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  Mini Hydropower Development Questions (Answer all 3 questions) Q1. Sketch the general layout of a Mini Hydropower project scheme, and explain the functions of each element. Weir  –   The weir is the most important component of mini hydro power plant. Its location will  be selected as the head of the flow is sufficient to get the optimum possible potential energy from water. Headrace Channel  –   Water diverts to the desilting tank. Fore bay tank  –   Velocity of the water will be reduce to the optimum value which help to settle silts. Before entering to the desilting tank there is a screen for screening large particle which may damage turbine blades. Desilting Tank  –   Small particles which can be settle will be settle at the desilting tank. Penstock  –   Water caries from desilting tank to power house with a pressure. Powerhouse  –   Accommodate the turbine and generator which produces the electricity. Q2. a) What is the use of flow duration curve (FDC) for a given weir site? The flow duration curve is used to predict the distribution of future flows for hydro power, water-supply, and pollution studies.  b) Explain how to calculate average annual energy generation from above (a). From FDC, optimum design flow shall be find out. Then area covered by the FDC below Q d can be calculated in each time interval. Summation of all energy in each time duration is taken as average annual energy generarion. E1 = 0.8 x H net  x Q d x (Time % of Q d  occurs) x 8760 kWh E2= 0.8 x H net  x Q 1 x (Time % of Q 2  occurs) x 8760 kWh River/ Canal Weir Headrace canal Fore bay Tank & Desilting Tank Penstock Power house  . c) What is the equation used to calculate plant capacity. (Give units of each items) C (W) = η overall  x 9.81 (m/s 2 ) x H ne t (m) x Q d  (m 3 /s) x ρ w (kg/m 3 ) η overall = η turbine   x η generator    x η transformer   d) Briefly discuss the types of hydro turbines used in MHP development. Francis Turbine is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts Spiral casing, Guide or stay vanes, Runner blades and Draft tube are main components of a Francis turbine. Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine.  Kaplan Turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable blades. They are mostly used in the lowest head hydro sites and are especially suited for high flow conditions. Q3. What are the commonly used financial indices in hydropower planning process?    Benefit-Cost Analysis    Financial Internal Rate of Return(FIRR)     Net Present Worth(NPV)
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