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         Exercise 5.2 Many were concerned about the operations of the infamous BCCI, the international banking institution. If the Government had desired to probe into the details, would this investigation have called for: 1. A causal or correlational study? Why? 2. An exploratory, descriptive, or hypothesis-testing study or case analysis? Why? 3. A field study, lab experiment, or field experiment? Why? 4. A cross-sectional or longitudinal study? Why? 1. This would have been a correlational study since the details desired are to be probed into without trying to establish cause and effect relationships. 2. It would be a descriptive study describing the operations of BCCI. 3. This would be a field study since data will be collected in the natural environment. 4. This will be a cross-sectional study since the data will be collected at only one point in time. Exercise 5.3 You want to examine how exposure to thin or heavy models in advertisements influences a person’s self  -esteem. You believe that the effect of exposure to models in advertisements depends on the extremity of the model's thinness or heaviness. Discuss the design decisions that you as a researcher will make to investigate this issue, giving reasons for your choices. An experimental study (causal study) will be needed since the goal of the study is to test a cause-and-effect relationship.  A  pretest   will help you to select advertisements containing female models for the following four conditions: moderately thin, extremely thin, moderately heavy, and extremely heavy; -   participants view an advertisement booklet containing ads with female models. -   participants rate each model in terms of size (-5 =extremely overweight, +5 = extremely thin) and attractiveness (-5 = extremely unattractive, + 5 = extremely attractive). Based on these scores, you will be able to select advertising models in each condition. Note that models should differ from each other in terms of size but not in terms of attractiveness (you have to perform post hoc comparisons to test for this). In the actual experiment, participants must be randomly assigned to one of the four conditions of the 2 (model size: thin vs. heavy) and (extremity of model size: moderate vs. extreme) between-subjects design. Participants are then provided with a booklet containing ads: ads with models, pertaining to their condition, and filler ads with no models (randomize the order of the ads). Eventually (after one or more filler tasks) participants complete a self-esteem scale such as for instance the Appearance Self-Esteem Scale (Heatherton and Polivy 1991). Exercise 5.5 War on Cancer Dr. Larry Norton of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center predicts that cancer treatment will undergo major changes. Several drugs are being developed to battle cancer without harming healthy tissues. It is a question of discovering which of these drugs does the job best. Design a study that would help find which drug would do the trick. An experimental study (causal study) of the Solomon Four-Group design will be needed. A count of the healthy tissues in cancer patients at more or less the same stage of cancer progress will first be taken, with about 20 patients in each group. Each group, but the control group, will be treated with the different new drugs. The cancer cell count will be taken both before and after treatment for a period of time (say, 3 to 6 months) to see which has the most beneficial effect. Thus it would be a longitudinal study with some manipulation (drug variation) and control (matched or randomized groups). The unit of analysis will be groups. 7. Below are three scenarios. For each, indicate how the researcher should proceed with
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