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Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage 4th Edition Pinto Test Bank

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  Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage 4th Edition Pinto Test Bank  Full download link: Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage 4th Edition Pinto Test Bank   More news Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world. In terms of endowment per student, it ranks third in the U.S., after Princeton and Yale. As of September 2011, it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008 recession. It was worth $32 billion in 2011, up from $28 billion in September 2010[69] and $26 billion in 2009. It suffered about 30% loss in 2008  –  2009.[70][71] In December 2008, Harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22% (approximately $8 billion) from July to October 2008, necessitating budget cuts.[72] Later reports[73] suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure, a reduction of nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone. Forbes in March 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $12 billion.[74] One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting[73] of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents.[75] As of 2012, Harvard University had a total financial aid reserve of $159 million for students, and a Pell Grant reserve of $4.093 million available for disbursement.[76] Divestment Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the fossil fuel industry.[77] During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic shantytown on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown.[78][79] The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups. [80] However, the university did eventually reduce its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.[78][81] Academics Admission Undergraduate admission to Harvard is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as more selective, lower transfer-in .[16] Harvard College accepted 5.2% of applicants for the class of 2021, a record low  and the second lowest acceptance rate among all national universities.[82][83] Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016, an early action program was reintroduced.[84] The freshman class entering in the fall of 2017 will be the first to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite.[85] Harvard's undergraduate admission policies on preference for children of alumni has been criticized as favoring white, wealthy candidates.[86][87] Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities and personality (judged subjectively by admissions officers who have not met the applicants), and it is alleged that this approach discriminates against Asians.[88][89][90] Teaching and learning Massachusetts Hall (1720), Harvard's oldest building[91] Harvard Yard Harvard is a large, highly residential research university.[16] The university has been accredited by the  New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.[92] The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations (majors),[93] 134 graduate degrees,[94] and 32 professional degrees.[95] For the 2008  –  2009 academic year, Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate degrees, 400 master's degrees, 512 doctoral degrees, and 4,460 professional degrees.[95] The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an arts and sciences focus .[16] Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration.[96] Since 2008, undergraduate students have been required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World.[97] Harvard offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate  program, and undergraduate degrees.[16] The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education.[98][99] Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May.[100] Undergraduates typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course  rate average to be considered full-time.[101] In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic  program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work.[102] Students graduating in the top 4  –  5% of the class are awarded degrees summa cum laude, students in the next 15% of the class are awarded magna cum laude, and the next 30% of the class are awarded cum laude.[103] Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually.[104] Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation,[105] although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased.[106] Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of John Harvard Scholar and Harvard College Scholar would now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.[107][108][109][110] University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a culture of cheating. [111][112][113] In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students.[114] In 2013, there was a report that as many as 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university,[115] and these incidents have prompted the university to consider adopting an honor code.[113][116] For the 2012  –  2013 school year, annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of attendance of $57,000.[117] Beginning in 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $60,000 to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes.[17] In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million; $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88% of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8%) and work-study (4%).[118] Tuition only covers 6.4% of Harvard's operating costs.[119] Research [icon] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013) Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities[120] and remains a research university with very high research activity and a comprehensive doctoral program across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine.[16] Research and development expenditures in 2011 totaled $650 million, 27th among American universities.[121] Libraries and museums Widener Library anchors the Harvard University Library system.  The Harvard University Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding over 18 million volumes.[18][19] According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and one of the largest in the world.[19] Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the  public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library. Henry Moore's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont Library The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum includes collections of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art, covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East. University rankings University rankings  National ARWU[122] 1 Forbes[123] 1 Times/WSJ[124] 1 U.S. News & World Report[125] 2 Washington Monthly[126] 1 Global ARWU[21] 1 QS[22] 3 Times[23] 6
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