Chapter 2 Job Analysis and Design
Schwind et al.
Canadian Human Resource Management,
11
th
 Edition © McGraw-Hill Education, 2016
JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
 After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Describe the uses of job analysis information for human resource managers. Discuss the various steps in conducting job analysis and methods of job data collection. Describe the contents of a job description and a job specification. Discuss the various approaches to setting performance standards. Outline the key considerations in job design.
POWERPOINT
®
 SLIDES
Canadian Human Resource Management 
 includes a complete set of Microsoft PowerPoint® files for each chapter. (Please contact your McGraw-Hill Ryerson representative to find out how instructors can receive these files.) In the lecture outline that follows, a reference to the relevant PowerPoint slide for this chapter is placed beside the corresponding lecture material. The slide number helps you to see your location in the slide show sequence and to skip slides that you don’t want to show to the class. (To jump ahead or back to a particular slide, just type the slide number and hit the Enter or Return key.)
 
Part 2 Planning Human Resources
Schwind et al., Canadian Human Resource Management, 11th Canadian Edition ©McGraw-Hill Education, 2016
 LECTURE OUTLINE (with PowerPoint
®
 slides)
Job Analysis and Design Slide 1 Learning Objectives Slide 2 Job Analysis Slide 3 Job Analysis Terminology Slide 4 HRM Activities that Rely on job Analysis Slide 5
INTRODUCTION Human resource specialists need to understand the actual characteristics that presently exist in each job
Job analysis
 is the systematic study of a job to discover its specifications and skill requirements for use in wage-setting, recruitment, training or job design purposes
Job
 is a group of related activities and duties; one or more people may do the same job at an organization
Position
is a collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual
MAJOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES THAT RELY ON JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION 1. Improve productivity
Efforts to improve employee productivity levels necessitate careful study of jobs
2. Eliminate discrimination
Elimination of unnecessary job requirements that can cause discrimination in employment
3. Creation of recruitment materials
Creation of job advertisements used to generate a pool of qualified applicants
4.Person-job matching
Matching of job applicants to job requirements
5. Planning
Planning of future human resource requirements
6. Training
Determination of employee orientation and training needs
7. Compensation
Fair and equitable compensation of employees
8. Performance standards
Identification of realistic and challenging performance standards
9. Re-design jobs
Re-design of jobs to improve performance, employee morale, or quality of work life
10.Performance appraisal
Fair and accurate appraisal of employee performance
 
Chapter 2 Job Analysis and Design
Schwind et al.
Canadian Human Resource Management,
11
th
 Edition © McGraw-Hill Education, 2016
Steps in Job Analysis Slide 6 Phase 1: Preparation Slide 7 Phase 2: Collection of Job  Analysis Information Slide 8 Phase 2: Collection of Job  Analysis Information Slide 9
STEPS IN JOB ANALYSIS PHASE 1: PREPARATION FOR JOB ANALYSIS 1. Familiarization with the Organization and Its Jobs
Before studying jobs it is important to have an awareness of an organization’s objectives, strategies, structure, inputs, and desired outcomes -- Unionized organizations require that job analysis steps meet the  provisions of the collective agreement -- May also study industry and government reports about the jobs to  be analyzed
2. Determine uses of Job Analysis Information
Job analysis plays a critical role for many HR functions -- Important to determine specific objectives, e.g., selection, training, designing performance appraisal and compensation systems
3. Identify Jobs to be Analyzed
Due to resource and time constraints need to determine jobs that are targets for  job analysis, e.g., jobs that are critical to the success of an organization, jobs that are difficult to learn
PHASE 2: COLLECTION OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION 4. Determine Sources of Job data
Human sources
-- Jobholders, supervisors, job experts, work colleagues, subordinates, customers
Non-human sources
-- Existing job descriptions and specifications, equipment design  blueprints, equipment maintenance manuals and records, training and safety manuals, organization charts and other company records, National Occupational Classification, videos,  professional journals, Internet
5. Data Collection Instrument Design
Job analysis questionnaires
-- Checklists that seek to collect information about jobs uniformly
--
They are used to uncover the duties, responsibilities, human characteristics and working conditions, and performance standards of the investigated jobs -- Various standardized forms are available for job analysis including O*NET, Fleishman Job Analysis System, Position Analysis Questionnaire, and Critical Incident Method
6. Choice of Data Collection Method There is no best way to collect job analysis information. Trade-offs between time, cost and accuracy are associated with each method
Interviews
 
Part 2 Planning Human Resources
Schwind et al., Canadian Human Resource Management, 11th Canadian Edition ©McGraw-Hill Education, 2016
Phase 3: Use of Job  Analysis Information Slide 10 Contents of a Typical Job Description Slide 11 Job Identity Slide 12 Job Summaries and Duties Slide 13 Working Conditions and  Approvals Slide 14
-- Slow and expensive, however, it allows the interviewer to explain unclear questions and probe into uncertain answers
Focus Groups
-- Allow the ideas of 5 to 7 people knowledge about the job to build off of each other during a 1 to 2 hour session
• Questionnaires
-- Allows many jobs to be studied at once, at little cost, however there is less accuracy due to incomplete responses, misunderstood questions and unreturned questionnaires -- Can be done electronically, through internal mail, or through Canada Post
Employee log
-- Can be quite accurate, however they are not a popular technique as they are time-consuming, and may be viewed as a nuisance resulting in resistance and declining accuracy over time
Observation
-- Slow, costly and potentially less accurate, however, may be necessary when language barriers exist or to confirm results of other methods
Combinations
-- Often two or more techniques are used concurrently to ensure high accuracy at minimum cost
PHASE 3: USE OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION The information collected about various jobs is put into usable forms including:
-- job descriptions -- job specifications -- job standards -- competency models
JOB DESCRIPTION A recognized list of functions, tasks, accountabilities, working conditions, and competencies for a particular occupation or job
Job identity
-- Includes job title, job location, job code, job grade, and status
Job summary and duties
-- Summary is a narrative that concisely summarizes the job -- Duties and job responsibilities are clearly stated
Working conditions
-- Description of the physical environment, hours of work, safety and health hazards, travel requirements etc.
Approvals
-- Reviewed for accuracy by selected jobholders and supervisors
JOB DESCRIPTIONS VS. SPECIFICATIONS
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