Documents

How the internet works.docx

Description
How the internet works, and why it’s impossible to know what makes your Netflix slow By Tim Fernholz and David Yanofsky http://qz.com/187034/how-the-internet-works-and-why-its-impossible-to-know-what-makes-your-netflix- slow/ The internet is a confusing place, and not just because of all the memes. + Right now, many of the people who make the internet run for you are arguing about how it should work. The deals they are working out and their attempts to influence government regulators
Categories
Published
of 7
20
Categories
Published
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Similar Documents
Share
Transcript
  How the internet works, and why it’s impossible to know what makes your Netflix slow   By Tim Fernholz and David Yanofsky  http://qz.com/187034/how-the-internet-works-and-why-its-impossible-to-know-what-makes-your-netflix-slow/  The internet is a confusing place, and not just because of all the memes. + Right now, many of the people who make the internet run for you are arguing about how it should work. The deals they are working out and their attempts to influence government regulators will affect how fast your internet access is and how much you pay for it. + That fight came into better view last month when Netflix, the video streaming company, agreed to  pay broadband giant Comcast to secure delivery of higher-quality video streams. Reed Hastings, the CEO of Netflix, complained yesterday about Comcast ― extracting a toll ,‖ while Comcast cast it as ―an amicable, market -  based solution.‖ You deserve a better idea of wh at they are talking about. + For most of us, the internet is what you’re looking at right now—  what you see on your web  browser. But the internet itself is comprised of the fiber optic cables, the servers, the proverbial series of tubes, all owned by the companies that built it. The content we access online is stored on servers and transmitted through networks owned by lots of different groups, but the magic of the internet protocol lets it all function as the integrated experience we know and, from time to time, love. + The last mile first Start at the top: If you’ve heard about net neutrality—  the idea that internet service providers, or ISPs , shouldn’t privilege one kind of content coming through your connection over another   — you’re talking about ―last mile‖ issues.  That’s where policymakers have focused their attention, in part because it’s easy to measure what kind of service an individual is getting from their ISP to see if it is discriminating against certain content. But things change, and a growing series of business relationships that come before the last mile might make the net neutrality debate obsolete: The internet problem slowing down your  Netflix, video chat, downloading, or web-browsing might not be in the last mile. It might be the result of a dispute further up the line. + Or it might not. At the moment, there’s simply no way to know. + ―These issues have always been bubbling and brewing and now we’re starting to realize that  we need to know about what’s happening here,‖ April Glaser of the Electronic Frontier Foundation says. ―Until we get some transparency into how companies peer, we don’t have a good portrait of the network neutrality debate.‖ + What the internet is What happens before the last mile? Before internet traffic gets to your house, it goes through your ISP, which might be a local or regional network ( a tier 2 ISP ) or it might be an ISP with its own   large-scale national or global network ( a tier 1 ISP). There are also companies that are just large-scale networks, called backbones, which connect with other large businesses but don’t interact with retail customers. All these different kinds of companies work together to make the internet, and at one point, they did so for free  —  or rather, for access to users. ISPs would share traffic, a process called settlement-free peering, to increase the reach of both networks. They were worked out informally by engineers  —‖over drinks at networking conferences,‖ says an  anonymous former network engineer .  In cases where networks weren’t  peers, the smaller network would pay for access to the larger one, a process called paid peering.   +  For example: Time Warner Cable and Comcast, which started out as cable TV providers, relied on  peering agreements with larger networks, like those managed by AT&T and Verizon or backbone providers like Cogent or Level 3, to give their customers what they paid for: access to the entire internet. + But now, as web traffic grows and it becomes cheaper to build speedy long-distance networks, those relationships have changed. Today, more money is changing hands. A company that wants to make money sending people data on the internet  —   Netflix, Google, or Amazon  —  takes up a lot more bandwidth than such content providers ever have before, and that is putting pressure on the  peering system. + In the facilities where these networks actually connect, there’s a growing need for more ports, like the one below, to handle the growing traffic traveling among ISPs, backbones, and content  providers. A 10 gigabit ethernet port module built by Terabit Systems. But the question of who will pay to install these ports and manage the additional traffic is at the crux of this story. +  How to be a bandwidth hog There are three ways for companies like these to get their traffic out to the internet. + With cheaper fiber optic cables and servers, some of the largest companies simply build their own proprietary backbone  networks, laying fiber optic wires on a national or global scale. Google is one of these: It has its own peering policies for exchanging data with other large networks and ISPs, and because of this independence, its position on net neutrality has changed over the years . That’s also why you don’t hear as much about YouTube traffic disputes as you do about  Netflix, even though the two services pushing out comparable quantities of data. + Or your company can pay for transit, which essentially means paying to use someone else’s  backbone network to move your data around. Those services manage the own peering relationships with major ISPs. Netflix, for instance, has  paid the backbone company Level 3 to stream its movies around the country.

SAP FM4

Jul 27, 2017
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x