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Lec II b Urmataoarele Trei Cursuri Si Seminarele Aferente 16 Martie 2014

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Lec II b Urmataoarele Trei Cursuri Si Seminarele Aferente 16 Martie 2014
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  2 ND  YEAR MINOR – SYNTAX 1COURSE INSTRUCTOR: ROXANA-CRISTINA PETCU, PhD THE COPULATIVE PREDICATION Let us start from the analysis of the following sentences:1. (a)Mary is quiet. (b) Jack is a doctor. (c) Susan is of my age. (d) She will make a good mother.hese sentences contain a copul  (be in sentences a!b!c) or a copul-l! # $#%&  (make in sentence d) which functions as the link between the sub ect of the sentence and the constituent which #redicates about the sub ect. his element is called a p%#'!c(!$#) he co#ula or the co#ula$like %erb and the #redicati%e form a copul(!$# p%#'!c(#)  Let&s ha%e a look at the following e'am#les:. (a) ranfather is a good man. (*+) (b) My sister is %ery #retty. (,+) (c) he hat is of my si-e. (++) (d) he #roblem is to do it correctly. (+) (e) he idea is that you should ne%er agree to such things. (/+) ,s we can see the #redicati%e can be e'#ressed by a wide range of #hrases. 0nly the co#ula 2 allows the full range of #redicati%es! the other co#ula$like %erbs allow only a limited number of #ossibilities. 32 /0+4L, 2f we look at the sentences under 1! we shall immediately see that it is the #redicati%e not the co#ula which assigns a #ro#erty to the sub ect! namely Mary is assigned the #ro#erty quiet! Jack the #ro#erty a doctor! aso! which means that the #redication relation hold between the sub ect and the #redicati%e! and not between the sub ect and the co#ula. 5e can say that the sub ect of the sentence is assigned a theta role and so is an argument of the #redicati%e! not of the co#ula 2. t can be demonstrated by the semantic relations that the #redicati%e im#oses on the sub ect.6. (a) 7ill is a s#inster. (b) 7Mrs rown is Mary&s father. (c) 73is brother is bu'om. he sentences abo%e are ungrammatical as the #ro#erty assigned by the #redicatice to the sub ect %iolates the s$selection. , S#inster and bu'om select a 89female entity! while father selects a 89male entity. 0ne conclusion would be that the co#ula does not assign an e'ternal theta role because it does not ha%e substanti%e content. his means that the co#ula does not ha%e an e'ternal argument ; it only has an internal argument! a small clause which account for the #redication relation between the sub ect ant the #redicati%e. he sub ect is base$generated in 8S#ec!S/ #osition where it is assigned a theta role! and from ther it mo%es to 8S#ec!+ to be assigned case and also to satisfy the 2++! which says that all senteneces must ha%e a sub ect. his means that 2 cannot assign case! which is in kee#ing with the fact that it does not assign a theta role to an e'ternal argument. So the co#ula 2 beha%es like an unaccusati%e %erb.ur-io&s generali-ation (i) a %erb which lacks an e'ternal argument fails to assign ,ccusati%e case (ii)a %erb which fails to assign ,ccusati%e case fails to theta$mark an e'ternal argument   Mary is quiet.   + S#ec &  <  =+  =& $s =  <  S/>,+ 2 ?+ ,& ?& ,  <  ? <  quiet   Mary he ?+ generated in the 8S#ec! S/ #osition will mo%e to 8S#ec!+ in order to be assigned case. ,nother #ossible #osition would be 8S#ec! =+ which is em#ty because 4 does not ha%e an e'ternal argument! so no theta role can  be assigned in that #osition! but it is not a #osition in which case can be assigned./onclusion  he co#ula e is a raising %erb taking a small clause as its com#lement! it lacks an e'ternal argument! fails to assign case to its com#lement! does not assign a theta role. herfore it is an unaccusati%e %erb which selects a small clause! the sub ect of the sclause being generated in the 8S#ec! S/ #osition out of which it raises to be assigned case.  he co#ula 2 is semantically light! which has been taken as a #ossible e'#lanation for the fact that it shares a number of #ro#erties with the au'iliaries.  t beha%es like au'iliary %erbs @ it undergoes mo%ement to  < ; it mo%es to / <  in question formation; it is directly negated by not>n&t! it can be stressed by em#hatic affirmations! it occurs in tags and codas A. (a) ,re they studentsB (b) hey are not>aren&t students. (c) 0h! but they ,C2 students. (d) hey are students! aren&t theyB (e) hey are students! and so are theor friends.  Like an au'iliary! the co#ula 2 #recedes the ad%erbs.D. hey are always rude to e%eryone. 3e is ne%er im#ertiment.  4nlike au'iliaries! which only allow one ty#e of com#lement (=+)! the co#ula allows a wide %ariety of small clauses as com#lements (*+! ,+! ?+! ++! +! /+).  he co#ula can co$occur with other au'iliaries! including au'iliary 2E. Fou ha%e always been so nice to me. 3e is being clumsy nowG   5hen the small clause contains two ?+s! any of the two can raise ti 8S#ec!+ H. hat unim#ortant incident was the cause of the war.   he cause of the war was that unim#ortant incident.  o conclude! we can say that the co#ula 2 is an unaccusati%e %erb that has a number of s#ecific #ro#erties  which distinguish it from regular unaccusati%es and from au'iliaries as well. he role of the co#ulaSmall clauses are reduced clauses which lack the functional categories! mainlt ense but which denote #redication relations! namely states of affairs which must recei%e tem#oral anchoring. his is done by the %erb the small clause is a com#lement of. he co#ula carries the markers for ense! ,s#ect! ,greement! Mood . I. (a) Michael is careful. (ense) (b) Michael is being so awkward todayG (ense! ,s#ect) (c ) 3e has always been so nice. (ense!,s#ect) (d) f only he were more attenti%e. (ense! Mood) COPULA-LI*E VER+S  all! stand! make! sit! loom! remain! hold! run! get! lie! grow! go! turn! #ass! seem! come! etcK. M,2 $ f you work hard! you will make a good lawyer.(*+) She will make a wonderful actress.(*+) ,LL @ he scheme fell flat.(,+) 3e fell %ictim to her cruel remarks.(?+) She fell an easy #rey to him.(*+) he house fell into ruins.(++) L2 @ he book lay o#en on the table.(,+) he snow lay thick on the ground.(,+) 30L* @ he argument holds true.(,+) She always holds aloof from com#any.(,+) S,?* @ om stands alone amomg his mates.(,+) 5e will stand firm.(,+) Lady Jane stood godmother to her sister&s child.(?+) hose #oor #eo#le stand in need of hel#.(++) S @ 3e sat tight on the saddle.(,+) L00M @ he castle loomed menacing in the distance. (,+) C2M,? @ 3e remained a widower at the age of 6<.(*+) 2 @ he sink got rusty.(,+) C05 @ 3e has grown old.(,+) 4C? @ 3e finally turned a traitor. (*+) hey obliged the #risoners to turn Muslim. (,+) +,SS @ hey #ass for rich.(++) 3e #assed for a doctor.(++) S22M @ he students seem interested in linguistics. (,+) /0M2 @ he knot has come undone.(,+)/o#ula$like %erbs beha%e like the co#ula. hey lack an e'ternal argument! their internal com#lement is a small clause! so they are raising %erbs like the co#ula.   he scheme fell flat. + S#ec &  <  =+  =& $ed =  < S/>,+ all *+ ,& he scheme ,  <  lat?e%ertheless! there are a number of differences between the co#ula and the co#ula$like %erbs.  hey #reser%e #art of their le'ical meaning (durati%e @ stay! remain! inchoati%e @become! get)  hey im#ose certain selectional restrictions on the small clause (see the e'am#les abo%e)  hey do not combine with the full range of small clauses as 2  hey do not raise! do not in%ert in question formation! need do$su##ort! are not negated by not>n&t! need do$su##ort! do not a##ear in tags and codas. 1<. hey turned Muslim. 7urned they MuslimB (*id they turn MuslimB) 7hey turned not Muslim. (hey didn&t turn Muslim) 7hey turned Muslim! turnedn&t theyB   hey do not #recede the ad%erbs (like le'ical %erbs)11. 7he ri%er runs always dry in summer. he ri%er always runs dry in summer.  4nlike the co#ula 2! when the small clause contains two ?+s! only the ?+ sub ect! that is the one generated in 8S#ec! S/ #osition can raise to 8S#ec! +.1. My uncle remained a doctor all his life. 7, doctor remained my uncle all his life. THE PREDICATIVETHE ADECTIVAL TYPE   ,d ecti%es are heads that #ro ect structure according to $bar! can be modified by an ad%erb in the S#ec #osition! can select a com#lement (++ ! /+ or +)! can also contain ad uncts16. (a)rather en%ious of Mary&s success
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