PAKISTAN STUDIES ASSIGNMENT SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN PAKISTAN SUBMITTED TO: Ma’am Aabida SUBMITTED BY: Areeba Majeed (593-FET/BSEE/F-07) Faryal Saleem (597-FET/BSEE/F07) INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY,ISLAMABAD 1 SOCIAL PROBLEMS: DEFINITION 1: Sociological problems are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. Social issues include poverty, violence, pollution, injustice, suppre
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  PAKISTAN STUDIESASSIGNMENTSOCIAL PROBLEMS IN PAKISTANSUBMITTED TO: Ma’am Aabida SUBMITTED BY: Areeba Majeed (593-FET/BSEE/F-07)Faryal Saleem (597-FET/BSEE/F07) INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY,ISLAMABAD1  SOCI AL PROBLEMS:DEFINITION 1: Sociological problems are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a societyand are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both.Social issues include poverty, violence, pollution, injustice, suppression of human rights, discrimination,and crime, as well as abortion, gay marriage, gun control, and religion, to name a few.Social issues are related to the fabric of the community, including conflicts among the interests of community members, and lie beyond the control of any one individual DEFINITION 2:  Not all social conditions become elevated to the status of social problem. For example, here are some objective conditions which exist today, and as you will see, not all of them are considered to be social problems.Environmental Pollution, Resource Depletion, Limited Energy Supplies, Education, CorporateCorruption, Unemployment, Poverty, Drug Abuse, Family Decline, Nuclear War, crime,Racial/Ethnic/Sexual Discrimination, Health Care and Aging, Moral Decline etc DEFINITION 3: A social problem is a harmful social condition, according to the beliefs and values of some influential or dominant group in the society. A harmful social condition becomes a social problem when a social need persists over some time and is not provided for because there are a number of competing needs whilethe proposed budget is not sufficient to cater for all of them. Thus social problems involve social issues.Sociological approaches to social problems usually involve research to determine the causes of social problems and the effectiveness of policies or programs in attempting to solve them. Pakistan is a thirdworld country, and like any other country its inhabitants have needs which need to be fulfilled. And thethree basic are: food, shelter, and education. When these needs are not fulfilled they become social problems SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN PAKISTAN Pakistan has been defined to the world by its unstable government and it’s involvement in the Kashmir dispute with India. The government in Pakistan is unstable mainly due to its military. The military holdsmore power than it should, and the balance of power has been upset. Also, its constitution has beensuspended numerous times and is now re-established. While Pakistan’s constitution gives its peoplemany social, economic, human and civil rights, there are many problems concerning freedom of press,INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY,ISLAMABAD2  women’s rights, and minority rights. Pakistan has been receiving a large amount of financial aid fromthe U.S. but the outcomes of this help are not clear. The situation in Kashmir is also unstable because of the competing interests related to water and land. Pakistan has been diverting water with dams,removing an important resource from the people. However, the main reason the world is watchingKashmir is because both countries have nuclear weapons and many people are worried the dispute couldset off a nuclear war. KEY POINTS: 1.The Line of Control, where Pakistan’s country border meets India’s in Kashmir, is muchdisputed, and has caused no end of suffering to the people of the region. India has begundamming rivers on their side of the Line of Control, removing the fundamental resource of water from the people in the sections of the region.2.Religion is playing a bigger role in the Kashmiri debate, whereas it used to be an ideologicalone.3.46% of the work force have one year of education or less.4.Pakistan received over 3 billion dollars in aid last year alone.5.The government is not the most stable, due to the power held by the military and the dissentthat creates.6.Pakistan has an estimate of 60 nuclear weapons in response to India's nuclear threat.However, there is a high risk that these nuclear weapons might fall into the hands of terroristin a coup. If these nuclear weapons fall into their hands, they will bombard India starting anuclear war. Pakistan is a nuclear nation, that is to say, they have nuclear weapons, but do no promote their use.7.Pakistan's constitution grants them many social, economic, human and civil rights but theystill face issues with freedom of press, women's rights, and minority rights. INSTABILITY AND CORRUPTION: There is much corruption in the Pakistani government, causing it to rank 139 th out of 180 countries inthe transparency international’s index. Corruption has impacted Pakistan’s politics because it hascreated further instability. Several parties and heads of state have been ousted due to charges of corruption. This causes the groups in power to change rapidly creating instability to a country withmany other areas of instability. Though a presidential term in Pakistan is five or ten years, only two outof eleven presidents have served a term of either of these lengths. Looking more closely, of these threeonly one was elected and served the full five year term. Similarly, instability is created when time andtime again the Pakistani Military has used its power to influence or ignore the decisions of thegovernment. Civil- military relations have never been at a comfortable balance in Pakistan. (BBC)INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY,ISLAMABAD3   LACK OF ADEQUATE GOVERNANCE: By the end of the 1990s, the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country'ssocial and economic resources for development emerged as Pakistan's foremost developmental problem.Corruption and political instabilities such as various separatist movements in Baluchistan andWaziristan resulted in reduction of business confidence, deterioration of economic growth, reduced public expenditure, poor delivery of public services, and undermining of the rule of law. The perceivedsecurity threat on the border with India has dominated Pakistan's culture and has led to the dominationof military in politics, excessive spending on defense at the expense of social sectors, and the erosion of law and order.Pakistan has been run by military dictatorships for large periods of time, alternating with limiteddemocracy. These rapid changes in governments led to rapid policy changes and reversals and thereduction of transparency and accountability in government. The onset of military regimes hascontributed to non-transparency in resource allocation. In particular, the neglect by the Pakistani state of the Baluchistan and North Western Frontier Provinces has rendered the region poverty-stricken. Thosewho do not constitute the political elite are unable to make political leaders and the Governmentresponsive to their needs or accountable to promises. Development priorities are determined not by potential beneficiaries but by the bureaucracy and a political elite which may or may not be in touchwith the needs of the citizens. Political instability and macroeconomic imbalances have been reflected in poor creditworthiness ratings, even compared to other countries of similar income levels, with resultingcapital flight and lower foreign direct investment inflows. The current government of Pakistan has professed commitments to reforms in this area.In addition, Pakistan's major cities and urban centers are home to an estimated 1.2 million streetchildren. This includes beggars and scavengers who are often very young. The law and order problemworsens their condition as boys and girls are fair game to others who would force them into stealing,scavenging and smuggling to survive. A large proportion consumes readily available solvents to starveoff hunger, loneliness and fear. Children are vulnerable to contracting STD's such as HIV/AIDS, as wellas other diseases THE STATE OF SECURITY IN PAKISTAN: Pakistan’s security is not only vital to the stability of the region but also of crucial importance to U.S.interests in South Asia. A stable, democratic, and financially thriving Pakistan will deter terrorists andcurtail religious fanaticism. It will also provide the basis for a productive collaboration with India andthe infrastructure for meaningful developments in this part of the world. Unfortunately, the securitysituation in Pakistan is anything but optimal. Multiple internal and external threats risk destabilization of INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY,ISLAMABAD4
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