2  Modal Verbs3www.first-certificate.com OUGHT TO 1. Moral obligation2. Recommendation3. Probability1. You ought to do as you are told.2. You ought to  see the Picasso museum.3. They ought to be home by now. MUST 1. Obligation 2. Necessity 3. Deduction/supposition 4. Invitation1. You must wear protective glasses in the lab.2. I must take my medicine.3. They left at 8 o’clock, so they must be at home bynow.4. You must stay at my house when you come to thecity. HAVE TO 1. Obligation1. I have to wear safety goggles in the lab. NEED TO 1. Necessity1. I need to  take my medicine with my breakfast.  Negative modals   MEANINGS/USESEXAMPLES CAN’T Certainty - Mr. Simpson can’t be dead, I saw him only 5minutes ago. MUSTN’T Prohibition - You mustn‘t   smoke in a hospital. DON’T HAVE TO Not necessary - You don’t have to   go to the party if you don’t want to.  OUGHT NOT (TO) Direct adviceor OUGHTN'T (TO) Indirect advice - You ought not ( to  ) walk, your leg's bad, - John ought not ( to  ) walk, his leg’s bad   Note: The negative form of  OUGHT TO  is not considered correct with  TO  , but it's commonly used. Linguapuncture3
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