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Unit - I Introduction to Management.docx

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  PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Unit I - Introduction to Management Learning Objectives & Outcomes Topic Learning Objectives    Analyze the importance of organizations and management.    Identify the different roles of a manager at different levels of management.    Evaluate the early management approaches with modern management approaches.      Understand why managers need to be concerned with organizational & natural environment, ethics & social responsibility and globalization & management.   Topic Learning Outcomes    Define the four principal activities of the management process.    Demonstrate the different skills that managers must have and the roles they can fill.    Discuss the ways in which a management theory can be useful in organizations.    Understand the historical context in which the systems and contingency approach to management theory have been developed. Definitions of Management    “ Management is an art of getting things done through people ” . - Mary Parker Fallett    “ Management is a process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling to accomplish organizational objectives through the coordinated use of human and material skills ” .  –   Prof. Moore    “ Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups, accomplish their aims efficiently and effectively ” . - Koontz Organization Management Organization Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way. It refers to the art of getting people together on a common  platform to make them work towards a common predefined goal. It enables the optimum use of resources through meticulous planning and control, at the workplace. It also gives a sense of direction to the employees so that, they are well aware of their roles and responsibilities and know what they are supposed to do in the organization. Need for Organization Management  Organization management gives a sense of security and oneness to the employees. An effective management is required for better coordination among various departments. Employees accomplish tasks within the stipulated time frame as a result of effective organization management, stay loyal towards their job and do not treat work as a burden. Effective organization management also leads to a peaceful and positive ambience at the workplace. Study of Organizations and Management In a world where organizations are everywhere, there are three compelling reasons for studying them and the practice of management. In each case - involving the past, present, and future - the effects of people collaborating as an organization, under the guidance of managers, can be far-reaching. Living in the present:  First, organizations contribute to the present standards of living of  people worldwide. We rely on organizations daily for food, shelter, clothing, medical care, communications, amusement and employment. The Red Cross, for example, is an organization that is particularly focused on the present as it offers assistance to specific groups of people in times of need. Building the future:  Organizations build toward a desirable future and help individuals do the same. New products and practices are developed as a result of the creative power that can emerge when people work together in organizations. Organizations have an impact - positive or negative - on the future status of natural environment, on the preventive and treatment of disease, and on war around the globe. A number of organizations are addressing concerns about the future in their products and practices such as Tom‟s of Maine which produces a line of all natural personal care products with environmentally sensitive packaging. Remembering the Past: Third, organizations help connect people to their pasts. Organizations can be thought of as patterns of human relationships. Every day that we work with others adds to the history of the organization and to our own history. We often define ourselves in terms of the organizations we have been a part of - whether schools, teams,  political groups, or businesses. In addition, organizations maintain records and value their own history, keeping traditions alive in our minds.  Management as a speciality in Time 1.   Management is an attempt to create a desirable future, keeping the past and the present in mind. 2.   It is practiced in and is a reflection of a particular historical era. 3.   It is a practice that produces consequences and effects that emerge over time.  Management as a speciality in Human Relationships 1.   Mangers act in relationships that two way streets; each party is influenced by the other. 2.   They also act in relationships that have spill over effects for other people, for better and for worse. 3.   Managers juggle multiple simultaneous relationships. Some Key Concepts Managerial performance is the measure of how efficient and effective a manager is; i.e., how well he or she determines and achieves appropriate objectives. Organizational performance is the measure of how efficient and effective an organization is; i.e., how well it achieves appropriate objectives. Efficiency (resource usages)   is the ability to minimize the use of resources in achieving organizational objectives - “ doing things right ”.   Effectiveness (goal attainment)   is the ability to determine appropriate objectives - “ doing the right thing ”. The Management Process Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given  purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. The management process also refers to a series of inter-related functions. It is the process by which management creates, operates and directs purposive organization through systematic, coordinated and co-operated human efforts. As a process, management consists of three aspects: 1.   Management is a social process:  Since human factor is the most important among the other factors, management is concerned with developing relationship among people. It is the duty of management to make interaction between people, productive and useful for obtaining organizational goals. 2.   Management is an integrating process:  Management undertakes the job of bringing together human, physical and financial resources so as to achieve organizational purpose. Hence, this is an important function to bring harmony between various factors. 3.   Management is a continuous process:  It is a never ending process. It is concerned with constantly identifying the problem and solving them by taking adequate steps. This management process consists of four main management activities.  1.   Planning It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action and deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for the achievement of pre-determined goals. According to Koontz , “Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. It is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, an intellectual activity and also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, and risks.  2.   Organizing It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing  productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business  is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw materials, tools, capital and personnel ”. To organize a business , it involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:    Identification of activities.    Classification of grouping of activities.    Assignment of duties.    Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.    Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. 3.   Staffing  It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose of staffing is to put the right man on to the right. According to Koon tz & O‟Donnell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection; appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed in the struc ture”. Staffing involves:    Manpower planning.    Recruitment, selection & placement.    Training & development.    Remuneration.
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