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Getting to YES Negotiating an agreement without giving in Second edition by Fisher, Ury and Patton RANDOM HOUSE BUSINESS BOOKS

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Getting to YES Negotiating an agreement without giving in Second edition by Fisher, Ury and Patton RANDOM HOUSE BUSINESS BOOKS
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   1   Getting to YES Negotiating an agreement without giving in Roger Fisher and William Ury With Bruce Patton, Editor Second edition by Fisher, Ury and Patton   RANDOM HOUSE BUSINESS BOOKS     2 GETTING TO YES The authors of this book have been working together since 1977. Roger Fisher teaches negotiation at Harvard Law School, where he is Williston Professor of Law and Director of the Harvard Negotiation Project. Raised in Illinois, he served in World War II with the U.S. Army Air Force, in Paris with the Marshall Plan, and in Washington, D.C., with the Department of Justice. He has also practiced law in Washington and served as a consultant to the Department of Defense. He was the srcinator and executive editor of the award-winning series The Advocates. He consults widely with governments, corporations, and individuals through Conflict Management, Inc., and the Conflict Management Group. William Ury, consultant, writer, and lecturer on negotiation and mediation, is Director of the Negotiation Network at Harvard University and Associate Director of the Harvard  Negotiation Project. He has served as a consultant and third party in disputes ranging from the Palestinian-Israeli conflict to U.S.-Soviet arms control to intracorporate conflicts to labor-management conflict at a Kentucky coal mine. Currently, he is working on ethnic conflict in the Soviet Union and on teacher-contract negotiations in a large urban setting. Educated in Switzerland, he has degrees from Yale in Linguistics and Harvard in anthropology. Bruce Patton, Deputy Director of the Harvard Negotiation Project, is the Thaddeus R. Beal Lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School, where he teaches negotiation. A lawyer, he teaches negotiation to diplomats and corporate executives around the world and works as a negotiation consultant and mediator in international, corporate, labor-management, and family settings. Associated with the Conflict Management organizations, which he co founded in 1984, he has  both graduate and undergraduate degrees from Harvard. Books by Roger Fisher   International Conflict and Behavioral Science: The Craigville Papers (editor and co-author, 1964) International Conflict for Beginners (1969) Dear Israelis, Dear Arabs: A Working Approach to Peace (1972) International Crises and the Role of Law: Points of Choice (1978) International Mediation: A Working Guide; Ideas for the Practitioner (with William Ury, 1978) Improving Compliance with International Law (1981) Getting Together: Building Relationships As We Negotiate (1988) Books by William Ury   Beyond the Hotline: How Crisis Control Can Prevent Nuclear War (1985) Windows of Opportunity: From Cold War to Peaceful Competition in U.S.-Soviet Relations (edited with Graham T. Allison and Bruce J. Allyn, 1989) Getting Disputes Resolved: Designing Systems to Cut the Costs of Conflict (with Jeanne M. Brett and Stephen B. Goldberg, 1988) Getting Past No: Negotiating with Difficult People (1991)   3 Contents    Acknowledgments..................................................................................................................................................4    Preface to   the Second Edition...............................................................................................................................5    Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................6    I THE PROBLEM.......................................................................................................................................................7 1.D ON ' T B ARGAIN O VER P OSITIONS ..........................................................................................................................7   II THE METHOD.....................................................................................................................................................13  2. S EPARATE THE PEOPLE FROM THE P ROBLEM ........................................................................................................13   3. F OCUS ON INTERESTS , N OT P OSITIONS .................................................................................................................23   4. I  NVENT OPTIONS FOR M UTUAL G AIN ...................................................................................................................31   5. I  NSIST ON U SING O BJECTIVE CRITERIA ................................................................................................................42   III YES, BUT.............................................................................................................................................................49   6. W HAT I F T HEY A RE M ORE P OWERFUL ?..............................................................................................................50   7. W HAT I F T HEY W ON ' T P LAY ?..............................................................................................................................54   8. W HAT IF T HEY U SE D IRTY T RICKS ?....................................................................................................................64 IV IN CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................................................71 V TEN QUESTIONS PEOPLE ASK.......................................................................................................................72   A BOUT G  ETTING  TO YES.........................................................................................................................................72     4   Acknowledgments This book began as a question: What is the best way for people to deal with their differences? For example, what is the best advice one could give a husband and wife getting divorced who want to know how to reach a fair and mutually satisfactory agreement without ending up in a bitter fight? Perhaps more difficult, what advice would you give one of them who wanted to do the same thing? Every day, families, neighbors, couples, employees, bosses,  businesses, consumers, salesmen, lawyers, and nations face this same dilemma of how to get to yes without going to war. Drawing on our respective backgrounds in international law and anthropology and an extensive collaboration over the years with practitioners, colleagues, and students, we have evolved a practical method for negotiating agreement amicably without giving in. We have tried out ideas on lawyers, businessmen, government officials, judges, prison wardens, diplomats, insurance representatives, military officers, coal miners, and oil executives. We gratefully acknowledge those who responded with criticism and with suggestions distilled from their experience. We benefited immensely. In truth, so many people have contributed so extensively to our learning over the years that it is no longer possible to say precisely to whom we are indebted for which ideas in what form. Those who contributed the most understand that footnotes were omitted not because we think every idea srcinal, but rather to keep the text readable when we owe so much to so many. We could not fail to mention, however, our debt to Howard Raiffa. His kind but forthright criticism has repeatedly improved the approach, and his notions on seeking joint gains by exploiting differences and using imaginative procedures for settling difficult issues have inspired sections on these subjects. Louis Sohn, deviser and negotiator extraordinaire, was always encouraging, always creative, always looking forward. Among our many debts to him, we owe our introduction to the idea of using a single negotiating text, which we call the One-Text Procedure. And we would like to thank Michael Doyle and David Straus for their creative ideas on running brainstorming sessions. Good anecdotes and examples are hard to find. We are greatly indebted to Jim Sebenius for his accounts of the Law of the Sea Conference (as well as for his thoughtful criticism of the method), to Tom Griffith for an account of his negotiation with an insurance adjuster, and to Mary Parker Follett for the story of two men quarreling in a library. We want especially to thank all those who read this book in various drafts and gave us the  benefit of their criticism, including our students in the January Negotiation Workshops of 1980 and 1981 at Harvard Law School, and Frank Sander, John Cooper, and William Lincoln who taught those workshops with us. In particular, we want to thank those members of Harvard's  Negotiation Seminar whom we have not already mentioned; they listened to us patiently these last two years and offered many helpful suggestions: John Dunlop, James Healy, David Kuechle, Thomas Schelling, and Lawrence Susskind. To all of our friends and associates we owe more than we can say, but the final responsibility for the content of this book lies with the authors; if the result is not yet perfect, it is not for lack of our colleagues efforts. Without family and friends, writing would be intolerable. For constructive criticism and moral support we thank Caroline Fisher, David Lax, Frances Turnbull, and Janice Ury. Without Francis Fisher this book would never have been written. He had the felicity of introducing the two of us some four years ago. Finer secretarial help we could not have had. Thanks to Deborah Reimel for her unfailing competence, moral support, and firm but gracious reminders, and to Denise Trybula, who never wavered in her diligence and cheerfulness. And special thanks to the people at Word Processing, led by Cynthia Smith, who met the test of an endless series of drafts and near impossible deadlines. Then there are our editors. By reorganizing and cutting this book in half, Marty Linsky made it far more readable. To spare our readers, he had the good sense not to spare our feelings.   5 Thanks also to Peter Kinder, June Kinoshita, and Bob Ross. June struggled to make the language less sexist. Where we have not succeeded, we apologize to those who may be offended. We also want to thank Andrea Williams, our adviser: Julian Bach, our agent; and Dick McAdoo and his associates at Houghton Mifflin, who made the production of this book both possible and  pleasurable. Finally, we want to thank Bruce Patton, our friend and colleague, editor and mediator. No one has contributed more to this book. From the very beginning he helped brainstorm and organize the syllogism of the book. He has reorganized almost every chapter and edited every word. If books were movies, this would be known as a Patton Production. Roger Fisher William Ury Preface to the Second Edition   In the last ten years negotiation as a field for academic and professional concern has grown dramatically. New theoretical works have been published, case studies have been produced, and empirical research undertaken. Ten years ago almost no professional school offered courses on negotiation; now they are all but universal. Universities are beginning to appoint faculty who specialize in negotiation. Consulting firms now do the same in the corporate world. Against this changing intellectual landscape, the ideas in Getting to Yes have stood up well. They have gained considerable attention and acceptance from a broad audience, and are frequently cited as starting points for other work. Happily, they remain persuasive to the authors as well. Most questions and comments have focused on places where the book has proven ambiguous, or where readers have wanted more specific advice. We have tried to address the most important of these topics in this revision. Rather than tampering with the text (and asking readers who know it to search for changes), we have chosen to add new material in a separate section at the end of this second edition. The main text remains in full and unchanged from the srcinal, except for updating the figures in examples to keep pace with inflation and rephrasing in a few places to clarify meaning and eliminate sexist language. We hope that our answers to "Ten Questions People Ask About Getting to YES"  prove helpful and meet some of the interests readers have expressed. We address questions about (1) the meaning and limits of "principled" negotiation (it represents practical, not moral advice); (2) dealing with someone who seems to be irrational or who has a different value system, outlook, or negotiating style; (3) practical questions, such as where to meet, who should make the first offer, and how to move from inventing options to making commitments; and (4) the role of power in negotiation. More extensive treatment of some topics will have to await other books. Readers interested in more detail about handling "people issues" in negotiation in ways that tend to establish an effective working relationship might enjoy Getting Together: Building Relationships as We  Negotiate  by Roger Fisher and Scott Brown, also available from Business Books. If dealing with difficult people and situations is more your concern, look for Getting Past No: Negotiating with  Difficult People  by William Ury, published by Business Books. No doubt other books will follow. There is certainly much more to say about power, multilateral negotiations, cross-cultural transactions, personal styles, and many other topics. Once again we thank Marty Linsky, this time for taking a careful eye and a sharp pencil to our new material. Our special thanks to Doug Stone for his discerning critique, editing, and occasional rewriting of successive drafts of that material. He has an uncanny knack for catching us in an unclear thought or paragraph. For more than a dozen years, Bruce Patton has worked with us in formulating and explaining all of the ideas in this book. This past year he has pulled the laboring oar in
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