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OIL AND WINE IN ANTIQUITY

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OIL AND WINE IN ANTIQUITY
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   Materia Medica of Cyprus in Roman Writers: its use in Health, Medicine and DietMalapani N. Athina 1.Introduction: Ancient Pharmacology The Gree term for  pharmacology  means the science of remedies !Tu"aide #$$%: s.&.  Pharmacology '( more specifically, this term, no"n form the a)e of Galen, means thescientific research of the "ays and methods dru)s of any ind influence any li&ecreature !*o)t #$$+: $-'. Another term that can also e found in the international ilio)raphy is drug lore , "hich means the knowledge of the drugs in a )eneral "ay!/rin) 011#: s.&.  Drug  '. 2t is also remarale that this term deri&es from the Gree "ord  pharmakon ! φάρμακον ', "hose etymolo)y is unno"n3 it has a doulesi)nification, as it may mean a sustance for treatment, a dru), ut on the contrary, itmay declares the sustance "hich can cause health prolems, e&en death, the poison!  LSJ  1 3 for more information for the meanin) of the "ord  pharmakon  ! drug  ', see alsoMontanari #$$, φάρμ!"# 3 *o)t #$$+: $%4$5 6 Nutton #$0 #  !#$$7 0 ': 1+'.Ho"e&er, human of all times use materials and especially plants and their products to produce dru)s for )ood purposes, such as the relief from any pain, the rela8ation, thealteration of mental states, the termination of pre)nancy in case it is needed, thehealin) of "ounds and illnesses of all inds !Dincause #$$$: 7$$'. 9o, today the term drug !  pharmakon $ pharmacy% φάρμ!"# ' is usually used in its positi&e meanin),"hich is the cure , the restore of health3 as health  is definite the condition of anyor)anism "hich is characteried y the asence of patholo)ies. Health can also ereferred as a moral &alue in the ancient "orld and "ay of thinin) and li&in), as itsho"s the "ell4ein) and "elfare !Girou8 #$0#: %04%#, %145$3 for more informationas far as it concerns the definitions of health  and  pathology , see also %4001, #%-41+,54%$, %147$7'. There is a )reat &ariety of "ritten source material aout the pharmaceuticalmanufacturin) and the use of dru)s in the ancient "orld. 2t is compromised of literaryte8ts, such as myths, the Homeric epics, the tra)ic poetry and the historical te8ts, as"ell as e8pert medical te8ts, such as the &orpus 'ippocraticum , the  Pro(lemata  y/s. 4 Aristotle, alon)side the "ors of Diocles, Nicander, Dioscurides /edanius, /liny1#451 A.D., see elo"', 0  9crionius ;ar)us !0rst century AD3  see for further information aout 9crionius ;ar)us and his "or, &ompositiones%  2sraelo"ich #$0-: $4. ', Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Rufus of <phesus and Galen. 2n addition, there arearchaeolo)ical sources, such as flass for medical preparations found in ship "recsor )ra&es, "hich can e put throu)h a pharmaco4chemical analysis !Tu"aide #$$%:s.&.  Pharmacology '.<specially, Romans "rote se&eral "ors of pharmacolo)y. =urthermore, there "eremany of them "ho did e8periments in order to understand the effecti&eness of thedru)s produced !for Roman medicine, see >oudon4Millot: #$0# 0#-4#+3 /almieri#$$: 004%73 ;an)slo" #$$$'. There also "ere Gree physicians in the Roman<mpire durin) the last period of  )es Pu(lica , "ho "ere fallen into the upper socialclasses of the society( ho"e&er important their social class "as, they offered their medical and scientific ser&ice oth to freemen and sla&es, too. Althou)h their medicalhelp "as of hi)h si)nificance, there "as no le)al proof of their presence in Rome. 2t is 1  The edition used is H. Racham, ?ones, W. H. 9. 6 <ichol, D. <. !01+401%'.  Pliny the  *lder+ Pliny% ,atural 'istory , W. Heinemann3 Har&ard, Camrid)e. 1  remarale that ?ulius Caesar and Au)ustus encoura)ed the presence of medicines inRome and they also )a&e to them the roman citienship and other pri&ile)es !for instance, the immunity from ta8es'. Thans to their measures, the medical care "asfounded in the Hi)h <mpire !2sraelo"ich #$0-: #4'.T"o of the most important Roman medical "riters "ere considered to e /linythe <lder and Celsius. /liny !#451 A.D.' "rote an encyclopedia of 5 oos titled as  'istoria ,aturalis . 2t is interestin) that his "or had an ideolo)ical and politicalorientation, as it pro&ides the cultural identity of Hi)h Roman <mpire and it must not e considered as a simple commentarius   !&on Alrecht #$$- #  !#$$# 0 ': 07-73 =or moreinformation aout /liny, see also, 07-4%-3 /olla #$$-:#1$3 @BEFF #$$1:00-4##'. The "or of /liny completes the "or  De Medicina  of Celsius as his sourcesand the &aluale notes form important doctors of antiIuity !Hippocrates, Hierophilus,<rasistratus, Asclepiades' offer a panorama of the roman medicine !AndrJ #$$%: 0#04#'.Ho"e&er contriuti&e the "or of /liny is, it must not e for)otten thesi)nificance of CelsiusK !second half of # nd  century A. D.' #  "or, too. 2t "as also anencyclopedia, "hich co&ered the domains of a)riculture, medicine, martial arts,rhetoric, philosophy and Lustice as it is referred y ointilianus !  -nst+  0#.00.#7'. Hissources "ere the "ors of &ery important doctors of ancient Gree antiIuity and thathas as a result, his characteriation as &icero of the Medicine  !AndrJ #$$%: 0#04#'.Acommon element et"een oth these Roman medical "riters is their references to theancient medicine of Cyprus. >oth of them, especially /liny, referred to materiamedica of Cyprus that "as used for the pharmaceutical manufacturin) in antiIuity. 2naddition to this, there are a fe" times that they refer to Cypriot or considered asCypriot doctors. n the "hole, the sciences of medicine and pharmacolo)y "erede&eloped in the island of Cyprus. Ho"e&er, researchers of no"adays face manydifficulties in studyin) the ancient medicine of Cyprus undoutedly. /articularly, thereha&e een found many ancient te8ts "hich ha&e many prolematic parts( the difficultyfaced in translatin) specific medical terms are also a "ell4mentioned prolem. =inally,another difficulty is the luc of information for many Cypriot or considered asCypriot doctors. 2t is remarale that there are many names of doctors mentioned inthe ancient sources, ut it is not for sure if they "ere Cypriot( "hatKs more, the io)raphical references to them are inadeIuate and dispersed in many types of "rittente8ts. =or instance, there is ilio)raphical information in ancient te8ts of Gree andRoman medical or other "riters, ut on the other hand, there can e found many of them in epi)raphies, "hich cannot e or ha&e not een read yet y the scientificsociety !>OPQ #$00: -54-+' 9ome of these difficulties "ill e e8amined in this paper. =irstly, there "ill ereferred the te8ts of Roman medical "riters and the medical material !for e8ample, otanies, plants, metals and minerals' presented3 secondly, the names of Cypriot or considered as Cypriot doctors "ill also e studied, ecause it "ill e made an effort tocome to a conclusion "hether or not they "ere of Cypriot ori)in tain) intoconsideration chronolo)ical and archaeolo)ical e&idence and information inepi)raphies. 2.Plinius,  Historia Naturalis  20.198, 200:  Papaver   and Opium  in AncientPharmacology 2  The edition of CelsiusK "or used is W. G. 9pencer, W. G. !01-401+'.  .urelius &ornelius &elsus% De Medicina , &ols. 04, Har&ard Sni&ersity /ress, Har&ard. 2  The most important information aout ancient medicine in the island of Cyprus isfound in the encyclopedic "or of /liny the <lder,  'istoria ,aturalis . =irstly, /linymentions the flo"er of poppy !  papa/er  ' in t"o prescriptions in the t"entieth oo of his "or. 2n the first passa)e !  ',   #$.01+', he )i&es a little information aout thetypes of this flo"er. Accordin) to /liny, the flo"er of poppy can e "ild or tame,"hich has three types !  Papa/eris sati/i tria di0imus genera '. A more detailed mentionto main types of poppy can e found in para)raphs 0%+ and #$74#$5 in the t"entieth oo of his "or3  papa/er candidum1al(icum% nigrum% rhoea are considered the mainof them !Riddle 01+-: %13 9tephanus 01-7: s.&.  μ2!3# 3 Chantraine 0111:  μ2!3# '. 2n)eneral, as far as it concerns the types of poppy, there are mentioned a lot of names inancient te8ts !  papa/er al(um% candidum% nigrum% falliculosum% hortinum% sil/aticum%Sil/estre and many others ', "hich are not usually fallen into specific cate)ories !  LSJ  1 3AndrJ #$0$ #  !01+- 0 ': s.&.  Papa/er  '. The term  papa/er   mentions the seed, the flo"er and the Luice produced y it. There are many theories aout the non42ndo4<uropeanori)in of the Gree "ord !  μ2!3#1μά!3# ', ut in any case it is a flo"er of Mediterranean !Chantraine 0111: s.&.  42!3# '.n the "hole, there are a little no"n information aout the flora and fauna of Cyprus. nly the last decades, there ha&e een taen place researches and studiesaout the en&ironmental conditions of Cyprus thans to the remains of plants and fruitcame to li)ht y the archaeolo)ical e8peditions !UV #$00: +5'. Names of plantsand flo"ers are mentioned not only in many ancient sources, such as mytholo)icalte8ts, poetry and medical te8ts, ut also in archaeolo)ical findin)s !coins, frescosetc.'3 the results of the paleootany and paleo)eolo)y are also of hi)h importance inour effort to understand the en&ironment of the island in ancient times. 9o, there "as aremarale &ariety of plants and flo"ers in Cyprus thans to its )eo)raphical position,as it is situated in the crossroads of rient and West, in the east asin of Mediterranean. The climate of the island "as also &ery eneficial to the de&elopmentand culti&ation of many species of flora, some of "hich there ha&e not een found inany other place and they are protected y the >ern Con&ention !XYBUBZV #$00:004073 for more information aout the flora of Cyprus, see also Tsintides 6HadLiyriaos #$$#3 Meile 01+-3 Christoforides 6 HadLiyriaos #$$+'. Generally, the flo"ers "ere used mostly in pastry main) y forei)n populations. <specially Romans "ere een on usin) flo"ers, such as roses and saffron!see elo"', for perfumin) their meals and colorin) their drins and "ines !see elo"'. =urthermore, they "ere used to roots for perfumin) the meat, the oil and the&arious dressin)s !for further information aout dressin)s, see AndrJ 01%0:0153 AndrJ01%0: #$%4#$5, ##'. /linius informs that the "hite poppyKs caly8 is drun "ith "ine in order to pro&oe sleep !  * sati/is al(i caly0 ipse teritur et 5e$ /ino (i(itur somni causa6 ',  #$.01+'3 its seed can cure from elephantiasis !  semen elephantiasi medetur% ',  #$.01+', a ind of leprosy, a dermatolo)ical disease, "hich made the sin of the patient fatter and tou)her, lie the elephantKs, as it is informed in /s.4Galen ! τὸ   γὰρδέρμα  (…)  παχύτερὸν   τε    καὶ   σκληρότερὸν   ἐστιν , ἐμφέρειαν   ἔχον πρὸς   τὸ   τῶν   ἐλεφάντων   δέρμα  ;  -ntr+ , 07.5-% '. 2n addition, he mentions theCypriot doctor Dia)oras !possily  rd  century >C', "ho informs aout the productionof dru) y the lac poppy "ith incisions to its stem !  * nigro papa/ere spoor gignitur  scapo inciso% ut Diagoras suadet% ',   #$.01+'. n the other hand, 2ollas thins thatdru) from lac poppy can e produced "hen the flo"er has een desiccated [!\' ut  -ollas% cum deflorescit%  !\' hoc est cum ros in eo e0aruerit% ',%  #$.01+'. 3  Dia)oras "as a Cypriot doctor, "ho is mentioned many times in the "or of /liny !e.). #$. 01+ and #$ and in the sources of the oos 0, 0#, 0, #$, #0, ##, #, #7,#-, #%, #5, , 7, -', ut it is unno"n if he "as one of the one hundred "riters y"hom /liny cau)ht information for his encyclopedia. 2t must also e referred thatthere "ere four other men mentioned "ith that name( Dia)oras of Rhodes mentionedin /indar, Dia)oras, the famous lyric poet from the island of Milus, Dia)oras the sonof Teuros and Dia)oras, the minister of Apollo as it is "itnessed from the epi)raphyin a statue of Apollo found in the area of ourio durin) the American archaeolo)icale8pedition in the island in the e)innin) of +$Ks. The Cypriot doctor seems to ha&eli&ed almost the same time "ith the others, in the middle of  rd  century >C !]OPQ#$$5: -1+4%$0'. n the contrary, 2ollas "as not a Cypriot doctor, ut he is referred in/linyKs "or for a dru) aout epiphoris oculorum !  ',   #$.0+5' and the medical use of  cadmeia  and lepis , t"o products of the cooper, "hich are found in Cyprus in e8cellentcondition !  ',   7.0$40$7'. He may ha&e li&ed a little time after Dia)oras, ut it isnot for sure !]OPQ #$$5: %$54%$+'.Dia)oras is also referred in /linyKs "or for his opinion aout the use of opiate! opium '. He stron)ly elie&es that it must e a&oided in any case, ecause it is fatal! ut mortiferum% ',%  #$.#$$' and its instillation can pro&oe prolems to the eyes[!\' 7uoniam /isui noceret% ',% #$.#$$'. This information is also read in  Materia Medica  of Dioscurides /edanius ! Ἐρασίστρατον   μέντοι    ιαγόρας   φησίνἐπιδοκιμά!ειν   α"το#   τ$ν    χρ%σιν   ἐπί    τε   &ταλγίας    καὶ   'φ(αλμι)ντωνδιὰ   τὸ   *μ+λ,ωπ-   ε.ναι    καὶ    καρωτικό ,  Diosc+% Mat+ Med+  7.%7'. n the other hand, the use of opiate "as considered eneficial for the production of the codeine,the so4called dia codyon , "hich is referred y Aetius Amide !  -atr+%  05.0' as some of the diseases can e cured "ith its use "ere the hi)h fe&er ! ἐπί    τῶν π,ρεττόντων ) , the choleric ailments !  καὶ    χολερικῶν    πα(ῶν ) , the insomniac! *γρ,πνίαις ) , the tou)h cou)h and other. =inally, the use of opiate "as supported y Dia)oras in t"o prescriptions of drops for the eyes, the so4called diarrodoncollyrion  ! 89άρρ"8"# !"::;ρ9"# '( the first prescription is mentioned in riasius!  πρὸς    περιωδ,νίας , φλ,κταίνας , ἐπικαύματα , σταφ,λ)ματα  … Syn+ *ust%+  .0-+' and the second in Aetius Amide !  -atr+% 5.00$'. This dru) "as consideredappropriate for the treatment of tou)h soreness, pustules, urns, and ailments of cornea and other prolems of the eyes. 3.   Prescriptions of Apollodore mentioned in Plinys  HN   !20.2"#2$ and 8$%:&as he a 'ypriot doctor( The use of &e)etales had a &ital role not only in ancient cooin), ut also in ancientmedicine. A &ery popular &e)etale mentioned in  ',   !#$.#-4#%' "as the radish! raphanus or   raphanos ( see Andrei MCM;^^^2: s.&.  )aphanus ', "hich is a plant"ith a little tou)h ut edile root and it is eaten as a ind of salad. 2t is considered to e the type of  <rassica crelica . The "ord raphanus  has 2ndo4<uropean ori)in and it"as used to sho" the ancient name of &e)etales in )eneral, such as the cauliflo"er and the caa)e !Chantraine 0111: s.&.  /άφανος ', "hich "ere &ery popular to theancient Romans, eaten especially in their symposiums !AndrJ 01%0:#+'. There arementioned a )reat deal of types of raphanus  in ancient sources, such as raphanus sati/us% raphanus agrestis and  sil/estris  !see /l.,  ',   01.+#, #$.##, #%.5#( AndrJ #$0$ # !01+- 0 ': s.&.  )aphanus ', "hich is considered to e the type of  *uphor(ia apios L+ ,"hich is the plant of euphor(ias !  *uphor(ea or  *uphor(eum ( ε"φόρ+ιον ', a plantmay e form north African !/l.,  ',   -.0%3 AndrJ #$0$ #  !01+- 0 ': s.&.  *uphor(ea or   *uphor(eum '. 4  2n the ancient medical sources of Ancient Cyprus, raphanus  is mentioned yt"o medical "riters named after  .pollodore !  .pollodorus '. As /liny !  ',   #$.#-4#%'informs, there are t"o homonym doctors "ho thin that radish ! raphanus ' isconsidered an antidote to the poisonin) of the )lue of mistletoe ! 5&ontra$ /iscum7uo7ue dari =sc+ )aphanos> .pollodori duo iu(ent  '. /articularly, the first, "ho isApollodore from the re)ion of Cition, the so4named after  .pollodorus &itieus ,su))ests drinin) )rated seed of radish in "ater ! &itieus semen e0 a7ua '3 on the other hand, Apollodore named after Tarentinus thins that it should e drun in Luice! ?arentinus sucum '. /liny refers also many other enefits of radish. =or instance, it maes thespleen thinner ! lienem item e0tenuant  ' and it alle&iates from the pains in the li&er andthe hips ! iocineri prosunt et lum(orum dolori(us '. 2n addition, it enefits thedropsicals, the lethar)ics, the epileptics and the sufferers from melancholy if it isdrun "ith &ine)ar and a seed called  sinapis , that is the mustard ! hydropicis 7uo7uee0 aceto 7ut sinapi sumpti et lethargicis et comitiali(us et melencholicis '. 2t is remarale to mention here t"o other materials "ith medical use, &ine)ar and  sinapis  !mustard'. *ine)ar is considered as the poor "ine, ecause it "as &erysour and it has a sharp deli)ht. WhatKs more, there "ere many products "ith &ine)ar,such as a mi8ture of &ine)ar and oil, the so4called o0elaion  ! '0έλαιον , Gal. %.5#+', a sauce made of &ine)ar and rine, the o0almi  ! '0άλμη , Gal. %.%0% ', anori)inal product of 9icily, the o0ygala , a ind of sour mil ! '0ύγαλα ', e&en a indof read, the so4called o0ylipis artos  ! '0,λιπ%ς   1ρτος ', read dressed "ith &ine)ar and oily fats, and a type of "ine, the   oxymel ! '0,μέλι  / '0,μελίκρατον  / '0,μελίκρητον ', mi8ture of &ine)ar and "ine!Chantraine 0111: s.&. 20ος ;  JSJ  1 '. n the "hole, &ine)ar is mentioned in many pharmaceutical prescriptions in ancient pharmacolo)y. 2n addition, it is "orth mentionits use in Roman cooin). Romans had an unusual type of &ine)ar from fi) andespecially, a fi) from Cyprus, the  ficus &ypria , "hich had similarities the Ale8andrinetype !AndrJ 01%0: 01%'. Sinapis , a "ord of unno"n ori)in, has many inds and it isthe "hite and lac mustard ! Sinapis al(a% <rassica nigra '. A ind of oil!  sinapelaion% @9#AB:9"# ' produced y this seed !  LSJ  1 ( AndrJ #$0$ #  !01+- 0 '3Chantraine 0111( 9tirlin) MCM^C*: s.&. Sinapis '.Another &e)etale "hich has similarities "ith raphanus  and is also mentioned y Apollodore !/l.,  ',   #$.+%' is caa)e ! (rassica '. 2t is mentioned a)ain in a prescription of an antidote for the poisonin)s of fun)us ! ad/ersus fungorum /enena '(the seed of caa)e must e eaten or drun )rated "ith "ater3 another solution for the poisonin)s of fun)us is the Luice of caa)e. /hilistion, a famous doctor from the9icilian 9chool !- th 4 7 th  century >C', thins that the Luice of caa)e must e drun "ith )oat mil "ith salt and honey !  sucum e0 lacte carpino cum sale et melle '. The &e)etale of caa)e has t"o main inds, (rassica cretica and (rassicaoleracea !9tirlin) MCM^C*: s.&.  <rassica6 for other inds of caa)e, see AndrJ01%0: #14$'. 2t is a family of heraceous, t"o4year4old plants of the temperate one.There are many inds of &e)etales "hich fall into this family of plants, such as thecaa)e and the cauliflo"er and many others, too !AndrJ #$0$ #  !01+- 0 ': s.&. &ram(e 6 Chantraine 0111: s.&. !ράμC '. As far as it concerns the roman cooin) and diet, the &e)etale of caa)e "as"idely used, as it is mentioned in Caton !  .gr+ 0-%4-5'. 2n )eneral, the )reen parts of "ild and culti&ated &e)etales "ere used in many roman plates in )reat de)reeespecially in soups and )ruels. 2t "as cooed and consumed "ith oil !/l.,  ', 01.-5' 5
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