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Qualitative Evaluation of the Programme of The Naz Foundation (India) Trust September 2016 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 1 Index Goal participant Average
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Qualitative Evaluation of the Programme of The Naz Foundation (India) Trust September 2016 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 1 Index Goal participant Average age 14 year old girl from economically marginalised families participating in the 10 month Goal Programme Peer Leader Group leader among the peer participants between the age of years Community Sports Coach Older participant in a leadership capacity, average of years Dasra Strategic philanthropy foundation that drives collaborative action to accelerate social change Agency The ability to define one s goals and act upon them (Kabeer, 1999) Control This implies making decisions for yourself and following them through The context India is home to 243 million adolescents (age years) with adolescent girls constituting half of this number (UN, 2012). The status of adolescent girls and young women is low in many developing countries, with prevalence of early marriage, less access to education and skills, unequal access to sports, greater domestic work burden and vulnerability to gender-based violence (ICRW, n.d). Adolescent girls and young women do not have access to knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and rights. In India, adolescent girls and young women are undernourished, they become pregnant at a young age, have to face son preference, less access to education and are at times subject to forced marriages. According to the United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) survey of 2012, 57% of adolescent males in India supported wife beating, while 53% of female adolescents, too, supported the same. About Naz India The Naz Foundation (India) Trust, commonly known as Naz India, is a New Delhi based NGO combating sexual health issues since Naz focuses on reaching marginalised populations infected or affected by HIV, thereby improving health, reducing stigma, and empowering families. Naz India strives to bring awareness of HIV prevalence to communities by highlighting issues related to sexuality and sexual health, and by emphasising treatment and prevention through the programs : the Naz Care Home, training and capacity building of other organisations who work with HIV positive people and sports for development Goal. Introduction to the Goal Programme Naz India piloted the Goal with Standard Chartered Bank in The Goal Programme uses sport (netball) and life skills education to transform the lives of girls and young women. By providing a safe space to play, it provides a reason to attend sessions and learn from peers. The life skill education sessions empower girls and young women from underserved communities to make their own choices. Most adolescent girls from disadvantaged families lack adequate information and equal opportunities. They have limited understanding of how to protect themselves and manage the outside world. This makes them vulnerable to a range of health issues, including HIV infection and abusive sexual relations. 2 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 3 More about the Goal Programme Goal curriculum covers four themes: Be Yourself, Be Healthy, Be Empowered and Be Money Savvy; each theme takes six weeks to cover. The Goal batch consists of girls with the facilitator to student ratio of 1:25. Goal was piloted in partnership with the Standard Chartered Bank in 2006 and since then it has reached out to 26,316 girls in Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai. The three Goal modalities: Goal Essential, Goal Camp and Goal Events, are organised in situations where the 10 month cannot be implemented. Girls in the are encouraged and given the opportunities to take up leadership roles. They can grow from Peer Leaders to interns in the program as Community Sports Coaches for the time period of 18 months and later get employed within the program as Junior coaches. The mentorship program helps the girls to craft their pathways and develop employability skills that can lead them to a financially independent future. The Goal organises community netball leagues, inter/intra school competitions, and annual events like Goal Cup and One Nation Netball Cup (a mixed netball tournament with teams from different states in India). These events give Goal girls the opportunity to play and change the perception of the communities about girls playing sports and being capable to make their own decisions. The programme works with stakeholders like parents and community members to bring awareness about the rights of the girls and young women, and to get their support to achieve the objectives of the Naz India Goal Programme. A qualitative evaluation of the Goal Programme In the previous years, the focus of the evaluation has been the impact of the Goal Programme on the lives of Goal Participants. This report looks specifically at the impact of the Goal Programme on the lives of the Peer Leaders and CSCs as compared to Participants. This is crucial since the backbone of the Goal is peer leadership. In this model it is not only the participants, but also the peer leaders and community sports coaches who, while exploring and strengthening their leadership abilities benefit from the opportunities that the offers. In 2015, the Naz Foundation (India) Trust commissioned Ranjani K. Murthy and Pallavi Gupta, experienced independent researchers with a track record in policy analysis, capacity building and impact assessments in gender, poverty and health. They carried out a qualitative assessment to assess whether and how far the Goal Programme had contributed to changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices observed in: Self-esteem, communication and leadership/role model in the case of Peer Leaders, Ability to make informed choices and make major life decisions, negotiate with family and community, enhance self-esteem and facilitate access to employment in the case of Community Sport Coaches (CSCs). The cross cutting issues were changes in abilities of Peer Leaders and CSCs to address gender based violence, improve menstrual health and be financially literate. 4 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust The Goal Leadership Pyramid One girl is selected as a peer leader among every 30 Goal participants and one girl is selected as a community sports coach (CSC) among every 10 peer leaders. A CSC facilitates the Goal sessions on Netball and Life Skills; she is trained on her roles and responsibilities, group management, session planning, netball coaching, career management and data entry. CSCs exit the programme after 18 months after which they seek full time employment in different sectors. Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 5 The methodology of the evaluation The study adopted mixed methods with 40 Peer Leaders and 33 CSCs. Semi-structured guidelines were combined with gender-and socially sensitive qualitative tools. Interviews were held with 20 parents and 6 teachers to gather perceptions of other stakeholders. Group discussions were held with 33 Goal Participants to understand changes at the level of Participants. Conclusion of the Qualitative Evaluation Ranjani K. Murthy and Pallavi Gupta The research questions were answered positively: The Qualitative Evaluation confirms that the Goal Programme has played a significant role in enhancing self-esteem, leadership and communication skills of CSCs, Peer Leaders and Participants. Although confidence in communication has increased, the communication with male teachers, male youth, elder brothers and fathers are still concerns. The Goal Programme has also enhanced the decision making power of CSCs. It is too early to say whether CSCs access to employment has gone up and whether the educational strategies they have adopted (e.g. distance education) will lead to employment. A majority of the changes observed in Peer Leaders and CSCs can be contributed to the Goal Programme. Others factors such as women-focused television serials, extra-curricular activities in school, mothers and relatives who work, and historical women-oriented figure, played especially a role in Mumbai. The contribution of the Goal Programme has also been important in bringing about changes in participants. The change among the Participants is less compared the Peer Leaders while the Peer Leaders change is less as compared to changes in the CSCs. The researchers acknowledge that netball is a crucial component of the Goal Programme and an efficient tool to achieve development objectives among adolescent girls. Netball allows experiential learning and gives girls a safe space to express themselves. The study shows that sport increases opportunities for girls and challenges gender stereotypes as well as increases girls confidence and leadership. The researchers conclude that the Goal Programme paves the way for addressing many of the problems that adolescent girls and young women face in the country. I have now deposited 500 rupees in the bank. I am less stressed because I play sports. I was scared to travel alone but now I commute in the bus alone. I now know what to do if a man eve teases me because of the Goal programme, earlier I used to just run away from the situation. I guide my sister unlike earlier. I now dry my menstrual cloth in the sun and advise others to do the same. I have been my class leader four times. A peer leader Goal participants knowledge, attitudes and behaviour Yes No 30% 15% 9% 18% 3% 18% 70% 85% 91% 100% 82% 97% 82% Know that boys are not superior to girls Better able to negotiate with parents Can operate a bank account Use cotton/ sanitary pads instead of synthetic Know where to refer GBV Can handle when harrased by male Can say no when asked to skip class 6 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust Participants 85% of the Goal Programme participants say their lives have transformed through participation in the Goal Programme. 54% participants have a positive attitude towards gender equality, though 30% of participants expressed that boys were superior to girls. 45% of the participants mentioned CSCs and Goal Coaches as role models. 85% 54% 45% Peer leaders CSCs 78% 78% of the peer leaders reported that after joining Goal, they were on an ascending path in their lives towards their development and empowerment. 89% 89% of peer leaders held a positive attitude on gender equality and gender based violence. 73% CSCs reported an improvement in confidence in relating with Goal Coaches and male leaders from local areas (73%) and male youth (66%). Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 7 Peer leaders perceived competencies Before After 100% 100% 100% 100% 75% 75% 62.5% 62.5% 87.5% 87.5% 87.5% 50% 50% 50% Saying no to a boy you don t want to date Saying no to skip classes Safe menstrual health practices Negotiate with parents about education Netball Savings Knowledge on puberty Peer leaders confidence in interacting Before After 90% 87.5% 80% 65% 75% 57.5% 0 CSC Female teacher Adolescent boys Participants A majority of the participants state that their lives have been transformed through the Goal Programme. 85% of the Goal Programme participants average age 14 years old girls from economically marginalised families participating in the 10 month Goal Program state that their lives have transformed through their participation in Goal with access to sports, improved mobility, enhanced confidence, increased friendships and decision making, improved relationship with parents, awareness of one s body and knowledge on how to be safe. 54% of participants have a positive attitude towards gender equality, though 30% of Participants expressed that boys were superior to girls. There were differences in attitudes, skills, knowledge between Participants who had attended all the sessions (85%), and those who could not attend all sessions (15%). The reasons stated for non-attendance was parental illness, illness of participant, or family resistance. 45% of the participants mentioned CSCs and Goal Coaches as role models. 8 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust Once a case of domestic violence came to my notice. I took the help of a local women s organization and we went to the survivor s house. We informed the man that hitting his wife is illegal, and the next time, we will report the matter to the police. Since then, the woman has been relieved. A Community Sport Coach Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 9 Goal Participants knowledge, attitudes and behaviour Peer Leaders More than three-quarter of the peer leaders feel that they are on an ascending path in their lives. They perceive that they have become more competent and their gender attitudes have changed positively. 78% of the peer leaders reported that after joining Goal, they were on an ascending path in their lives towards their development and empowerment. On average, Peer Leaders reported being highly competent in saying no to a boy they did not want to date, saying no to friends for skipping class, following safe menstrual health practices and negotiating with parents for higher education. Some of the biggest changes were seen in perceived competency on netball, managing savings and knowledge on puberty. 74% of the changes in competencies were due to the Goal programme alone and 23% to Goal in conjunction with other factors. Other factors played a role in Mumbai as well such as exposure to media, extra-curricular activities and economic activities from other family members. In Delhi more peer leaders attributed the changes to the Goal programme. In Mumbai also others factors played a role. Peer leaders report 26% increase in self confidence. The maximum increase is in relation with the Goal Programme Community Sports Coaches followed by female teachers and adolescent boys. Reported self-confidence was highest in relating with mothers and least with respect to relating with male teachers. 89% of Peer Leaders held a positive attitude on gender equality and gender based violence. The attitudes of Peer Leaders are 100% favorable on the issue of girls playing sports after marriage, boys and girls talking to each other freely and girls equal right to school education. 45% of the Peer Leaders have exercised leadership on gender issues such as suggesting approaching a women s organization, Goal Coach/CSC, parents, child line etc. 10 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust I joined the Goal Programme in 2010 and have been a peer leader since I remember that, in particular, I have learned netball, communication and leadership through the Goal Programme. I have also become confident. When I joined Goal, I could not look strangers in the eye or speak to them. Now I train 100 adolescent girls. A Peer Leader Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 11 CSCs change in agency and control over their bodies Scale low 4 - highest Mobility Independence Menstrual Stigma on Happiness Taking action Decision making Advocacy health breast/female body CSCs Attitudes on Gender Equality Girls have equal rights to education 67% 97% Women prioritizing career and family 18% 64% After Domestic violence is not OK 66% 91% Before Women can play sport after marriage 42% 82% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Goal girls taking action on GBV 45% 61% Peer leaders Community Sport Coaches 12 Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust Community Sports Coaches (CSCs) Community coaches have increased control and agency and confidence in interacting with others. More than half of the community sports coaches have taken action in cases of gender inequality or violence. Community sports coaches control and agency over different body parts had improved after joining Goal and are attributable to Goal. On an average the score of CSCs on the subject of control on their bodies in Mumbai was higher (3.71 in 97.8%) than Delhi (3.63 in 90%) and the change was bigger (2.07 in 51.7%) compared to (1.73 in 43.2%). The CSCs reported an increase in competency especially with regard to Goal Programme session planning and managing time (165%), netball coaching (141%) and career management (140%). CSCs reported an improvement in confidence in relating with other CSCs (78%), with Goal Coaches and male leaders from local areas (73%) and male youth (66%). The CSCs held positive attitude on gender norms where 88% from 24% felt that girls should not be blamed for premarital pregnancy. All CSCs (from 33%) agreed that it is not appropriate for women to get married at the age of 21. All CSCs feel women should prioritise their career and education. The changes in attitudes are mainly attributed to the Goal Programme. 61% of the CSCs reported that they had taken action on gender issues e.g. domestic violence, providing helpline numbers and other services or speak up on issue such as forced relationship with boys and harassment by boys. And what do other stakeholders say? Parents state that the self confidence and the knowledge of menstrual health, gender equality and gender based violence have improved in their daughters through their participation in Goal. Parents of peer leaders and community sport coaches have seen improved leadership skills of their daughters since their participation in the Goal Programme. Teachers observed that their students have become more skilled at Netball, are more confident, their knowledge has increased on menstrual health and they are able to handle gender based violence in a much better manner. They felt that peer leaders were more mature and were able to exercise leadership better than participants. Qualitative Evaluation of the Goal Programme of the Naz Foundation (India) Trust 13 The way forward Building on the recommendations from Participants, Peer Leaders, CSCs, Parents and Teachers the researchers make the following suggestions: 1. Strengthen Goal strategy The present strategy of a ten month Goal Programme targeting adolescent girls could be combined with a short term strategy to work with adolescent girls and boys on gender, life-skills and masculinities. The Goal Programme plans to write a position paper on how it will engage with institutions that influence the girls such as families, schools, local governments, transport institutions and local police to support adolescent girls empowerment. 2. Expand the Goal Programme The Goal Programme may directly expand to selected Indian cities, towns and rural areas that are lagging behind in human development and gender indicators. Acting as sites of demonstration this could create a ripple effect. 3. Deepening the Goal Programme The Goal Programme can deepen its impact by reaching school dropouts, focussing on quiet participants and girls who miss some of the sessions, adding new content (e.g. government programs and legislations), adding new facilitation methodologies, creating referral systems (e.g. to counselling centers), strengthening netball infrastructure, design protocols for Peer Leaders and CSCs on gender based violence and strengthening protocols for conduct of Participants, Peer Leaders and CSCs. 4. Develop a Training and Research Center A Goal Programme training and resource center could be used to train staff of NGOs, companies engaged under Corporate Social Responsibility, national and state governments and donors on the Goal Programme strategy. The research component could study the outcomes and impact of Goal, what Participants do after they exit the Programme and how it compares with non-participants. 5. Influence Policy Policy dialogues could be with officials from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Youth and Sports, and Ministry of Educatio
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