Lec II b Ultimul Curs Plus Seminarul 28 Mai 2014

2 ND YEAR MINOR – SYNTAX 1 COURSE INSTRUCTOR: ROXANA-CRISTINA PETCU, PhD THE PASSIVE  Complex linguistic phenomenon, which manifests itself at three levels of linguistic analysis: a) the morphological level – the auxiliaries be and get and the past participle of the verb b) the syntactic level – a change in position and status of the active Subject and Object c)the semantic level – a change in the relation between the underlying rolestructure of the sentence and
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  2 ND  YEAR MINOR – SYNTAX 1COURSE INSTRUCTOR: ROXANA-CRISTINA PETCU, PhDTHE PASSIVE  Complex linguistic phenomenon, which manifests itself at three levels of linguistic analysis:a) the morphological level – the auxiliaries be and get and the past participle of the verb b) the syntactic level – a change in position and status of the active Subject and Object c)the semantic level – a change in the relation between the underlying rolestructure of the sentence and its organi!ation #he agent$subject) no longer appears in the subject position in the sentence, while the patient $the object) appears in subject position  Stylistically spea%ing, the &assive ma%es the discourse more objective, what is important is not the agent anymore, but the event denoted by the verb itself  The Passive Mo!ho o#$   – be ' the past participle &assive verbs behave li%e unaccusative  verbs #he external theta role of the verb that undergoes passivi!ation is absorbed by the passive morphology, namely the past participle of the verb #he verb is generated from the (exicon as passive, and it behaves as an unaccusative that only has an internal argument which has to move to Spec,*&+ in order to be assigned case and also to satisfy the xtended &rojection &rinciple which says that all finite sentences must have a subject -s it behaves as an unaccusative verb it does not thetamar% an external argument so it cannot assign -ccusative case #he internal argument moves to Spec,*&+ and leaves behind a trace that forms a chain  with the moved constituent ./& i , t i  0 #he external argument of the srcinal active verb can be recovered in the passive sentence as a prepositional phrase headed by the preposition 12 which assigns it the theta role -gent as well as case or it can be implicit *n other words, the external role of the passive verb is active both semantically and syntactically - verbal passive is always related to a syntactically present 3& that acts as its logical subject, either a  %$-!hase  or a &ove' NP(  Po!e'ies o) ve%a !assives accounted for in terms of the presence of the external argument, either overtly or covertly:4 the logical subject controls the &5O subject of an infinitival purpose clause $the &5O subject of the infinitive can be identified as the logical subject of the passive verb) *n example a) the logical subject is overt, while in example b) it is covert6 we can assume it is the 3& the peasants  which is not overtly expressed in the sentence, yet it controls the &5O subject of the infinitive eg a) #he meeting was started on time by Susan i  &5O i  to please the host  b) #his corn has been grown $by the peasants i ) &5O i  to stave off famine 7 a syntactically present animate subject $an agent) needs to be present so as to allow the occurrence of subjectoriented volitional adverbseg a) Our wor%ers are better paid intentionally by the new boss  b) 8Our wor%ers are better paid intentionally  c) 89ost of our furniture is still unmoved on purpose by the company *n sentence a) the logical subject, the 3& by the new boss is animate, agentive and overt, therefore it licenses a volitional adverb *n sentence b), the logical subject is covert, so it cannot license a  volitional adverb, while in sentence c) the logical subject, the 3& by the company is not animate, so it cannot license the adverbial on purpose, which is subjectoreinted   ã The S$*'a+ o) 'he Passive  #he professor was invited  *&/& * * ;  <& # <  ;  <& && ed 1 < $by the students) <  ;  /& *nvited the professor#he /& the professor $the internal argument of the verb) moves to Spec, *&+ in order to be assigned structural 3ominative by * o , it leaves behind a trace which will be coindexed with the moved /&6 the  -uxiliary verb 1 rises to * o  to chec% the #ense feature #he && by the students recovers the -gent and it may be overt or covert #he 3& inside the && is assigned thetarole and case by the preposition by  Conditions on the &assive – the adjancency constraint$the double object construction6 the dative verbs) $even with nonarguments of the verb) g $4) She gave a boo% to me = - boo% was given to me = 8* was given a boo% to  She gave me a boo% = * was given a boo% = 8- boo% was given me $4)She wore her pullover thin  >er pullover was worn thin  $7)>e shouted us into silence  ?e were shouted into silence  no reflexives and reciprocals $>e watched himself = 8>imself was watched by him)  no idiomatic *# $ #his argument eats it = 8*# is eaten by this argument )#he /omain of the &assive  Ta*si'ive ve%s  eg #he newcomer solved the pu!!le  #he pu!!le was solved by a new comer - the position of the -dverbials of mannereg >e wrote the letter rapidly  #he letter was rapidly written   NO Passive:  reciprocal verbs – resemble, marry eg 9usic resembles poetry  8&oetry is resembles by music  state verbs $verbs of possession) – have, possess, owneg >e owns a house  8#he house is owned by him  Stative verbs $verbs of feelings) – love, hate, loathe, abhorg >e loves 9ary    89ary is loved by him  5eflexivesg 9ary admired herself in the mirror  8>erself was admired by 9ary in the mirror  Di'a*si'ive ve%s   change of possession, the *ndirect Object is a beneficiary6 both objects may undergo &assivi!ation ) E#( >e gave the flowers to 9ary    #he flowers were given to 9ary  9ary was given the flowers NO Passive  /itransitives $no change of possession, the *ndirect Object is not a beneficiary, but an xperiencer)g >e gave me a push, 8* was given a push  8- push was given to me  U*e#a'ives i'h a !e!osi'io*a o%.e&' g >e insisted upon the invitation = #he invitation was insisted upon  #hey tal%ed about the movie = #he movie was tal%ed about NO Passive  *ntranstitives with @uantifier phrases – cost , weigh, stretch, lastg #he two tic%ets cost A4;;  8A4;; are cost by the tic%ets  5elational intransitives  –  belong to, pertain to,   g ( #he boo% belongs to me  8* am belonged to by the boo%   *ntransitives with (ocative and directional -dverbial &hrasesg #he house stands by the hill  8#he hill is stood by by the house  *nherently reflexive intransitiveg >e availed himself of the opportunity  8>imself was availed of the opportunity  I*'a*si'ive i'h !a'i& e a*/ !e!osi'io* g #hey did away with that law  #hat law was done away with  I*'a*si'ives i'h 'o !e!osi'io*a o%.e&'s g, tal% to smb about smth6 lecture6 spea%6 apologi!e6 appeal #hey never spo%e to her about her late husband  8She was never spo%en to about her late husband  8>er late husband was never spo%en about $in her presence) #he passive is possible only if the verb occurs with only one prepositional object *n this case the  verb ' preposition is interpreted as one single lexical unit, so the adjacency constraint is not  violated #he preposition is retained in the passive sentence g #hey never spo%e to her  She was never spo%en 'o    I/io0a'i& !hases  g #a%e strong exception to smth6 ma%e an example of smth6 foist all ones problems on smth6 pin ones faith on smth6 ma%e too much of smth6 %eep close tabs on smth6 ta%e advantage of smth,6 etc g #hey made an example of his behaviour  >is behaviuour was made an example of  So0e Pe!osi'io*a Phases shoi*# o&a'io* #hey have sat on the chair  #hat chair has been sat on NO Passives  Co*'e*' !hases i'h g #eem with, swarm with, be crawling with, bu!! with, drip with, oo!e with, dace withg #he town was dancing with light and shadow  8(ight and shadow were being danced with  Bill a free!er with, load a truc% with, g #he filled the free!er with fish = #he free!er was filled with fish  8Bish were filled the free!er with by them,  The e' Passive( more dynamic, may have a detrimental meaning, may imply that the -gent has some responsibility for a detrimental action e#(  >is leg got bro%en   >ow did the window get open - focuses on the event and on its effects on the #heme=&atient - the implied agent has full control over the action denoted by the verb$8>e got %illed with great care = >e got shot – he did something because he wanted to get shot)  it involves the spea%ers attitude, his emotional involvement g >e got caught, the silly foolD - it is associated with more punctual events  g >e got arrested Mi// es g #he poem reads easily = #ennis balls sell best in summer = #he play reads better than it acts = #his fabric  washes easily = Cotton shirts iron well = #hese figures add easily Po!e'ies o) 'he E*# ish Mi// es  they are one argument verb, the agent is not overt in the sentence *t may be understood as Eone or Epeople in general, although it may be specific at times g #he car handles smoothly when Fohn drives it
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