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FACTORS IFLUECIG CAREER CHOICES OF ATIVE AMERICA AD CAUCASIA AMERICA HIGH SCHOOL STUDETS: A REPLICATIO STUDY By Christine Marie Doud A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree With a Major in Guidance and Counseling Approved: Two Semester Credits Investigation Advisor The Graduate College University of Wisconsin-Stout July 2003 i The Graduate College University of Wisconsin-Stout Menomonie, Wisconsin ABSTRACT Doud, Christine M. Factors Influencing Career Choices of ative American and Caucasian American Junior and Senior Students: A Replication Study Guidance and Counseling (K 12) Jill Stanton, Research Advisor July 2003 Senior high school level students are at a critical career decision stage. Indian educators historically postulate ative American students have difficulty in their secondary educational experiences. ative and Caucasian students need direction, education and encouragement for post-secondary plans to occur. With high dropout rates still a major problem for ative American students, research on career choices seems critical. Stout student Cynthia Scharr ewcomb completed an original study in 1992 in Bayfield and Ashland High schools. This replication study was conducted to determine relative factors influencing career and occupational decision making. Factors to be identified involved relatives, peers, school faculty, community members and immediate family members. A three page modified survey was given to similar junior and senior level subjects. The survey results were analyzed to examine major influences in career paths for junior and senior students at the Hayward and Lakeland High Schools. These two groups of selected subjects are located within northern Wisconsin. The research compared two orthern Wisconsin ethnic groups, Caucasian and native Americans, to identify factors that can assist educational personnel in improving postsecondary opportunities for high school youth of both ethnic backgrounds. ii A Stout statistician calculated descriptive statistics from the student s self-identified ethnicity. Comparison scores were conducted to determine factors of importance to each ethnic group career choice. on reservation and reservation students choices were also examined. iii Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Dennis VanDenHeuvel, Dr. Amy Gillett, Jill Stanton and Kathy Baerg for their time, support, kindness and advice while I prepared this research paper. I would also like to extend my appreciation to my children, Misty, Christy, Jesse and John Jackson for their patience and their continual expectation that this research paper would be completed. I appreciate and extend a kind thank you to special friend, Martin Soulier for his gentle persuasion to stop procrastinating. Most meaningful, I give credit to the tireless efforts and the work of Wisconsin Home School Coordinators with the ative American students and their families. In large part and because of the Home School Coordinators dedication, we proudly attend high school graduation each spring. We are provided an opportunity to cheer mightily for the high school graduates. My gratitude, admiration and respect are extended to the past, present and future ative American high school student. iv TABLE OF COTETS Title Page.. i Abstract....ii Chapter I ITRODUCTIO Statement of the Problem Definition of Terms..4 Chapter II REVIEW OF LITERATURE...6 Chapter III METHODOLOGY 14 Introduction 14 Subject Description and Selection.14 Instrumentation..15 Data Collection..16 Data Analysis. 16 Limitations. 17 Chapter IV RESULTS. 18 Introduction 18 Demographic Information.18 Research Questions 19 Table I Factors That Affect Career Choices.20 Chapter V SUMMARY AD IMPLICATIOS References Appendix A Voluntary Participation/Consent Information Appendix B Career Influence Questionnaire....31 1 Chapter I Introduction Each spring in orthern Wisconsin, hundreds of high school seniors and their families look forward to the culminating high school experience and subsequent graduation celebration. Freshman, sophomore and junior high school students look up with admiration and excitement to the graduating seniors. The senior year has, for the most part, been busily filled preparing for post high school plans. Parents, relatives, teachers, and community members congratulate the students and in the same breath, ask, What are your plans following graduation? Many of the Caucasian students have made concise plans, as their responses often reflect, I m going to attend a two year college and then will transfer to a four year college, I have a job and will work at My father was in the Army and so I have enlisted and leave for basics, or many proudly indicate acceptance at a four year university or college. Less concise is the graduating ative American senior who may indicate, ot sure yet what I plan to do, or maybe a part-time job awaits, with the possibility of obtaining full time work. ative students expressions of, I m going to take a break, are too often viewed negatively, as not having begun solid plans in preparation of starting their young adult lives. The array of individual high school students experiences relating to career information, career exploration and vocational planning have a significant influence on positive development of young lives and their futures. During the late 1980 s, the ative people of orthern Wisconsin were involved with interracial tensions, as the right to exercise hunting, fishing, and gathering that was provided through the treaties, was upheld by the state and federal judicial systems. Many 2 high school age students were present at the boat landings during that time and to this day continue to exercise their treaty rights. Their white classmates may have been supportive or standing at opposing shores. Interracial tensions have somewhat diminished due to the 1989 enactment of Wisconsin state statute ACT 31, which indicated that all public school students must be educated in diversity issues, more specifically, issues related to Wisconsin tribes including treaties and sovereignty (retrieved July 2, 2003 from However the remnants of the racism experienced then continue to impact ative American students. Learning about and understanding multicultural issues is critical in helping students comprehend what students of different ethnicity s lives are like within their own home communities. ative students also benefit from culturally sensitive curriculum. Dropout rates among ative students remain considerably higher as compared to Caucasian peers. Despite the passage of the 1972 Indian Education Act and close federal monitoring of Indian educational services, this dropout statistic has not decreased. The 1980 census, the last from which comprehensive data has been extrapolated, reveals that nearly fifty years after the passage of the Johnson O Malley (JOM) and Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), barely 83% of ative Americans complete a grade school education, and only 56 % complete high school. About 16 % graduate from a four-year college, and about 3 % hold a graduate degree of some sort (James, 1992). Later reports show little improvement. The purpose of this study is to learn if factors contributing to career choices today are similar to the ewcomb study conducted in Hopefully, the replication of the ewcomb study will be utilized by parents, home school coordinators, guidance 3 counselors, and college recruitment staff who will work closely with ative American and Caucasian students. The information surveyed can be used for recruitment and to further increase awareness as to what specifically influences students of both ethnic backgrounds in career selection. Community and tribal program personnel who desire an increased understanding of better relations between students will find the data useful. Research questions to be addressed include: Are similar factors eight years later continuing to influence career choices of tribally enrolled members of reservations and are these different from factors influencing career plans of Caucasian students attending the same schools? Do ative American Home School Coordinators or tribal leaders have more influence on ative American students career choices than do white guidance counselors? Do factors influencing career choices of ative Americans living on the reservation differ from those influencing ative American students living in towns adjacent to reservations? Does the emergence of the latest technology of the World Wide Web computer information have an influence on career choices of ative American and Caucasian adolescents? Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to document the career influences and aspirations of ative American and Caucasian students at two northern Wisconsin high schools adjacent to tribal reservations during their Junior and Senior year of high school. Data 4 was gathered using a survey adapted from ewcomb s (1992) instrument (Appendix A, Consent form and Appendix B, Survey). The survey was distributed and collected at two high schools in Wisconsin with both ative and Caucasian students, with the assistance of high school faculty. Definition of Terms Career Choice was defined as the act of selecting a vocation or career. Caucasians, Whites, or Anglos were defined as people of orthern European decent. The terms are used synonymously in this study. Factors are any circumstance, person, condition, or influence that bring about a certain effect. Home School Coordinator was defined as the paraprofessional ative American student support person hired jointly by the tribe and educational district to act as a liaison between ative American students homes, schools, and communities. ative American or American Indians were defined as any aboriginal peoples of orth America, South America, Alaska or West Indies. The words ative and Indian will be used interchangeable in this research project. The majority of self-identified Indians in this study were to indicate which tribe they were specifically enrolled in. The Ojibwe were identified as enrolled members of orth American Indian Tribes living in the northern location of Wisconsin. All ative American students involved with this survey identified themselves as having Ojibwe ancestry. Reservation was defined as an area with boundaries established by treaties. The general allotment act, otherwise known as the Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 provided parcels of land to individual Indians on reservations. 5 Limitations The questionnaire did not provide student opportunity to specify in what order they determined influential factors. The survey items provided did not include culturally relevant native vocabulary, i.e. extended family, cousins, speakers heard at pow wows, and tribal elders. The number of participatory ative American students was much less than the Caucasian students participation. All students were enrolled in public schools in the Hayward and Minocqua, Wisconsin areas. As in ewcombs original study, the administration faculty, principals and guidance counselors were Caucasian and the home school coordinators were ative American, both tribally enrolled members of their respective reservations of Lac Courte Oreilles, near Hayward, and Lac du Flambeau, near Minocqua. 6 Chapter II Review of Literature This chapter will discuss the current literature regarding ative American and Caucasian students post secondary career plans, followed by positive influences of significant programs. In addition, understanding the realities of career decisions and what actions are entailed and general success while enrolled in school will be discussed. According to Thompson, cited in Byrde, (1966), sixty percent of Indian high school students do not stay in school until graduation. Comparatively speaking, the Indian high school dropout problem at the time ( ) of that research was about fifty percent greater than the national dropout rate. In 1959, both of this researcher s parents were in their early twenties, neither of which had attended high school. Current information continues to indicate that the ative American student graduation rate from educational institutions remains much lower than that of the Caucasian student. The U.S. Department of Education (2001) indicated that in the state of Wisconsin, during the school year, there were 538 American Indian/Alaskan ative students who graduated from high school. There were 52,415 Caucasian students who graduated from high school. Also during there were 4.6% of Wisconsin ative students who dropped out of high school as compared to 1.6 % of White, non-hispanic who dropped out during the school year (p. 128). While the above mentioned percentage may seem quite low, dropout statistics for Wisconsin students do not include those students who attain age 18, the age when compulsory attendance ends during the last semester of their senior year. If they leave school, they are viewed as voluntarily withdrawing from school. Additionally, students 7 who are credits deficient of those required for high school graduation, often enroll in a summer school plan. The high school end of the year report to the Wisconsin Department of Instruction does not indicate these students as dropouts. Often the senior does not accomplish the summer school credit accumulation and does not attain graduation status. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) the federal overseer of ative education programs has had mixed success with school since its inception in According to a 2002 publication entitled, Building Exemplary Schools for Tomorrow, Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 introduced the teaching of Indian history and culture into BIA schools. Full assimilation and eradication of Indian culture had been the policy of the Federal government previously (p. 2). According to many reports, the attempt at assimilation of Indian students did not disappear as a result of the Reorganization Act. However, most recently the Bureau of Indian Affairs has attempted to create positive education goals for ative students. The Office of Indian Education Programs Director, William A. Mehojah, Jr. in January 2001, after the meeting of 100 reported the following five goals to guide BIA efforts for the next five years: All children will read independently by the third grade 70% of students will be proficient/advanced in reading and math Individual student attendance rate will be 90% or better Students will demonstrate knowledge of their language and culture to improve academic achievement 8 Increased enrollment, retention, placement and graduation rates for post secondary students ( p. 1) Efforts will be directed to all school faculty, who will be provided ample professional development time to build the skills necessary for helping the ative student attain success in their educational endeavors. These efforts will be directed to the 185 elementary and secondary schools, 26 colleges, located in 23 states on 63 reservations, which have ative student populations of approximately, 70,000 representing 238 tribes. ( p. 3) Many Indian education programs have been designed and implemented to assure success of ative American students in all varieties of educational institutions. The Johnson O Malley (JOM) program, funded and instituted in the 1970 s, continues to provide federal funds for in school, direct student services. An example of a JOM funded service is the recognition and continuation of high school home school coordinators, that are also ative, being placed in school districts with high ative student enrollment. Additional positive programs include the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction pre-college programs (Burmaster, 2002) for minority students, which began in the early 1990 s, along with the Wisconsin Educational Opportunities Program, American Indian Science and Engineering Society and the programs and ative university personnel who work with students for recruitment and retention purposes. Wright (1986) and many other researchers indicate that ative groups are consistently among the least successful of any racial or ethnic group in America. A 1991 Indian ations at Risk Study indicated that dropout rates for ative American students were just below 50% (cited in Cleary and Peacock, 1998 p. 83). Many reports suggest 9 even higher rates. Cleary and Peacock (1998) also suggest that along with our nation s highest dropout group with the lowest attendance rates, lower levels of school achievement also exist. At Hayward High School, in northern Wisconsin during the academic year, the student body was made up of 19.2% ative American students, and 79.7% white. The American Indian/Alaska ative population of Hayward High consisted of 114 students, 39 of whom were considered habitually truant, or %. At the Lakeland High school this same year, there were 906 students of all races, 68 ative, of whom were habitually truant for a 7.506% truancy rate (retrieved on July 2, 2003 from Irregular attendance appears to be supported by these statistics. In spite of this dismal data Wisconsin s Department of Public Instruction along with the state legislature has begun mandating the education of all Wisconsin teachers and students via training and technical assistance to reflect: 1989 Wisconsin Act 31 established a program within the Department of Public Instruction which is charged with aiding school districts in their development of appropriate resources and instruction. Related issues of performance of Indian students in the public school also come within the purview of this program. Recent national studies (i.e. the 1991 Indian ations at Risk and the 1992 White House Conference on Indian Education) point to significant deficiencies and trends in the education of American Indian Students, many of which are mirrored here in Wisconsin. Through involvement with home-school coordinators, state, tribal, and 10 regional level associations and boards, the American Indian Studies Program staff provides information, training, and technical assistance to local school districts (retrieved on July 2, 2003 from ). The U.S. Department of Education s Indian ations at Risk Task Force (1982) postulated that all contacts a ative child develops needs to be within a trusting relationship, large schools need restructuring so teachers and students develop a caring rapport and educate holistically the entire child, in order to prevent and reduce ative student dropout statistics. Additionally, the local educational agencies need to inform school staff on what works in ative education, i.e. smaller schools, students being involved in decision making and the need for more ative teachers to provide role modeling and culturally sensitive knowledge to ensure retention of ative students through graduation. Of equal importance, Lieberman, (1986), indicates, there is probably little the schools per se can do to alter the socioeconomic system, reduce unemployment.there remains a great deal teachers can do to empower the young to reflect critically on what happens to them and around them, to identify what is possible for them and move to make it real. It may even be that those of us who can awaken the young to go beyond in their sense-making and their risk-taking may make some contribution to the transformation of their worlds. (P. 22). A joint collaboration effort of the Department of Public Instruction, University of Wisconsin System, and the University of Wisconsin-Extension published a pre-college program directory describing opportunities for Wisconsin youth. Programs are inclusive 11 of many academic and nonacademic areas, which can extensively involve middle and secondary minority students access, education, and information to understand the high school-to-college transition. Parents, students and local education districts are involved with assisting students participation in these pre-
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