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'A tour of the other world'. A contribution to the textual and literary criticism of the'Six books Apocalypse of the Virgin'

'A tour of the other world'. A contribution to the textual and literary criticism of the'Six books Apocalypse of the Virgin'
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             –    ‘A tour of the other world’ A contribution to the textual and literary criticism of the ‘Six Books Apocalypse of the Virgin’ ∗        !"#$ %&"'(   ')' *" +  # ,'-- # - - .&- #  /0$1      –         -+ 2 %!&#0 –  -+ 2 %#   –  22!-3"'-   Resumen : En este trabajo ofrecemos la edición y traducción del ‘Apocalipsis de los Seis Libros de la Virgen’ contenido en el Vat. ar. 698 (s. XIV), completados con su análisis textual y literario y comparados con el ms. Bonn or. 29 y las versiones siriacas, griega y etiópica de la obra. Nuestro propósito es ofrecer, a la luz de esta traducción árabe, nuevos datos que contribuyan a un conocimiento más profundo tanto de la tradición textual como del rico catálogo de los topoi  de esta obra apócrifa. Abstract : In this article we give the edition and the translation of the ‘Six Books Apocalypse of the Virgin’ contained in MS Vat. Ar. 698 (14th c.). Both the edition and the translation have been completed with a textual and literary criticism in comparison with MS Bonn or. 29, and with Syriac, Greek and Ethiopic versions as well. Our aim is to provide more information for contributing to a deeper knowdledge of both the textual tradition and the rich catalogue of the topoi  in this apocryphal work in light of this Arabic translation. Palabras Clave : Apócrifos. Nuevo Testamento. Apocalipsis de la Virgen. Crítica textual. Crítica literaria. Key Words : Apocrypha. New Testament. Virgin’s Apocalypse. Textual criticism. Literary criticism.      ∗  For J.P. M ONFERRER -S ALA , this is a study realized in the framework of the Research Project HUM2007-64961: “Study and edition of Biblical and Patristic Greco-Arabic and Latin manuscripts”, subsidized by the General Direction of the Ministry of Science and Innovation.  4!!" 5+" 6 7" 8# 92  Introduction The body of literature that is known as the ‘Apocalypses of Mary’ demonstrates a considerable degree of variety and dissemination. As R. Bauckham, in a brief, quite recent brief study of this literature, has rightly observed: “they are above the most neglected apocalypses” in spite of their influence and popularity. 1  The texts that circulate in Late Antiquity and in Middle Ages under the name of the Virgin Mary describe primarily a tour of the Virgin Mary through the hell and occasionally through heaven and paradise. At times they also include a visit to God’s throne. Their popularity is closely connected to the role and growing importance of Mary in Late Antiquity and for Eastern Christianity. It is characteristic that while Mary is shown the punishments of hell, she then intercedes for the sinners and pleads her son for mercy. The intermediary, compassionate role of the Virgin Mary is accentuated in these writings. As it will be shown below these apocalypses might belong to one the earliest textual pieces of evidence of this popular portrayal of Mary. As it is well known, Apocalypses of Mary circulated in several languages. R. Bauckham distinguishes four types, which belong roughly to different linguistic families. The first type refers to the Greek apocalypse of Mary, which focuses on the description of hell and which has been hugely popular and influential in Byzantium since the early Middle Ages. The second type is the Ethiopic apocalypse, which survives only in Ethiopic and deals more or less with the same themes. The third one is dubbed the Obsequies  apocalypse and is related to the Transitus Mariae  literature, while the fourth one belongs also to the Transitus  Mariae  literary corpus and it is known as the ‘Six Books Apocalypse’, because it was included in the last part of the five or six books of a Transitus Mariae  text, called usually the ‘Six Books Apocryphon’. This last category is the focus of the present article. Although it is important to analyse this text in the context of the apocalyptic literature of a similar eschatological focus, 2  it should be kept in mind that these 1  R.   B AUCKHAM , “The Four Apocalypses of the Virgin Mary”, in I DEM , The Fate of the Dead: Studies on Jewish and Christian Apocalypses , « Supplements to Novum Testamentum» 93 (Leiden: Brill 1998), p. 332. 2  See on some interesting considerations of this genre in early Christian apocrypha, F. Crawford B URKITT ,  Jewish and Christian Apocalypses , «The Schweich Lectures» (London: Oxford University Press, 1914), pp. 44-50.  , " 2 : : ;#$ <  texts are included in Transitus Mariae  texts, even if they have almost the form of an appendix. As such, they have received little scholarly attention. Consequently, the literary context of this apocalypse refers to a textual tradition that concentrates on the events around the dormition and the assumption of the Virgin Mary. 3  The Six Books are transmitted in Syriac, Arabic and Ethiopic. It is called the ‘Six Books’, because of the division of the narrative in six books, although in some version we have a division in five books (see below). The fifth book contains the beginning of the apocalypse of Mary, which narrates the visit to Paradise, while the sixth book brings the apocalypse into conclusion with the description of the visit to the hell. This division into six books is considered to be very early, and it can be practically found in all the manuscripts, and certainly in all those manuscripts, which contain the complete text. Alternatively, the text is also known as ‘Pseudo-James’, due to its pseudepigraphical attribution to James, the bishop of Jerusalem. 4  The Six Books are known mainly from two different editions by A. Smith Lewis and by W.Wright, which are respectively based on two different manuscripts. 5  Smith Lewis’s text preserves the longer version, which describes a more extensive cosmic tour. The Syriac text that we have in its present form has influenced the Arabic and the Ethiopic versions. The Syriac, which is the earliest version, does not present, however, the immediate Vorlage  for the Arabic and the Ethiopic translation. The various linguistic and textual variants demonstrate that there have been different versions circulating in antiquity, which attest to a lasting popularity of the text. Furthermore, the various versions of the Six Books narrative may indicate that they do not derive from a certain ‘ Urtext  ’. St. Shoemaker, even 3  On a survey of history and texts of the  Dormitio  and Transitus  tradition, see José María B OVER ,  La  Asunción de María. Estudio teológico histórico sobre la Asunción corporal de la Virgen a los cielos , en colaboración con José Antonio de Aldama y Francisco de P. Sola, «Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos» (Madrid: Editorial Católica, S.A., 1947), pp. 97-196 and 304-391. See also St. J. S HOEMAKER ,  Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary’s Dormition and Assumption  «Oxford Early Christian Studies» (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), esp. pp. 33ff. 4  See S. Cl. M IMOUNI ,  Dormition et assomption d Marie: histoire des traditions anciennes  (Paris: Beauchesne, 1994), p. 93. 5  See Anton B AUMSTARK , Geschichte der syrischen Literatur mit Ausschluß der christlich- palästinensischen Texte  (Bonn: A. Marcus und E. Webers, 1922, reed. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1968), pp. 98-99.  4!!" 5+" 6 7" 8# 92 = suggests that: “it would seem more likely that we are dealing with a relatively free tradition that had not crystallized yet into one particular form or another.” 6  Apart from the Syriac manuscripts that are published by Wright and Smith Lewis, there exist also numerous fragments, 7  some of which have been used by A. Smith Lewis for the reconstruction of the longer and more complete Syriac version. 8  Characteristically, the earliest manuscript evidence was found in an Arabic palimpsest from the 9 th  or 10 th  century. The Syriac manuscript is dated on palaeographic grounds to the 5 th  century approximately. 9  It is characteristic that this Syriac manuscript contains as well the Protevangelium Jacobi and the  Infancy Gospel of Thomas . The inclusion of the Protevangelium Jacobi , which is also pseudepigraphically attributed to James is conclusive for the development of a scriptural tradition dedicated to the life-cycle of the Virgin Mary. The preface to the Six Books narrates the legendary discovery of the book. According to this story, the book was discovered in Ephesus, in the house of St. John, who handed it over with certain instructions to a group of pious men, who went there, looking for it. Most scholars admit certain veracity in some of the details that are imparted in the preface. According to the preface, James, bishop of Jerusalem, wrote with his own hands in this volume that in the year 345 of the era of the Seleucides (that is 33 or 34 CE), our Holy Mother departed from this world. Even if the attribution to James reflects pseudepigraphical topoi that are employed in order to convey apostolic authority and ancient authenticity to the writing, the Jerusalemite srcin may contain some grain of truth. 6  St. S HOEMAKER ,  Ancient traditions , p. 54. 7  Cf. Ignatius Aphram I B ARSOUM , The Scattered Pearls: A History of Syriac Literature and Sciences , translated and edited by Matti Moosa, with a Foreword by Cyril Aphrem Karim (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2003, 2nd rev. ed.), pp. 51-52. 8  For a comprehensive list of the manuscripts see S. Cl. M IMOUNI ,  Dormition et assumption , p. 91, note 64. 9  M IMOUNI  maintains that the oldest manuscript is preserved in the British Library in London and it is dated to the second half of the sixth century (  Dormition et assumption , p. 91f.), while S HOEMAKER  thinks that: “Age of manuscripts secures a date of the early fifth century at the absolute latest, but a number of features identify a likely srcin by the second half of the fourth century if not even earlier” (  Ancient Traditions , p. 4). R. B AUCKHAM  thinks that the apocalypse “in its present form probably dates from the fifth century” (“The Four Apocalypses of the Virgin Mary”, in I DEM , The Fate of The Dead  , p. 347).  , " 2 : : ;#$ <  The preface reveals further that the book was translated from Greek into Syriac in Ephesus. The existence of a Greek srcinal, which is today lost, is accepted by most scholars. St. Shoemaker even declares that: “The explicit identification of a Greek source for these traditions more or less obviates the question of their srcinal language.” 10 . However, the preface adds that the text was extant in the three main languages of the Roman Empire in general and of Christianity in particular, namely Hebrew, Latin and Greek. This motif stresses the importance and popularity of the writing, even if its historicity is questionable. However, it complicates the issue of the actual srcinal language of the text. Regarding the textual history of early Christian literature in general, Hebrew and Latin can be easily ruled out as potential candidates. St. Shoemaker observes, though, quite rightly, that a translation into Syriac would have made more sense from a Hebrew srcinal than from a Greek text. Accordingly, he maintains that: “the privileging of Greek as the source from which one would translate if given a choice also says something about the linguistic milieu in which these traditions first came to light.” 11 . To this day, however, a comprehensive philological study of the Six Books, which could have shed more light on the actual linguistic background of the Syriac text, is lacking. Accordingly, Syriac as the srcinal language of the composition remains an option, even if not the most probable one. It should be noted, that while there are several writings in Syriac literature regarding the end of the world, afterlife and the Last Judgment, srcinal heavenly tours are quite rare. 12  We find, however, numerous Syriac translations of 10    Ancient Traditions , p. 54. On these grounds, St. S HOEMAKER  argues, further, that “since these traditions are extant in the 5th cent. Syriac translations that were made from an earlier Greek version, we can be relatively safe in identifying the terminus ante quem  in the early 5th cent.” (  Ancient Traditions , p. 57). 11  Ancient Traditions, p. 55 and further: “the transmission of these traditions in different versions and languages presents a substantial number of variants that are best explained by a Greek srcinal lying behind the various extant versions”.   12  See I. O RTIZ DE U RBINA , “Le paradis eschatologique d’après saint Ephrem”, OCP  21 (1955), pp. 467-472; G. W IDEGREN , “The Fate of the Soul after Death”, Orientalia Suecana  9 (1960), pp. 102-106; P. F EGHALI , “La descente aux enfers dans la tradition syriaque”, ParOr   XV (1988-89), pp. 127-141; J. T EIXIDOR , “Muerte, Cielo y Seol en San Efrén”, OCP  27 (1961), pp. 82-114.
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