International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences
May 2014, Vol. 3, No. 3 ISSN: 2226-3624
16 www.hrmars.com
Managing Tourism as a source of Revenue and Foreign direct investment inflow in a developing Country: The Jordanian Experience
 
Timothy A. FaladeObalade, PhD
Associate Professor, College of Business Administration University of Modern Sciences, Dubai, UAE
Suchi Dubey, PhD
Assistant Professor, College of Business Administration University of Modern Sciences, Dubai, UAE DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v3-i3/901 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJAREMS/v3-i3/901
ABSTRACT:
Tourism plays a crucial role in the development and growth of all countries, especially the developing ones, creating a general positive impact on the economic and social situations for the target country. Tourism had always been recognized as a remunerative industry that
positively contributes to a country’s GDP,
Citizens quality of life and generation of employment. For example, tourism is considered a major pillar in the economy of the Country of Jordan; however, Jordan as a Nation may need to do more in order to compete globally in this lucrative sector! Tourism is the second largest industry in our world (Christine Ennew 2003). Tourism is an industry similar to other industries that generate revenue and contribute to
a country’s GDP
and balance of payments.
According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)’s 2003
statistics, tourism generates around 200 million jobs world-wide and accounts for 10% of the world global GDP. This contribution differs from one country to another depending on the volume of domestic tourism spending as opposed to international tourism spending. In a lot of cases, the volume of transactions in tourism industry equals or exceeds the volume of Transactions in other cash cow sectors such as oil and automobile sectors. Tourism has become a major part in international commerce and proves to be an important tool to diversify one
country’s sources of revenue instead of relying only on one source
 or product e.g. Crude Oil
Key words:
Tourism, industry, revenue, economic growth, competitive edge, GDP, tax revenue, FDI, foreign exchange, diversification, public sector, private sector, welfare, developing countries, balance of trade and balance of payment
 
 
 
International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences
May 2014, Vol. 3, No. 3 ISSN: 2226-3624
17 www.hrmars.com
Introduction:
The role of tourism has become recently more recognized as a potential industry that co
ntributes to a country’s revenue, e
conomic growth, balance of payments, and foreign exchange earnings. Tourism has also proven to be a growing source of revenue to the private sectors as well as a major source of income to individuals, creating various employment opportunities and contributing to their individual welfare. This has given governments enough reasons to support and promote for tourism as a source of both revenue and FDI. (Foreign direct investment) Tourism has become a major source of export earnings to many countries in the world, especially, The developing countries that do not have competitive advantage in a particular industry and do not enjoy other sources of revenue such as; Natural resources like, Oil, Gas, Gold etc..Tourism is the first or second source of export earnings in 20 of the 48 Least Developed Countries and has been generating a steady growth in at least 10 other countries. As such, tourism has become one of the main engines for stimulating economic activities in many countries in the world, especially the developing ones. This paper starts by defining the concept of tourism and discussing the determining factors that give foundation to well-diversified foreign direct investments in the tourism sector. For example, Public security & stability are important elements to begin with. Other elements are related to the availability of archaeological, religious and tourism sites that would make a country a potential place for FDI and an attractive place for international and domestic tourism. As more counties are recognizing the important role that tourism plays in generating revenue to the public, private sectors and individuals, the competition across countries for tourist spending is becoming more intense. That is why, the Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization said
, “I am pleased to see the serious analysis of the problems and prospects of
the tourism sector as presented in this third edition of
Global Tourism: The Next Decade”.
We will discuss in detail the different types of tourism including rural development tourism, medical tourism, religious tourism etc. and their respective contribution to the revenue of the public sector as represented by governments, the private sector represented by hotels and hospitality management companies and other service sectors. We will also discuss the contribution of tourism to the income and to the wellbeing of individuals who are engaged in tourism in one capacity or the other. The tourism industry started by 1960 and has grown rapidly during the last 50 years in terms of the income it generates and the number of tourists who travel domestically and internationally. Tourism has proved to be a strong source of revenue even during the economic crisis, despite the few fluctuations in tourism that have been caused by events such as terrorist threats as well as the SARS disease scare.In this paper, I analyse the importance of tourism as an opportunity
for diversifying a country’s earni
ngs, an opportunity for economic development and growth. I will also discuss how countries could promote and build a competitive advantage in tourism to attract more visitors around the World.
 
 
International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences
May 2014, Vol. 3, No. 3 ISSN: 2226-3624
18 www.hrmars.com
We later present a real life application of the importance of tourism to the Jordanian economy supported by a SWOT analysis and statistics from the Jordanian Ministry of Tourism. For example, during year 2010 the total number of arrivals into Jordan grew by almost 20% over 2009 to reach 4.6 million overnight visitors (8.2 million total arrivals including one- day only visitors). Visitors from the Americas grew by 12 per cent, Europe by 22.3 per cent, Asia-Pacific by 25.4 per cent, while Asia scored a 31.2 per cent increase during 2010 with total tourist receipts amounting to about 2.4 billion JD. (About 3.4 B. USD)
Tourism as an Industry:
Tourism is an Industry that consists of a group of firms involved in marketing of service related activities and tangible souvenirs to the end users, represented by international and domestic Consumers. Example of such services include hotel & hospitality rooms, restaurant meals, air tickets, therapy, guided tours, other recreational and medical services sold to tourists and medical tourists (patientstourists who travel for health therapy/medical reasons seeking diagnostics and hospital treatment).Tourism is an active and economically viable industry that
requires the ability to continuously adjust to customer’s
changing needs and wants, as the
customer’s satisfaction, safety, and enjoyment are the main focus of
the industry. In the 1980s, individuals questioned whether tourism was a blessing or a curse, but today, the issue is now essentially academic, given the
value of tourism as the world’s largest industry and
its role as a global employer and customer (Smith, 2001).
What Makes a Country a target of attraction for FDI in Tourism? 
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) may occur when a firm invests directly in new facilities to produce a product and/or service in a foreign country (Hill, 1994). Tourism has given many reasons to the developing countries, such as Jordan, Egypt, Israel, South Africa, Jamaica, Lebanon etc. to promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow to their territories realizing the fact that, tourism generates major revenue to such countries that may not have access to revenue through other types of industries or natural assets like oil, gas or uranium. FDI, including its facets of capital investment, transfer of technology and access to global markets, is one of the routes through which developing countries can carry out sustainable development. For example, in a study by Kyrkilis, Delis,& Pantelidis on FDI & the tourism industry it was revealed that the volume of FDI inflow to China has increased tremendously as a result of the expectation that China will be receiving 120 million tourists on annual basis by year 2020 favoring the inflow of FDI to the Tourism sector. By the end of 2020
 
 
International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences
May 2014, Vol. 3, No. 3 ISSN: 2226-3624
19 www.hrmars.com
Given the importance of FDI in tourism in stimulating the economic activities in many countries around the world, we should discuss below some the major determinants of FDI that can make a Country a potential place for attracting foreign direct investments:
 
Infrastructure:
Infrastructure plays a very important role when it comes to investing in the tourism sector in the host country because of its inherent cost implication on the investor. Infrastructure includes man-made establishments such as domestic and international airports, roads, and boarder checking points in addition to transportation facilities and constructions like power stations, dams, bridges and so on.
 
Location:
Tourism mainly depends on strategic locations. For example, investors would look at whether the host country can be easily accessed by air travel, by land or by sea so that it would attract the largest number of tourists. Geographical location also includes the climate, landscape, and terrains.
 
Natural Resources & Historical Attractions:
 The Natural attractions are God made, such as spring water, water falls, wildlife, mountains, land features and natural landscape. While the historical attractions are ancient man made that includes historical, archaeological and religious places. Many host countries are excellent in their historical background and their cultural heritage. For example, Egypt is famous for its pyramids, many tourists travel to Egypt for ancient site seeing purposes.
 
Economic Status Indicators
: The most important indicators are the employment rate and the per capita income since they are important for domestic tourism and indicate the ability of nationals to travel for leisure and the purchasing power to spend within the country.
 
Security:
In the wake of catastrophic natural disasters and rising threats of terrorism, the hotel industry has been hit hard by declining revenues and increasing competition.(Min, Jong Joo, Kim 2009). There are many factors that affect whether a country is a potential place for tourism, one of which is security. Security includes safety from natural disasters such as the recent Japan Tsunami. It also includes the social stability and political stability status of the host. For example, the total number of international tourists who travel to Syria has declined tremendously in recent years due to the political and social instability in the country.
 
National Policies
: Include the host country’s entry visa requirements and restrictions.
For example, EU and US nationals are granted entry visa upon arrival in Queen Alia International airport in Jordan, while other nationalities are restricted and are required to have an entry visa stamped on their passports prior to their traveling date. E.g. the
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