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  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324417750 Impression Techniques in Removable Partial Denture  Article   in  International Journal of Current Research · April 2017 CITATIONS 0 READS 5,096 1 author: Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad RasidiSaveetha University 11   PUBLICATIONS   6   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi on 10 April 2018. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.    IMPRESSION TE *Moha Saveetha Dental College and Hospi  ARTICLE INFO ABST   Remo substit dentat rehabil and de of pro variou Journa that av Copyright©2017, Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Moha which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reprod INTRODUCTION Dentistry as a strength is accepted to have st BC. (Tandon et al  ., 2010) Egypt was the th antiquated world. The primary dental prost to have been built in Egypt around 2500 BC. dentures were made as ahead of schedule medieval times, dentures were sometimes treatment choice. They were hand cut and ti strings and must be uprooted before eati 2016) The removable partial denture (RP  prosthesis that need maximum precision of i (Prapotnich and Domken, 2000) History of removable partial denture In the sixteenth century, before the French t conveyed to us by (Abul casim) and (Ambr was utilized as a part of expansion to bone tusks and human teeth from corpuses. It w attempted to supplant (rotted missed too decay) with a touch of wax, skein of flax o  primary brilliant crown was set up at Mou main gold base was attempted by Bourde this, first utilization of winding springs Duboised de Chemant. In 1702, denture springs was finished by Laforgue. Towards t * Corresponding author:   Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha UniveRoad, Chennai -600077 India. ISSN: 0975-833X    Article History: Received xxxxxxxxxx, 2017 Received in revised form xxxxxxxx, 2017 Accepted xxxxxxxxx, 2017 Published online xxxxxxxxx,   2017   Citation: Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad  Research , 9, (04), 49514-49516.      Article History: Received 10 th  January, 2017 Received in revised form 15 th  February, 2017 Accepted 22 nd  March, 2017 Published online 30 th  April,   2017    Key words: Impression Techniques, Removable Partial Denture, Current Practice.   REVIEW ARTICLE CHNIQUES IN REMOVABLE PARTIAL DE   ad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi al, Saveetha University, Poonamalle High Roa RACT able Prosthodontics treatment involves the replacement a tes. The number of adultpatients wear removable partial are keep increasing. The treatment is done to avoid furt itation. Removable Prosthodontics treatment can offer exc ntist. The trend of the removable partial dentures had chang thodontics. The changes of trend including the impressio sources are reviewed for their content on impression tech ls reviewed are Pubmed, Scopus Indexed, other Prosthodo ailable online, and website of any Prosthodontics departme ad Rasidi.  This is an open access article distributed under the ction in any medium, provided the srcinal work is properly cited.  arted around 3000 erapeutic focus of esis was accepted Skilfully outlined as 700 BC. Amid considered as a d set up with silk g. (Rasidi et al  ., D) is one of the  pression making. ransformation and oise), the material as ivory, walrus, s ladies first who h or periodontal r bit of bone. The on, Paris and the . Notwithstanding as conceived by with gold spiral e end of the ohamad Rasidi, rsity, Poonamalle High century in 1798 the main gold for George Washington (Amer the start of seventeenth ce  prescribed level steel springs f  prostheses and these were at l winding springs of gold or Bourdet. Amidst this century, Ash occurred. A gadget calle was presented for the produce in 1841 stamped gold denture into utilization. (Becker et al  ., Physiologic impression techn   Physiologic impression techni impression technique is a tech of ridge by placing an occlus during the making of impressi (RPD) patients. (Nallaswamy,will produce a generalized dis of mucosa, whether to the displacement occurred in this t any tissues in the correct confi was applied to the patients’ technique can be further classi method, the functional relini method. (Jayaraman et al  ., 201   McLean’s and Hindel’s meth   In McLean’s impression tech tissues of residual ridge that  Available online at http://www.journalcra.com    International Journal of Current Research Vol. 9, Issue, 04, pp.49514-49516, April, 2017    I Rasidi, 2017.  “Impression techniques in removable partial dentu  z NTURE , Chennai -600077 India nd restoration of teeth by artificial enture (RPD) due to their partially her loss of tooth by prosthodontics  ptional satisfaction for both patient ed across the time through evolution techniques used. The articles from   iques (Removable Partial Denture). tics journals, Prosthodontics books t from university worldwide. Creative Commons Attribution License, late was set up by Green Wood ica). (Zarb et al  ., 2005) Toward tury, in any case, Fauchard or the obsession of finish upper ast supplanted by and large by  platinum as recommended by resentation of the tube tooth by Dentifactor by Joun Tomes of dentures. Promptly after this, with springs by Laforgue came 994) ques ue or also known as functional ique which record the position al load on the impression tray on in removable partial denture 2003) This type of technique lacement of changes in degree greater or lesser degree. The echnique was intended to record guration when occlusal loading enture. Physiologic impression fied into McLean and Hindel’s g method and the fluid wax 6) od ique, it is used to record the support a distal extension of NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH re”,  International Journal of Current  denture base, or its supporting form and as the second impression of arch remainder. The second impression is also called as ‘pick up’ impression. This is due to its function, covering and picking up the functional impression. Procedures 1.   A fabrication of the custom-made impression tray over the edentulous areas of the preliminary cast. No need for adaptation of spacer. 2.   Making of the occlusal rim on the custom tray. Occlusal rim is used to make sure patients are bite while making the impression. 3.   Impression materials which loaded on the tray is inserted into the patient’s mouth. 4.   Patient need to be instructed to bite on the occlusal rim. 5.   Custom tray should not be removed from patient’s mouth after impression making. 6.   An alginate over-impression is made by using a large stock tray. 7.   The functional master impression will come along when the over-impression is removed and it is called as ‘pick up’ impression. 8.   Finger pressure need to be used during over-impression making. 9.   The teeth in the anatomical form and the tissues in the functional form will be produce after pouring the cast into the impression. The weakness for using this method of impression is it use a finger pressure which could not produce the same function of tissue displacement of biting force produced. In Hindel’s modification of McLean’s technique; The disadvantages of this technique is if the action of the retentive clasps of RPD is sufficient in order to maintain the denture base in soft tissue displace, blood vessels interruption will occur with worst soft tissue destruction and bone resorption. Other than that, if the action of the retentive clasps of RPD is not sufficient in order to maintain the denture base in soft tissue displace, it will result in artificial teeth premature contact. This premature contact may become objectionable for almost all patients. Procedures  1. Fabrication of the occlusal rim in a special tray using the primary cast. In order to avoid excessive pressure on the tissues, the stoppers need to be placed on the tray that extend over the stress-bearing areas. 2. The supporting tissues under rest – anatomical impression is recorded by special tray. 3. Large holes with over impression is made by a special stock tray. Steady constant pressure should be applied on the occlusal rim during the procedure. Till the alginate is set, the pressure should be held. 4. A pseudo-functional stress is gave by pushes the edentulous ridge by using the finger pressure on the special tray. A pseudo-functional is same to the functional impression. 5. Excessive tissue compression can be avoided by using the stopper on the custom stray. The functional relining method The functional relining method consists of addition of new surfaces to the inner side or tissue side in the denture base. The  procedures of this technique should be done before the insertion of RPD. It also can be done later in future if the denture base having loose or no longer fits to the ridge due to  bone resorption. (Steffel, 1954) Procedures  The patients must maintain their mouth in a position of  partially open during the border molding and impression taken. This is due to the border tissues, cheek and tongue are best controlled and there is a compulsory observation of the relationship between RPD framework and the patients’ teeth. Final impression making In the final impression making by using the functional relining method, the free flowing Zinc Oxide eugenol paste is commonly used. However, if the undercuts are present on the ridge, the light bodied polysulphide or silicone rubber is used. (Harvey, 1962) Advantages  The soft tissue amount displacement can be controlled by the relief given amount to modeling plastic before the final impression making. There will be less tissue displacement if the relief is greater. Disadvantages  Disadvantages of this technique are the failure in maintaining the exact relationship between the abutment and the framework. It might fail in achieving the accurate occlusal contact in reline procedure. This is because in the reline  procedures, all the occlusal discrepancies need to be correct. The fluid wax impression technique The fluid wax are waxes that firm at room temperature but it have an ability to flow when put in mouth temperature. There are two types of fluid waxes used in RPD, which are: Iowa Wax and Korrecta wax. Iowa wax was developed by Dr. Smith meanwhile Korrecta wax was developed by Dr. O.C. and S.G. Applegate. Korrecta wax used in RPD is known as Korrecta wax No. 4 which is slightly more fluid if compared to the Iowa wax. (Tan et al  ., 2009) The objective of this impression technique is obtaining maximum denture base peripheral  borders extension which it will not interfered with the movable  border tissues function. It also used in ridge stress-bearing areas recording for functional form and recording of non- pressure-bearing areas in anatomic form. In fluid wax impression technique, the key of using it are space and time. The borders made should be short for all movable tissues which is not more than 2 mm short. This is due to the insufficient strength of fluid wax to support itself beyond the distance. Moreover, when the tray must remain in place about 5 to 7 minutes upon introduced into the patients mouth. This allow the flow of wax and prevent the buildup pressure under the tray. (Vahidi, 1978) Procedure  1.   The first step when using this impression technique is trying in of work done frame. 49515 Mohamad ulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi, Imression techniues in removable artial denture  2.   Later, adopting the spacer within the use of base plate on cast. 3.   After that, adapting the auto polymerizing resin and contouring over frame work the excess materials is removed. 4.   The relief holes are prepared along the ridges crest. 5.   The temperature of fluid wax should maintain between 51°C to 54 °C because the wax become fluid at this temperature. 6.   The wax with fluid physical is painted to the impression tray on the tissue side using brush. 7.   The dull surface is added with wax and the impression is placed back into the mouth for 5 minutes. 8.   All the steps need to be repeated till the impression is completed, and need to be carefully handle. 9.   The new cast need to be poured as soon as possible after the impression is completed. This due the wax fragile and might be distortion. 10.   This impression technique need to use the open mouth technique in order to reduce the danger of over displacement of tissue, especially ridges by and forces of occlusal and vertical. Disadvantages  The wax fluid technique is time consuming. There is needed of accurately followed timing of procedures. The excessive tissue displacement might be result to the impression if the timing  period is not followed properly as mentioned. Selected pressure technique In the selective pressure technique, there are two type of impression are made. Anatomical impression and functional impression are made using this technique. The anatomical impression made is functioning in preparing a master cast. (Krol et al  ., 1999) It later will alter based on the selective  pressure functional impression. In this technique, the tissue surface of relieving areas that lying over by special tray is reduced. The reduction is made as there is enough space available for not exert pressure by the impression materials. Therefore, the contact of the impression tray to the tissues is only at the stress-bearing areas during the impression taking  procedures. In this technique, only the stress-bearing areas are compressed, which it is recorded properly. As there is only certain areas that exerted by pressure during the impression making, this technique of impression in RPD is called as selected pressure impression technique. (Dumbrigue and Esquivel, 1998) Procedure  1.   The fabrication of the special tray on the master cast from the anatomical impression. The fabrication of tray is without a wax spacer. 2.   Trimming of the special tray tissue surface by using  burs for adequate relief. 3.   The prepared special tray is loaded by impression material, such as zinc oxide eugenol and inserted into the patients’ mouth. 4.   The patients need to open their mouth and the finger  pressure is used to record the impression. Make sure that only the stress bearing areas are compressed during the procedures. Advantages  The resorption rate of ridge will be lowered due to the non-stressed relieving areas. It will equalize the stress that act on the soft tissues and the abutment teeth. Conclusion The accomplishment of a removable partial denture, the  patient’s comfort, strength and particularly the mental acceptance rely on upon a progression of fundamental technicals factors. Likely the more fragile phase of the  prosthetic innovation is the transfer of information from the mouth of the patient to the dental prosthodontist through the impression. In removable partial denture, impression need to consider into the harmony between uncompressible hard tissue and delicate structures with variable compressibilities. The assorted qualities of clinical cases is in charge for an extensive different qualities of impression techniques used in treatment. (Dumbrigue and Esquivel, 2000) REFERENCES   Becker, C.M., D.A. Kaiser, and M.H. Goldfogel, Evolution of removable partial denture design. Journal of Prosthodontics, 1994. 3(3): p. 158-166. Dumbrigue, H.B. and J.F. Esquivel, Selective-pressure single impression procedure for tooth-mucosa–supported removable partial dentures. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 1998. 80(2): p. 259-261. Harvey, W.L., An improved distal extension removable partial denture base. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 1962. 12(2): p. 314-316. Jayaraman, S., et al  ., Fabrication of complete/partial dentures (different final impression techniques and materials) for treating edentulous patients. The Cochrane Library, 2016. Krol, A.J., T.E. Jacobson, and F.C. Finzen, Removable partial denture design: outline syllabus. 1999: Indent.  Nallaswamy, D., Textbook of prosthodontics. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 2003: p. 266-7. Prapotnich, R. and O. Domken, (Impressions in removable  partial dentures). Revue belge de medecine dentaire, 2000. 56(3): p. 204-215. Rasidi, M.Q.Z.B.M., Review on History of Complete Denture. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2016. 9(8):  p. 1069-1072. Steffel, V.L., Relining removable partial dentures for fit and function. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 1954. 4(4): p. 496-509. Tan, K.M., et al  ., Modified fluid wax impression for a severely resorbed edentulous mandibular ridge. The Journal of  prosthetic dentistry, 2009. 101(4): p. 279-282. Tandon, R., S. Gupta, and S.K. Agarwal, Denture base materials: From past to future. Indian Journal of Dental Sciences, 2010. 2(2): p. 33-39. Vahidi, F., Vertical displacement of distal-extension ridges by different impression techniques. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 1978. 40(4): p. 374-377. Zarb, G.A., et al  ., Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous  patients. Mosby, 2005. 12: p. 195-7. 49516 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 9, Issue, 04, pp.49514-49516, April, 2017    ******* View publication statsView publication stats
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