Record No. 09-2086____________________In the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit_________________
AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION; OMB WATCH;
and
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY PROJECT
,Plaintiff-Appellants,
v.ERIC HOLDER
, in his official capacity as Attorney General of the UnitedStates; and
FERNANDO GALINDO
, in his official capacity as Clerk of theCourt in the United States District Court, Eastern District of Virginia,Defendant-Appellees.______________________On Appeal from the United States District CourtFor the Eastern District of Virginia____________________
APPELLANTS’ PETITION FOR REHEARING ANDREHEARING EN BANC
 Christopher A. HansenJameel JafferBenjamin WiznerAmerican Civil Liberties Union Foundation125 Broad Street, 18
th
FLNew York, New York 10004-2400(212) 549-2500(212) 549-2651 (FAX)chansen@aclu.org jjaffer@aclu.orgbwizner@aclu.orgRebecca K. Glenberg (VSB No.44099)American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia Foundation, Inc.530 E. Main Street, Suite 310Richmond, Virginia 23219(804) 644-8080(804) 649-2733 (FAX)rglenberg@acluva.org
Counsel for Appellants
 
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TABLE OF AUTHORITIESCases
 
Columbus-Am. Discovery Grp. v. Atl. Mut. Ins. Co
.,203 F.3d 291 (4th Cir. 2000).......................................................................2
 Elrod v. Burns
,427 U.S. 347 (1976).....................................................................................6
 Rushford v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc
.,846 F.2d 249 (4th Cir. 1988).......................................................................1
Seattle Times Co. v. Rhinehart 
,467 U.S. 20 (1984)...................................................................................7, 8
Stone v. Univ. of Md. Med. Sys. Corp
.,855 F.2d 178 (4th Cir. 1988).......................................................................1
Va. Dept. of State Police v. Wash. Post 
,386 F.3d 567 (4th Cir. 2004)..............................................................passim
Vt. Agency of Natural Res. v. U.S. ex rel. Stevens
,529 U.S. 765 (2000).....................................................................................1
Statutes
 31 U.S.C. § 3730.....................................................................................1, 3, 7
Rules
 Fed. R. Civ. P. 26(c).......................................................................................7
ii
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INTRODUCTION
The federal court system is home to a secret docket of cases,inaccessible to the public and the press, in which each complaint allegesfraud upon the public fisc—and some allege ongoing fraud or risk to thepublic. Compl. at 12 (A-17). The docket consists of cases filed under theFalse Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. § 3730(b)(2), which allows qui tam cases inwhich relators who allege fraud committed against the government can, if the case is successful, receive a portion of any recovery.
Vt. Agency of  Natural Res. v. U.S. ex rel. Stevens
, 529 U.S. 765 (2000). According to thegovernment, approximately 1,000 FCA qui tam complaints are under seal,completely hidden from the public eye. Compl. at 2 (A-7).A panel of this Court upheld this secrecy regime, one judgedissenting, against a challenge under both the First Amendment and thecommon law.
 ACLU v. Holder 
, No. 09-2086 (4th Cir. Mar. 28, 2011). Untilthis decision, this Court had been in the forefront of assuring thatproceedings of the nation’s courts be open and transparent.
Va. Dept. of State Police v. Wash. Post 
, 386 F.3d 567, 575 (4th Cir. 2004) (hereinafter
Washington Post 
);
Stone v. Univ. of Md. Med. Sys. Corp
., 855 F.2d 178, 181(4th Cir. 1988);
 Rushford v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc
., 846 F.2d 249, 253(4th Cir. 1988);
Columbus-Am. Discovery Grp. v. Atl. Mut. Ins. Co
., 203
1
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