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R. Klingbeil, R. Nejdawi & F. Byiringiro, 2014. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development.

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Klingbeil, R., Nejdawi, R. & Byiringiro, F., 2014. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development. Presentation at the seminar “The Nexus Approach: The Road to Water, Energy and Food Security in the Arab World”, Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (IFI), American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut, Lebanon, 22 Jan 2014.
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  • 1. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development IFI - AUB Beirut, Lebanon 22 Jan 2014 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Reem Nejdawi, Chief, FEPS Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer
  • 2. UN ESCWA 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 2
  • 3. Opening Quotes “Nobody is qualified to become a statesman who is entirely ignorant of the problems of wheat.” Socrates “There are no water wars because food wars are not judged to be necessary.” J.A. Allan, 1981 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3
  • 4. Outline • Definitions: – Food security  Water security • Challenges / Opportunities – Food losses & food waste – Trade – Improving value chains • Ways Forward ? 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 4
  • 5. • Drought since at least 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internal displacements • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 5 irinnews.org, 2009. Syria’s drought-affected provinces as of Aug 2009. Syria’s Drought
  • 6. • • • • • • • • • • 23 January 2014 CCS, CAP and Stimson, 2013. Arab Spring and Climate Change. Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? Demographics Drought and water scarcity Water shortages Crop failure Natural resource mismanagement Climate change Internal displacement Rural disaffection Political unrest ... www.escwa.un.org 6
  • 7. UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water – Food – Energy The Nexus 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 7
  • 8. People, Water & Land, Food, Energy Demographics Water & Land Governance Food Energy 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8
  • 9. Food Security FAO, 2009. Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security (WSFS). Definition: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Four Pillars / Dimensions of Food Security: • Availability • Access • Utilization • Stability 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 9
  • 10. FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Food Security Indicators: Based on Four Dimensions of Food Security 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10
  • 11. UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water Security Definition: “The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socioeconomic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.” 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 11
  • 12. UN Water, 2013. What Is Water Security? Water Security 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 12
  • 13. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Food Losses and Waste 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 13
  • 14. http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa Qatar: “Massive amount of food wasted” Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA): “(...) more than half of the municipal waste generated (...) contains discarded food.” The Peninsula, 05 Jun 2013 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 14
  • 15. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 15
  • 16. Gustavsson, J., et al., 2011. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention. Food Supply Chains: Losses of Food – and Water Production Volumes per Commodity Group (million tonnes) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 16
  • 17. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Carbon Footprint, GB 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 17
  • 18. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Carbon Footprint per Category, GB 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 18
  • 19. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Water Footprint, GB X million m3 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 19
  • 20. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Water Footprint per Category, GB 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 20
  • 21. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Economic Impact along Supply Chain, ITA XXX million euro 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 21
  • 22. Inamo, 2001. 7 (27), www.inamo.de. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Water 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 22
  • 23. Agricultural Water Use e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia 1991 2000 2012 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 23
  • 24. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia (WaterWatch, 2006) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 24
  • 25. Transboundary / Shared Water Resources and Aquifers in Middle East 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 25
  • 26. Transboundary / Shared Water Resources and Aquifers in Middle East A total of 22 shared aquifer systems and 6 shared river basins were identified. 9 chapters on shared surface waters and 17 chapters on shared aquifer systems, each following a standardized structure and methodology. 624 pages of detailed information with 60 new maps and over 200 figures, tables and boxes. Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 26
  • 27. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Trade 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 27
  • 28. Khouri, N. 2013. Food Security in Saudi Arabia - A Framework. Combining Indicators: Hunger, Food Balance and Price Risk 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 28
  • 29. The Economist, 2012. Food. How to feed a planet, continued, 28 May 2012, www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/05/food Food Surpluses and Deficits by Region 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 29
  • 30. Jordan Saudi Arabia UAE 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org Keulertz, M., 2013. Arab Vulnerability in Global Food Supply Chains. Based on : Water and Food data base and COMTRADE. Average Annual Wheat Imports, 2008-2012 30
  • 31. Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2012. The Water Footprint of Humanity. Net Virtual Water Imports per Country, 1996-2005 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 31
  • 32. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Cereal Trade Globally and in the Region: Net Cereal Import 1980-2011 (million tons) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 32
  • 33. GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground. Saudi Arabia: Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 33
  • 34. Woertz, E., 2013. Food Security in the UAE. Agro-Projects and MoUs Announced in the UAE, 2008-2011 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 34
  • 35. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Improving Value Chains 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 35
  • 36. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Green Value Chains: Characteristics • Addresses socio-economic and environmental development : – – – – higher income, jobs, equity, conservation, etc. • Global companies increasingly looking at issues such as safety, fairness, etc. • Need to prove performance standards • Given the continuously rising global ramifications:  Adapt or be left out • Covers economic, social and environmental (and institutional) issues 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 36
  • 37. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Repositioning of Moroccan Vegetable Market for Export 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 37
  • 38. Ways Forward ? 1. Holistic approaches to the management of natural resources 2. International trade and regional cooperation 3. Focus primarily on local vulnerable population 4. Support for research related to food security and food-related conflicts 5. Equitable and just international trade relations 6. Governments accountable; not further ignoring plight of their rural, disadvantaged and poor 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 38
  • 39. Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food. Today ! – Tomorrow ? 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 39
  • 40. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development IFI - AUB Beirut, Lebanon 22 Jan 2014 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Reem Nejdawi, Chief, FEPS Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer
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