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MAKALAH WRITING_FatimRaya.docx

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A. INTRODUCTION Genre which is the term used to refer to particular text-types, has two different kinds. Furthermore, each kind of genre has different social function, different schematic/generic structure, and different language features. Two different kinds of genres are Story Genre and Factual Genre. Both of them have 16 text types in total. Story Genre distinguishes the 6 text types, meanwhile there are 10 text types of Factual Genre. Most of Story Genre has the same social function, it is „
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  Procedure Text TBI-3A | 1 A.   INTRODUCTION Genre which is the term used to refer to particular text-types, has two different kinds. Furthermore, each kind of genre has different social function, different schematic/generic structure, and different language features. Two different kinds of genres are Story Genre and Factual Genre. Both of them have 16 text types in total. Story Genre distinguishes the 6 text types, meanwhile there are 10 text types of Factual Genre. Most of Story Genre has the same social function, it is „to amuse/entertain the readers through the story inside‟. Controversly, Factual Genre encourages to tell the readers more about information based on the fact. Moreover, the readers are supposed to analyze and give their own mind. Due to each types of text that are divided into Story and Factual Genre, some text types have a similarity. Then, they could be “a pair of genre”. Those pairs of gen res are: Narrative and Recount; Spoof and Anecdote;  News Story and News Items; Report and Description; Commentary and Review; Discussion and Exposition; also Procedure and Explaination. One of Factual Genres, that is going to be discussed in this paper is Procedure Text. In fact,  people can not get out of their daily activities. They have to do many things from morning to night. Many activities that people usually do are „going to school or work‟ and then „doing their own jobs‟. Let take an example of how people usually go to school/campus/office. Do they drive a car? Or do they ride their bike? The way people to operate and get in their own vehicles can be an example in using procedure. When someone wants to drive a car, he/she must be able to turn the mechine on, etc. Moreover, if the car get dirty, what equipments that he/she needed are. This is how the procedure applied. In this paper, procedure text is the topic. So that, this paper could show the readers about  procedure text in detail. Next, the readers will be able to define what procedure text is. Beside that, it will also tells about the social function and the generic structure of procedure text, even its language features. Finally, pay a deep attention to this paper with the topic discussed. This paper will be  benefit in guiding and understanding the procedure text more. B.   PROBLEMS FORMULA 1.   What is the definition of procedure text due to its social function? 2.   What are the schematic or the generic structures of procedure text? 3.   What are the language features used in procedure text? 4.   What are verbs and adverbs sometimes used in a procedure text?  Procedure Text TBI-3A | 2 C.   EXPLANATION 1.   The definition of procedure text due to its social function Procedure text is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different processes or how something is accomplished through a sequence of steps. 1   Other definition:   A procedure is a specified series of actions or operations which have to be executed in the same manner in order to always obtain the same result under the same circumstances (for example, emergency procedures). Less precisely speaking, this word can indicate a  sequence  of tasks, steps, decisions, calculations and processes, that when undertaken in the sequence laid down produces the described result, product or outcome. A procedure usually induces a change. It is in the scientific method. 2.   The schematic or the generic structures of procedure text  The generic structures of procedure text are: a.   Goal/Aim (or title)  b.   Materials or Ingredients (not required for all procedural texts) c.   Steps 1-n (the actions that must be taken) 3.   The language features used in procedure text    In the Procedure Text, we use SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: a.   Use of imperatives (e.g.: cut, don‟t mix)   b.   Use of action verbs (e.g.: turn, put, mix) c.   Use of connectives (e.g.: first, then, finally) d.   Use of adverbial phrases (e.g.: for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top)    Use mainly temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence), such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc.    Use of material processes.    Focus on generalized human agents. 4.   Verbs and adverbs sometimes used in a procedure text Verbs: 1   Entika Fani Prastikawati and Siti Musarokah, Writing 3 , (Semarang: IKIP PGRI Semarang, 2010), p. 31 Mix Cut Tie Join Lift Drill Rub Overlap Add Glue Nail Hold  Procedure Text TBI-3A | 3 Adverbs: EXAMPLES OF PROCEDURE TEXT:    Example 1 Goal : Playing the Hole Game  Materials :    One marble per person    A hole in ground    A line (distance) to start from Steps : a)   First, you must dub (click marbles together)  b)   Then, check that the marbles are in good condition and are nearly worth the same value. c)    Next, you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a fair distance away from the hole. d)   The first player carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole. e)   Then, the second player tries to throw his or her marble closer to the hole of his of her opponent. f)   The player whose marble is closest to the hole tries to flick his or her marble into the hole. If successfully this player tries to flick his or her opponent‟s marble into the hole. The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.    Example 2 Goal : How   to charge hand phone battery 2   Materials : a.   Hand phone    b.   Battery Charger    Steps :      First, connect the charger to your hand phone, the flash symbol on the charger plug must face upward.      Second, wait until the battery icon appears on the screen   2 http://theenglishcamp.blogspot.com/2013/10/procedure-text.html#ixzz3DXfe4Pch    Quickly Slowly Carefully Gently Accurately Vigorously Tightly Firmly Lightly  Procedure Text TBI-3A | 4    After that, charge battery approximately 3 hours until the battery icon indicates that the  battery is fully charged      And then, removed the charger by pulling out from your hand phone.      Example 3 How to make a sandwich   (aim/goal  ) You need   (materials)  * 2 slices of bread * peanut butter * a banana * honey What you should do are  (steps)   * Take two slices of bread * Spread peanut butter * Cut up a banana onto small slices and put them on one of the slices * Pour some honey over the bananas * Put the other slice of bread on top      Example 4 How to Make Ice Cream  You need these ingredients to make ice cream    2 cups milk (not skim) or cream    2 tablespoons sugar    1 teaspoon Vanilla extract (can substitute other flavoring.)    Several cups of Ice (the smaller the pieces, the better)    1 cup salt (rock salt is best, but table salt can also be used) 3  You need these supplies to make ice cream    Tub or large coffee can to hold salt and ice    Glass bowl or small coffee can    Electric mixer or whisk    Ice cream scoop 3  http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us/2012/03/7-contoh-singkat-procedure-text.html 
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