Lec II b Urmataoarele Trei Cursuri Si Seminarele Aferente 16 Martie 2014

Lec II b Urmataoarele Trei Cursuri Si Seminarele Aferente 16 Martie 2014
of 25
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
  2 ND  YEAR MINOR – SYNTAX 1COURSE INSTRUCTOR: ROXANA-CRISTINA PETCU, PhD THE COPULATIVE PREDICATION Let us start from the analysis of the following sentences:1. (a)Mary is quiet. (b) Jack is a doctor. (c) Susan is of my age. (d) She will make a good mother.hese sentences contain a copul  (be in sentences a!b!c) or a copul-l! # $#%&  (make in sentence d) which functions as the link between the sub ect of the sentence and the constituent which #redicates about the sub ect. his element is called a p%#'!c(!$#) he co#ula or the co#ula$like %erb and the #redicati%e form a copul(!$# p%#'!c(#)  Let&s ha%e a look at the following e'am#les:. (a) ranfather is a good man. (*+) (b) My sister is %ery #retty. (,+) (c) he hat is of my si-e. (++) (d) he #roblem is to do it correctly. (+) (e) he idea is that you should ne%er agree to such things. (/+) ,s we can see the #redicati%e can be e'#ressed by a wide range of #hrases. 0nly the co#ula 2 allows the full range of #redicati%es! the other co#ula$like %erbs allow only a limited number of #ossibilities. 32 /0+4L, 2f we look at the sentences under 1! we shall immediately see that it is the #redicati%e not the co#ula which assigns a #ro#erty to the sub ect! namely Mary is assigned the #ro#erty quiet! Jack the #ro#erty a doctor! aso! which means that the #redication relation hold between the sub ect and the #redicati%e! and not between the sub ect and the co#ula. 5e can say that the sub ect of the sentence is assigned a theta role and so is an argument of the #redicati%e! not of the co#ula 2. t can be demonstrated by the semantic relations that the #redicati%e im#oses on the sub ect.6. (a) 7ill is a s#inster. (b) 7Mrs rown is Mary&s father. (c) 73is brother is bu'om. he sentences abo%e are ungrammatical as the #ro#erty assigned by the #redicatice to the sub ect %iolates the s$selection. , S#inster and bu'om select a 89female entity! while father selects a 89male entity. 0ne conclusion would be that the co#ula does not assign an e'ternal theta role because it does not ha%e substanti%e content. his means that the co#ula does not ha%e an e'ternal argument ; it only has an internal argument! a small clause which account for the #redication relation between the sub ect ant the #redicati%e. he sub ect is base$generated in 8S#ec!S/ #osition where it is assigned a theta role! and from ther it mo%es to 8S#ec!+ to be assigned case and also to satisfy the 2++! which says that all senteneces must ha%e a sub ect. his means that 2 cannot assign case! which is in kee#ing with the fact that it does not assign a theta role to an e'ternal argument. So the co#ula 2 beha%es like an unaccusati%e %erb.ur-io&s generali-ation (i) a %erb which lacks an e'ternal argument fails to assign ,ccusati%e case (ii)a %erb which fails to assign ,ccusati%e case fails to theta$mark an e'ternal argument   Mary is quiet.   + S#ec &  <  =+  =& $s =  <  S/>,+ 2 ?+ ,& ?& ,  <  ? <  quiet   Mary he ?+ generated in the 8S#ec! S/ #osition will mo%e to 8S#ec!+ in order to be assigned case. ,nother #ossible #osition would be 8S#ec! =+ which is em#ty because 4 does not ha%e an e'ternal argument! so no theta role can  be assigned in that #osition! but it is not a #osition in which case can be assigned./onclusion  he co#ula e is a raising %erb taking a small clause as its com#lement! it lacks an e'ternal argument! fails to assign case to its com#lement! does not assign a theta role. herfore it is an unaccusati%e %erb which selects a small clause! the sub ect of the sclause being generated in the 8S#ec! S/ #osition out of which it raises to be assigned case.  he co#ula 2 is semantically light! which has been taken as a #ossible e'#lanation for the fact that it shares a number of #ro#erties with the au'iliaries.  t beha%es like au'iliary %erbs @ it undergoes mo%ement to  < ; it mo%es to / <  in question formation; it is directly negated by not>n&t! it can be stressed by em#hatic affirmations! it occurs in tags and codas A. (a) ,re they studentsB (b) hey are not>aren&t students. (c) 0h! but they ,C2 students. (d) hey are students! aren&t theyB (e) hey are students! and so are theor friends.  Like an au'iliary! the co#ula 2 #recedes the ad%erbs.D. hey are always rude to e%eryone. 3e is ne%er im#ertiment.  4nlike au'iliaries! which only allow one ty#e of com#lement (=+)! the co#ula allows a wide %ariety of small clauses as com#lements (*+! ,+! ?+! ++! +! /+).  he co#ula can co$occur with other au'iliaries! including au'iliary 2E. Fou ha%e always been so nice to me. 3e is being clumsy nowG   5hen the small clause contains two ?+s! any of the two can raise ti 8S#ec!+ H. hat unim#ortant incident was the cause of the war.   he cause of the war was that unim#ortant incident.  o conclude! we can say that the co#ula 2 is an unaccusati%e %erb that has a number of s#ecific #ro#erties  which distinguish it from regular unaccusati%es and from au'iliaries as well. he role of the co#ulaSmall clauses are reduced clauses which lack the functional categories! mainlt ense but which denote #redication relations! namely states of affairs which must recei%e tem#oral anchoring. his is done by the %erb the small clause is a com#lement of. he co#ula carries the markers for ense! ,s#ect! ,greement! Mood . I. (a) Michael is careful. (ense) (b) Michael is being so awkward todayG (ense! ,s#ect) (c ) 3e has always been so nice. (ense!,s#ect) (d) f only he were more attenti%e. (ense! Mood) COPULA-LI*E VER+S  all! stand! make! sit! loom! remain! hold! run! get! lie! grow! go! turn! #ass! seem! come! etcK. M,2 $ f you work hard! you will make a good lawyer.(*+) She will make a wonderful actress.(*+) ,LL @ he scheme fell flat.(,+) 3e fell %ictim to her cruel remarks.(?+) She fell an easy #rey to him.(*+) he house fell into ruins.(++) L2 @ he book lay o#en on the table.(,+) he snow lay thick on the ground.(,+) 30L* @ he argument holds true.(,+) She always holds aloof from com#any.(,+) S,?* @ om stands alone amomg his mates.(,+) 5e will stand firm.(,+) Lady Jane stood godmother to her sister&s child.(?+) hose #oor #eo#le stand in need of hel#.(++) S @ 3e sat tight on the saddle.(,+) L00M @ he castle loomed menacing in the distance. (,+) C2M,? @ 3e remained a widower at the age of 6<.(*+) 2 @ he sink got rusty.(,+) C05 @ 3e has grown old.(,+) 4C? @ 3e finally turned a traitor. (*+) hey obliged the #risoners to turn Muslim. (,+) +,SS @ hey #ass for rich.(++) 3e #assed for a doctor.(++) S22M @ he students seem interested in linguistics. (,+) /0M2 @ he knot has come undone.(,+)/o#ula$like %erbs beha%e like the co#ula. hey lack an e'ternal argument! their internal com#lement is a small clause! so they are raising %erbs like the co#ula.   he scheme fell flat. + S#ec &  <  =+  =& $ed =  < S/>,+ all *+ ,& he scheme ,  <  lat?e%ertheless! there are a number of differences between the co#ula and the co#ula$like %erbs.  hey #reser%e #art of their le'ical meaning (durati%e @ stay! remain! inchoati%e @become! get)  hey im#ose certain selectional restrictions on the small clause (see the e'am#les abo%e)  hey do not combine with the full range of small clauses as 2  hey do not raise! do not in%ert in question formation! need do$su##ort! are not negated by not>n&t! need do$su##ort! do not a##ear in tags and codas. 1<. hey turned Muslim. 7urned they MuslimB (*id they turn MuslimB) 7hey turned not Muslim. (hey didn&t turn Muslim) 7hey turned Muslim! turnedn&t theyB   hey do not #recede the ad%erbs (like le'ical %erbs)11. 7he ri%er runs always dry in summer. he ri%er always runs dry in summer.  4nlike the co#ula 2! when the small clause contains two ?+s! only the ?+ sub ect! that is the one generated in 8S#ec! S/ #osition can raise to 8S#ec! +.1. My uncle remained a doctor all his life. 7, doctor remained my uncle all his life. THE PREDICATIVETHE ADECTIVAL TYPE   ,d ecti%es are heads that #ro ect structure according to $bar! can be modified by an ad%erb in the S#ec #osition! can select a com#lement (++ ! /+ or +)! can also contain ad uncts16. (a)rather en%ious of Mary&s success
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!