Education

Fall of communism in Eastern Europe

Description
1. The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe 2. The West: Post World War I The Roaring ’20s 1. Economic Boom led by the U.S. creates _________________. (Kellogg-Briand…
Categories
Published
of 59
17
Categories
Published
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Transcript
  • 1. The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe
  • 2. The West: Post World War I The Roaring ’20s 1. Economic Boom led by the U.S. creates _________________. (Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928) 2. Rise of ____________– radios, automobiles, appliances, advertisements 3. Women lost place in labor force, gained suffrage in Britain, Germany, and the U.S. consumerism stability and peace
  • 3. The Great Depression 1. Proved that economic achievements were not stable 2. Effects:______________________ ____________________________ 3. Dealing with Depression: - U.S. – New Deal, increased power of the federal government - Rise in socialism and communism - Rise of fascism and totalitarianism The Great Depression 1. Proved that economic achievements were not stable 2. Effects:______________________ ____________________________ 3. Dealing with Depression: - U.S. – New Deal, increased power of the federal government - Rise in socialism and communism - Rise of fascism and totalitarianism Economic problems led to _________________World War II High unemployment, inflation, raised national tariffs
  • 4. Democratic Political Systems: The Spread of Liberal Democracy 1. Many nations develop Parliamentary governments (West Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Greece) Democratic Political Systems: The Spread of Liberal Democracy 1. Many nations develop Parliamentary governments (West Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Greece) Post WWII: Cold War Era
  • 5. KOREAN WAR 1950 - 1953 A) Communist North Korea crossed the ________________ and invades democratic South Korea. B) North Korea is driven back by UN peacekeeping forces led by the U.S. C) In 1953, UN forces and North Korea sign a cease-fire agreement 38th Parallel
  • 6. STALIN DIES IN 1953
  • 7. Changes After the Death of Stalin A) ______________________ comes to power. Nikita Khrushchev B) Begins ______________________ - purging the country of Stalin’s memory - Publically denounces Stalin for jailing and killing loyal Soviet citizens - monuments are destroyed. His body is reburied outside the Kremlin Wall De-Stalinization Calls for “peaceful competition” with capitalist states
  • 8. The Cold War World!The Cold War World! Eastern European Nations began to push for more freedoms! Eastern European Nations began to push for more freedoms! Modification of Nation- State Rivalry: 1. NATO and Warsaw Pact: Alliance systems of democratic West and communist East. Modification of Nation- State Rivalry: 1. NATO and Warsaw Pact: Alliance systems of democratic West and communist East.
  • 9. I. Hungary – October 1956 • ____________ formed a new government which promised free elections and demanded Soviet troops leave Hungary. • Hungarian army joined with protesters to overthrow the Soviet-controlled gov’t. Imre Nagy
  • 10. 11 USSR Crushes Rebellions • Soviet _______ rolled into Hungary and killed 30,000 Hungarians. • Soviets replaced the Hungarian government with Soviet leaders. • Imre Nagy was ______________. • US and UN did nothing to help. tanks executed
  • 11. 12 USSR Crushes Rebellion
  • 12. II. Cold War Tension A. 1960 – The ____________________ • Khrushchev cancels summit meeting with Kennedy when a US air force plane is captured in the USSR U-2 Incident C. 1962 - __________________________________ “We’re eyeball to eyeball and I think the other fellow just blinked.” • President Kennedy warns the Soviets to remove missiles from Cuba. • After a tense week, the Soviets pulled missiles out. B. 1961 - ____________________ erected to prevent the flow of East Germans into West Berlin. Cuban Missile Crisis Berlin Wall
  • 13. East German border guard Conrad Schumann jumping over the Berlin Wall on August 15, 1961 East German border guard Conrad Schumann jumping over the Berlin Wall on August 15, 1961
  • 14. D. 1964 – Khrushchev voted out, _________________ in!Leonid Brezhnev E. The United States, under President Johnson, increases its presence in South Vietnam, accusing the Soviets of supporting the communist North.
  • 15. • In 1968, Prague Spring - Czech communist leader, Alexander Dubcek introduced reforms into the country – Socialism with a human face • Including freedom of speech and press; freedom to travel aboard. • Promised a gradual movement toward democracy • Soviets invaded, crushed the reforms and replaced Dubcek. III. Prague Spring - Czechoslovakia – 1968
  • 16. Prague Spring Revolt
  • 17. • Unemployment insurance • National healthcare • Family housing • Educational scholarships and grants. • Nationalism of some industries • Unemployment insurance • National healthcare • Family housing • Educational scholarships and grants. • Nationalism of some industries Increased Government involvement in economic planning Increased Government involvement in economic planning Belief: Government must provide more to create a stable middle class and prevent mass uprisings.
  • 18. The Welfare State: _______________________________________________________ The Welfare State: _______________________________________________________Goal was to limit social and economic
  • 19. Planning offices developed (except U.S.) led by technocrats Provided aid for citizens at many income levels – reduction of political protest until the 1960s Government played a large role and spawned bureaucrats whose existence depended on the growing state structure that runs welfare U.S.: Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society – created programs for social welfare. Medical care, unemployment insurance, public housing, family assistance. Planning offices developed (except U.S.) led by technocrats Provided aid for citizens at many income levels – reduction of political protest until the 1960s Government played a large role and spawned bureaucrats whose existence depended on the growing state structure that runs welfare U.S.: Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society – created programs for social welfare. Medical care, unemployment insurance, public housing, family assistance. The War on Poverty Deputy Prime Minister of France, Jules Moch Deputy Prime Minister of France, Jules Moch
  • 20. The Affluent Society The Common market and welfare state helped economic recovery after WWII. Increase in agricultural and industrial output results in the need for less workers. The Common market and welfare state helped economic recovery after WWII. Increase in agricultural and industrial output results in the need for less workers.
  • 21. -Rise in ______________________________________ -Rise in middle class and consumerism created the “______________” – shopping malls and supermarkets -Rise in leisure activities increased (sports, vacations, hobbies), advertising and investing -Rise in immigrant workers – did NOT immediately share in general affluence. -Rise in ______________________________________ -Rise in middle class and consumerism created the “______________” – shopping malls and supermarkets -Rise in leisure activities increased (sports, vacations, hobbies), advertising and investing -Rise in immigrant workers – did NOT immediately share in general affluence. service industries and state bureaucracies Affluent Society The Affluent Society The Whitgift Centre, pictured in 1969 shortly after it opened.
  • 22. President Nixon helps lessen Cold War tensions - First President to visit Soviet Union and Communist China - Nixon and Brezhnev have a series of meetings called the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Détente, Tension and Economic Strain
  • 23. 1. June 1979 – President Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II agreement 2. The Soviets invaded _____________________ that year – the U.S. refused to ratify SALT II and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. Afghanistan Due to the oil crisis of 1973, the U.S. and U.K. suffered a series of recessions and low economic growth.
  • 24. Economic Problems
  • 25. Communist Economy A. Command Economy – Means of production are controlled by the __________________ Very inefficient system, focus on heavy industry NOT _________________________ B. Successful in producing weapons and space technology C. Failure of collectivized agriculture led to shortages, poverty, and corruption D. Soviet products were inferior, Workers more concerned about quantity (quotas) than qu Workers had little incentive to work hard. (No raises, promotions, rewards) . Command Economy – Means of production are controlled by the __________________ Very inefficient system, focus on heavy industry NOT __________________________ . Successful in producing weapons and space technology . Failure of collectivized agriculture led to shortages, poverty, and corruption . Soviet products were inferior, Workers more concerned about quantity (quotas) than qu Workers had little incentive to work hard. (No raises, promotions, rewards) government consumer goods Led to economic stagnation: A lack of economic growth starting in 1970s.
  • 26. -Led by ___________________ __________________________ -Reduced the impact of the welfare state due to oil crisis and recession during the 1970s. -Returned many public programs back to the private sector, dismantled big government, lowered taxes. -Did not end all social programs. -Led by ___________________ __________________________ -Reduced the impact of the welfare state due to oil crisis and recession during the 1970s. -Returned many public programs back to the private sector, dismantled big government, lowered taxes. -Did not end all social programs. And Ronald Reagan Clip Economic Recovery of the West: Conservative Movement Margaret Thatcher Belief: Government is too big, spends and taxes too much, and has violated people’s individual rights.
  • 27. The Gorbachev Years (1985-1991) After the death of Brezhnev in 1982, followed by the deaths of the next two General Secretaries, Mikhail Gorbachev would become the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985. First goal – Strengthen Economy:
  • 28. Gorbachev
  • 29. •Began rapid technological modernization •Tried to make Soviet Bureaucracy more efficient and responsive •Created incentives to increase worker productivity The Gorbachev Revolution
  • 30. 1.________________ (Openness) – Gorbachev gave freedom of expression and information, freedom of the press, right to criticize the government Glasnost Major Reforms
  • 31. 2. _________________ (Restructuring) – Reforms to democratize Soviet political system by allowing multi-candidate elections, secret ballots, and limited free market capitalism, more supply and demand, consumer goods. 3. Arms Talks – agreed with United States to destroy all intermediate range Nuclear Missiles – Major thaw in Cold War tension 4. Withdrew Soviet troops from ________________ after 9 years of war and occupation. Perestroika Afghanistan
  • 32. Freedom of Eastern Europe: The Crumbling of the Soviet Bloc What impact will Gorbachev’s reforms have on the Eastern European nations? Why? What impact will Gorbachev’s reforms have on the Eastern European nations? Why?
  • 33. Solidarity in Poland
  • 34. 2. __________________ - 1989 allowed free elections – gov’t renounces communist partyHungary 1. Poland – Government allows more freedom and free elections: 1989 – Trade Union ________________ under Lech Walesa wins majority.Solidarity
  • 35. President Ronald Reagan
  • 36. 3. East Germany – 1989 – East German Communist Politburo resigns. Travel restrictions are lifted and _________________________________. Free Elections lead to unification of Germany in 1990 Berlin Wall comes down!
  • 37. ”It is as if many have again ignored the fact that an attack on the freedom of individuals threatens the freedom of all.” - Vaclav Havel
  • 38. 4. Czechoslovakia – Politburos resign and free elections lead to collapse of Communism. _______________________________ - Peaceful democratic takeover led by Vaclav Havel who becomes new president. 5. Bulgaria – Free Elections lead to Communist leader, Todor Zhivkov, to be ousted Velvet Revolution
  • 39. 6. Romania – Violent revolution over Totalitarian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu Protests gained support of the army and secret police who sided with the people. After a quick trial, Ceausescu was tried and executed on Christmas Day, 1989. How did Gorbachev’s new reforms affect the Eastern European nations? How did Gorbachev’s new reforms affect the Eastern European nations?
  • 40. Changes with Eastern Bloc Nations: The Power of the Powerless!
  • 41. Numerous ethnic groups – languages, customs, religions. Only half of 285 million were Russian Difficult to unite into one nation without fear or force Nationalism was stronger than communism – people wanted to rule themselves NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC DIVERSITY
  • 42. WORKER MORALE Lack of motivation to produce quality goods Workers were not given enough to buy basic goods Many workers became alcoholics – crime rate increased Mortality rate, divorce rate, inflation, corruption increased Standard of living declined Workers were now allowed to criticize the government FOOD SHORTAGES Economic reforms were not enough – 1990 rationing Food was scarce and prices were too high Long lines for simple goods Riots broke out Mass poverty existed Began import of grain from US and Canada
  • 43. Glasnost Glasnost means Openness. • It allowed free flow of ideas, no censorship • Religious freedom • Public criticism of gov’t • Contested elections (secret ballots) • Release of political prisoners • Books freely printed “Socialism with a Human Face”
  • 44. PERESTROIKA Allowed the following: • Some private property • Some small business – profits • Some Free trade • Local managers more control and authority over farms and factories Film Decentralization of economic control
  • 45. McDonalds in Moscow
  • 46. •Arms Race was too costly •Conflicts were costly (Afghanistan 1979) •Total employment – no goods •National healthcare – poor coverage •Pressure from Pope John Paul II and Ronald Reagan “Evil Empire” – Star Wars plan COST OF THE WAR GLOBAL PRESSURE
  • 47. ATTEMPTED COUP - High level officials (communist hard-liners) wanted Gorbachev to resign in 1991 - He refused – the group staged a coup in Moscow by placing Gorbachev under house arrest and sent tanks into Moscow to seize control. - Boris Yeltsin called to the people to resist the coup and gained the support of the military - The Coup was foiled and the USSR soon split into 15 republics – the CIS Attempted Coup
  • 48. Attempted Coup Fails
  • 49. How did Gorbachev’s policies eventually lead to the downfall of his own leadership and the Soviet Union
  • 50. End of the Soviet Union Gorbachev was forced to resign. He was the leader of a country that no longer existed. After 74 years, the Soviet Union had collapsed. The Cold War was over. Gorbachev was forced to resign. He was the leader of a country that no longer existed. After 74 years, the Soviet Union had collapsed. The Cold War was over.
  • 51. End of the Soviet Union
  • 52. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
  • 53. 1. European Economic Community: Economic unity – reduced tariffs, free movement of labor and investments 2. 1993 – Becomes European Union (EU) 1. European Economic Community: Economic unity – reduced tariffs, free movement of labor and investments 2. 1993 – Becomes European Union (EU) Post Cold War
  • 54. Not an Easy Transition
  • 55. Not an Easy Transition
  • 56. End of Communism?
  • Search
    Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks
    SAVE OUR EARTH

    We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

    More details...

    Sign Now!

    We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

    x