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Report. West Point Undergraduate Historical Review. Volume 5, Issue 2 Spring PDF

Report West Point Undergraduate Historical Review Volume 5, Issue 2 Spring 2015 Report, 2 Report West Point Undergraduate Historical Review Volume 5, Issue 2; Spring 2015 Editor-In-Chief Lucas Hodge (2016)
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Report West Point Undergraduate Historical Review Volume 5, Issue 2 Spring 2015 Report, 2 Report West Point Undergraduate Historical Review Volume 5, Issue 2; Spring 2015 Editor-In-Chief Lucas Hodge (2016) International History; German Editors Erica Macswan (2016) American History Andrew Mengle (2016) American History Brittany Deslauriers (2017) International History; Russian John McCormick (2017) International History; Mathematical Science Ian Dome (2017) Military History Copyright and photocopying 2015 Department of History United States Military Academy West Point, New York 10996 Report, 3 Acknowledgments The Editorial Board would like to thank the faculty of the History Department for their submission recommendations, all the students who submitted papers, and Captain Mark Ehlers for his extensive guidance and technical support. Without their help, Report would not have been possible. About The Review Report is a non-profit publication produced by undergraduate cadets at the United States Military Academy. It accepts and encourages submissions from undergraduates in the fall and spring. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. On The Internet report%20history%20journal.aspx Disclaimer The contents of Report, including words, images, and opinions, are unofficial and not to be considered as the official views of the United States Military Academy, the United States Army, or the Department of Defense. Readers accept and agree to this disclaimer in the use of any information obtained from Report. Report, 4 Table of Contents FROM THE EDITOR Lucas Hodge, US Military Academy 5 Snatching Bodies Scott Nelson, University of North Carolina 7 The Russian Orthodox Church and the February Revolution of 1917 Stephanie Merinoff, Brandeis University 31 Jackie Kennedy and her Empire Adrienne Wood, Louisiana State University 41 For Country or for Yale? Charlotte Juergens, Yale University 49 Fidelity or Fury? A Study of East German, Hungarian, and Polish Loyalty to the Soviet Union During the Early Cold War David Shimer, Yale University 67 Report, 5 From The Editor In this edition of Report, we did our best to capture history by encompassing a broad view of history without restriction to any theme, time period, or region. This edition of Report is a direct result of that goal, with essay submissions from across the United States and the world covering a wide range of topics. In this edition, we present a variety of pieces. Our leading piece, by Scott Nelson of the University of North Carolina, examines the history of body snatching and the social implications of the development of autopsy science in early twentieth-century America. Stephanie Merinoff, a student from Brandeis University, investigates the role of the Orthodox Church in Russia s 1917 revolution. Adrienne Wood of Louisiana State University then explores Jackie Kennedy s personal empire within America. Charlotte Juergens of Yale University dives into a detailed account of Yale s involvement in the American military in World War II, and the military s impact on Yale. Finally David Shimer of Yale University dives into a detailed argument over the loyalty of the Soviet Union s satellite states in the opening decade of the Cold War. At West Point, we like to say that the history we teach was often made by those we taught. Working on the staff of Report has been a valuable component of my experience at the Academy. As a member of the Editorial Staff, and subsequently as Editor-in-Chief, I have had amazing opportunity to read papers from leading institutions across the United States and the world. Additionally, our efforts were carried out under the guidance of our faculty advisor, Captain Mark Ehlers, without whose assistance this publication would not be possible. Thanks must also go to West Point s History Department, which offers us this opportunity among so many others and supports our education and development into Army officers. I hope you enjoy our publication. Sapientia per historiam! In History, Lucas Hodge Editor-in-Chief, Report West Point, NY Report, 6 Snatching Bodies By Scott Nelson Scott Nelson is a senior studying History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and will graduate in Prior to college, Scott graduated from H.B. Plant High School in Tampa, Florida. He wrote this paper during the fall semester of 2014 in a history seminar entitled Bodies on Display: Perspectives of the Body in American Culture. Scott was inspired to research the history of body snatching because of his passion for medicine -- he plans on attending medical school after graduation. Scott would like to thank Professor John Kasson for his tireless enthusiasm and helpful guidance throughout the entire research process. On the thirteenth page of W. Reece Berryhill s book, Medical Education in Chapel Hill: The First One Hundred Years, one finds a particularly telling photograph. Its accompanying caption reads: Students working in the second dissecting hall around Located near the present site of Venable Hall, this building was abandoned after Caldwell Hall was occupied in Indeed, taken at the turn of the 20 th century, this picture shows seven aspiring medical students learning their trade. They are smartly dressed, some wearing aprons and others not. As the caption informs viewers, they are inside a dissecting hall, a space designated specifically for exploring and understanding human anatomy. The caption ignores the focal point of this photograph, however. Under the gaze of each of the seven living men is one who has long since taken his last breath. With legs bursting into the foreground and threatening to fall off the dissecting table, this figure commands attention from its audience, which sits both within and beyond the photographic frame. The longitudinal perspective of the cadaver on the dissecting table is rarely seen in photographs taken at this time. More commonly, the dissected body appears horizontally in the photographic frame with students and instructors positioned behind it. 2 The decision to photograph the cadaver from this angle allows for the observation of revealing details that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. The most important of these is that the body on the dissecting table, that which remains of it, once 1 W. Reece Berryhill, William B. Blythe, and Isaac H. Manning, Medical Education at Chapel Hill: The First Hundred Years (Chapel Hill: UNC Medical Alumni Office, 1979), John Harley Warner and James M. Edmonson, Dissection: Photographs of a Rite of Passage in American Medicine (New York: Blast Books, 2009), Report, 8 belonged to a living, breathing, black man. Although the photograph is poorly lit and the right leg of the cadaver has been so sufficiently dissected that it makes racial classification difficult, there can be no doubt that the man is of African descent: the paleness of the sole of his left foot contrasts substantially with his dark upper thigh. How then, did this black man arrive on the table in a dissecting hall of a Southern medical school? It is doubtful that he donated his body to science, a modern concept that became popular much later than Furthermore, it is unlikely that his body was obtained legally. In fact, at the time of this photograph, not one law existed in North Carolina that directed medical schools on the acquisition of bodies, black or white, for dissection. 4 Rather, it was at this time that medical schools in North Carolina, like many others across the American South, relied on more dubious means to supply their students with necessary clinical material. On one hand a horrifying desecration of the deceased, on the other a lucrative business practice supplying a scientific necessity, body snatching as a means of supplying cadavers to Southern medical schools was a practice that not only existed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries it thrived. Dissection, a Necessary Science When the medical students in the photograph described made their first incisions into the human subject that lay before them, they were not engaging in a novel or innovative mode of academic exploration. In fact, human dissection has existed since at least the third century B.C. when Greek physicians made extensive anatomical and physiological discoveries by way of the ancient surgical knife. 5 Although dissection was not widely practiced in the first thousand years A.D., its prevalence picked up again in the fifteenth century. During this time, however, dissections were not for medical purposes, but rather for artistic ones. The firsthand study of human anatomy was especially beneficial for artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, evidenced by their masterful renderings of the human form and its detailed musculature. 6 Later in the 18 th century, the practice of dissection spread from the realm of art back 3 Ann Garment, et al., Let the Dead Teach the Living: The Rise of Body Bequeathal in Twentieth-Century America, Academic Medicine, 82 (2007): Isaac Manning, History of the Medical School of the University of North Carolina (unpublished manuscript, ca. 1940), annotated typescript, Heinrich von Staden, The Discovery of the Body: Human Dissection and its Cultural Contexts in Ancient Greece, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 65 (1992): Suzanne M. Schultz, Body Snatching: The Robbing of Graves for the Education of Physicians in Early Nineteenth Century America (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1992), 1. Snatching Bodies, 9 into the medical arena, where it would cement itself as a quintessential teaching tool; in London and elsewhere in Europe, experience in dissecting was conventional practice for aspiring physicians and surgeons. 7 Yet it wasn t until the nineteenth century that dissection for educational purposes was regularly practiced in the United States. At this time, students including Thomas Eakins, whose later paintings The Gross Clinic (1875) and The Agnew Clinic (1889) accurately depict contemporary surgeries, began the intense study of human anatomy through dissection in medical schools located in Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore. 8 From the first decades of the nineteenth century onward, the practice of dissecting human cadavers became increasingly common as more medical schools were established across the United States. Human dissection was not always a mechanism for scientific enlightenment, however, and in some cases it was employed in a grisly manner. In sixteenth-century British law, for instance, public dissection was included as a means of punishment that was worse than death. 9 This penalty was transferred into New York state law following the American Revolution, for in 1792 Albany man Whiting Sweeting was sentenced to be hanged by the neck until [he was] dead, and [his] body delivered to the surgeon for dissection. 10 At this same time, the Massachusetts General Court ruled that anyone who died as a result of a duel would be sentenced to post-mortem dissection and dismemberment, a harsh punitive threat. 11 Of course, perhaps the most infamous, and chilling, use of dissection for non-medical purposes was the series of murders in the Whitechapel district of London in 1888 at the hands of the unidentified Jack the Ripper. At least three of Jack s victims were found with their abdominal organs carefully removed. 12 Such gruesome applications led some to believe that dissection was a desecration of the corpse that represented a gross 7 Helen MacDonald, Human Remains: Dissection and its Histories (London: Yale University Press, 2006), Michael Sappol, A Traffic of Dead Bodies: Anatomy and Embodied Social Identity in Nineteenth-Century America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 49; Shultz, Body Snatching, 6. 9 Ruth Richardson, Death, Dissection and the Destitute (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), The Narrative of Whiting Sweeting, Who was Executed at Albany, the 26 th of August, 1792, in Sappol, Traffic of Dead Bodies, John B. Blake, The Development of American Anatomy Acts, Journal of Medical Education 30 (1955): Detailed accounts of the Ripper s mutilated victims can be found in tens if not hundreds of works. Here I will cite Peter Ackroyd, introduction to Jack the Ripper and The East End, ed. by Alex Werner (London: Chatto & Windus, 2008), 8. Report, 10 assault upon the integrity and identity of the body. 13 Nevertheless, for the past three centuries, dissection has remained an important avenue for the mastery of human anatomy. Its continued practice today suggests that any moral shortcomings have been sufficiently outweighed by its educational value. This value is nowhere more apparent than within the confines of the formal medical school. The Medical School The first medical school in British America was established in Philadelphia in In the decades that followed, additional schools were founded in New York City and Cambridge, Massachusetts. 14 While the study of anatomy was indeed emphasized, the lack of cadavers available for dissection limited instructional experiences. At the Harvard Medical School in Cambridge, a single body was made to do duty for a whole course of lectures. 15 The shortage of clinical material in medical schools restricted class sizes and reduced students opportunities for a hands-on experience. As a result, fewer physicians than society required graduated from medical schools in the United States earliest years. Historians Robert L. Blakely and Judith M. Harrington explain the dire consequence: the dearth of anatomical training was evident in the poor treatment given to patients by physicians if [medical students] were to become more than haphazard and butchers, they needed the intimate knowledge of the human anatomy provided by direct dissection. 16 Under pressure from the public, the medical school curriculum evolved. The result was a shift to the Paris method in which students were permitted to dissect cadavers first-hand, no longer resigned to the role of audience member in an impersonal lecture 13 Richardson, Death, Dissection and the Destitute, in Edward C. Halperin, The Poor, the Black, and the Marginalized as the Source of Cadavers in United States Anatomical Education, Clinical Anatomy 20 (2007): Blake, American Anatomy Acts, Founded in 1782, the original Harvard Medical School was located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The school was moved to Boston, where it is currently located, in Quote from Boston Gazette, May 5, 1788, in Jules Calvin Ladenheim, The Doctors' Mob of 1788, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences Winter (1950): Robert L. Blakely and Judith M. Harrington, Grave Consequences: The Opportunistic Procurement of Cadavers at the Medical College of Georgia in Bones in the Basement: Postmortem Racism in Nineteenth-Century Medical Training, ed. Robert L. Blakely and Judith M. Harrington (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997), 165. Snatching Bodies, 11 hall. 17 Eventually, courses in anatomy styled in this fashion were not only preferred by medical students, they were required for their graduation. 18 Of course, an increased emphasis on individual, hands-on dissection required a greater supply of cadavers. Yet in Massachusetts, where state law included dissection after death as a possible punishment, the number of executed criminals was scarce -- only forty between 1789 and A similar dilemma existed elsewhere. As medical schools in the United States multiplied with rapidity in the 19 th century, increasing in number from five in 1810 to sixty-five in mirroring the rapid growth of the nation s population -- the number of cadavers obtained through legal means could not keep pace with the demand. 20 For many schools, this created a critical problem. One university president warned that without dissecting material, it will be necessary to close the [medical] school. 21 In an effort to avoid this outcome, snatching cadavers for dissection became a widespread occurrence. In Vermont alone, it is estimated that around 360 bodies were snatched between 1820 and By far the most effective method for procuring bodies, body snatching provided a means to an end and kept medical schools in operation. Body Snatching: the History and the Act Evidence of body snatching, 23 defined in this essay as the physical removal of bodies from their graves for the purpose of medical dissection, was recorded as early as 1763 in British America. It was in this year, according to the November 28 issue of the New York Gazette, that a body has since been taken up, and likely to become a Raw Head and Bloody Bones, by our Tribe of Dissectors, for the better instruction of our young 17 Ibid., Meghan J. Highet, Body Snatching & Grave Robbing: Bodies for Science, History and Anthropology 16 (2005): Blake, American Anatomy Acts, Linden F. Edwards, Resurrection Riots During the Heroic Age of Anatomy in America, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 25 (1951): 178; Sappol, Traffic of Dead Bodies, Edwin Anderson Alderman s Report at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, February 1899, in Manning, History of UNC Medical School, Shultz, Body Snatching, This essay will use the term body snatching, rather than grave robbing, to indicate the removal of bodies from their graves. The decision is in accordance with historian Suzanne Shultz s assertion that would-be thieves took only bodies for their purposes, leaving behind all of the personal effects that were buried with the deceased (Schultz, Body Snatching, ix). Grave robbing, as opposed to body snatching, is commonly associated with the stealing of material items within the grave, like clothes or jewelry, and was not usually practiced by body snatchers. Report, 12 Practitioners. 24 Body snatching in the Northeast United States continued throughout the end of the eighteenth century, evidenced by numerous newspaper accounts detailing public opposition to the practice. In 1788 alone, riots broke out against anatomy students and their professors in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York City due to body snatching activity. 25 Furthermore, one student at Harvard Medical School wrote that it was in 1796 when he began the business of getting subjects. 26 As the number of medical schools expanded in the first decades of the nineteenth century, so did the act of stealing corpses. Vast regional networks connecting body snatchers and medical schools developed in the Northeast and Midwest United States as well as the South and numerous newspaper reports from across the country detailed instances of body snatching in local communities. 27 In some regions, the body snatching business boomed. In a letter to a colleague in 1858, University of Virginia Medical School professor John Staige Davis wrote of the extreme inconvenience the abundant supply of cadavers was causing him; his dissecting room had become overcrowded with subjects. 28 In 1854, body snatchers were emptying at least six hundred or seven hundred graves annually in and about New York City. 29 At the dawn of the Civil War, however, body snatching came to a halt. There was no need to steal bodies from graves -- over half a million corpses were available if students had the time to dissect them. More commonly, however, students and physicians were kept busy tending to the masses of the wounded. 30 In the years following the war, body snatching resumed. In 1879, the author of a contemporary periodical suggested that at least a majority of the five thousand cadavers dissected each year in the United States were acquired 24 Claude Heaton, Body Snatching in New York City, New York State Journal of Medicine 43 (1943): in Sappol, Traffic of Dead Bodies, Sappol, Traffic of Dead Bodies, 45 and Ladenheim, Doctors Riot, Edward Warren, The Life of John Collins Warren, MD. compiled chiefly from his Autobiography and Journal (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860), James O. Breeden, Body Snatchers and Anatomy Professors: Medical Education in N
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