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Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Switched Reluctance Motor

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Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 1221 Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Switched Reluctance Motor E. Martínez, P. Andrada, B. Blanqué, M. Torrent, J.I. Perat, J.A. Sánchez Grup d’Accionaments Elèctrics amb Commutació Electrònica (GAECE) EPS d’Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltrú, Departament d’Enginyeria Elèctrica Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Avinguda Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú Barcelona, Spain E-mail:
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  Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 1221978-1-4244-1736-0/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE1 Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of aSwitched Reluctance Motor  E. Martínez, P. Andrada, B. Blanqué, M. Torrent, J.I. Perat, J.A. Sánchez Grup d’Accionaments Elèctrics amb Commutació Electrònica (GAECE)    EPS d’Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltrú, Departament d’Enginyeria ElèctricaTechnical University of Catalonia (UPC) Avinguda Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú Barcelona, Spain E-mail: mtzpiera@ee.upc.edu  Abstract- This paper presents an analysis of the environmentaland life cycle costs of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive.The analysis was carried out according   to   the Energy-UsingProduct Directive (EuP 2005/32/EC) and following theMethodology for the Eco-Design of Energy-Using Products(MEEUP methodology). The base case model adopted is an 8/6SRM with 1.5 kW of output power that can be consideredrepresentative of the small power range. The analysis shows thatSRMs could generate large savings comparable to or even betterthan those of Eff1 three-phase induction motors in the use phase. I.   I  NTRODUCTION  The use of energy-efficient motors can save enormousquantities of energy and reduce the emission of greenhousegases [1]. Today, it is not enough to take into account theefficiency of an electric motor: all life cycle costs (production,use and disposal) must be considered. The Energy-UsingProducts Directive (EuP 2005/32/EC)   sets the requirementsthat energy-using products must fulfill for them to be put onthe market and/or into service. To evaluate whether and towhat extent a product fulfills the Directive’s criteria, theMEEUP methodology (Methodology for the Eco-Design of Energy-Using Products) was developed [2] [3]. Althoughenergy-efficient motors have generally been associated withthree-phase induction motors [4] [5], switched reluctancemotors (SRMs) are claiming their place in the electric motor market because of their simple, robust construction, faulttolerance capability and high efficiency. In this paper, theenvironmental and life cycle costs of an SRM are analyzedaccording to EuP 2005/32/EC and following the MEEUP   methodology, for a sample base case model that isrepresentative of the small power range.II.   SRM   D RIVE D ESCRIPTION  SRM   drives   have some drawbacks: they require anelectronic control and shaft position sensor, a huge capacitor isneeded in the DC link and the double salient structure causesnoise and torque ripple. They are, however, gainingrecognition in the electric drive market because of their simple,robust construction, low expected manufacturing cost, faulttolerance capability, high efficiency and high torque-to-inertiaratio.The base case model adopted is an 8/6 SRM (300 V, 1.5 kWof output power and IEC-90 frame) that can be said to berepresentative of the small power range (Fig. 1). The SRM,whose specifications are given in Appendices A and B, wasdesigned and built for the authors but has not beencommercialized yet.Several eco-design considerations were taken into account inthe design, namely: ã   The number of materials should be reduced. ã   The number of non-recyclable parts (i.e. plastics)should be minimized. ã   The motor should be easily assembled anddisassembled. ã   The windings should be easy to remove.The SRM is controlled using the drive depicted in Fig. 2. The power converter is a four-phase, asymmetric half-bridge,classic converter, with two IGBTs and two fast diodes per  phase. The rotor position is determined by means of an encoder or an ensemble formed by a slotted disk and three opto-interrupters placed inside the SRM. Fig. 1. Cutaway view of the 8/6 SRM    Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines2  Fig. 2. A schematic block diagram of the SRM   drive   The speed controller, a proportional integral (PI) controller,generates a current command based on the error between thereference speed and the motor speed. The current in theappropriate phase is regulated at the reference current byhysteresis control. The firing angle calculator computes theturn-on and turn-off angles at every instant, taking into accountthe actual speed and reference current.III.   E  NVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND L IFE CYCLE COSTS  The MEEUP methodology provides an Excel spreadsheet for estimating the environmental impact. First of all, study data iscollected, including materials, energy use and economic datafor the various life stages of the products. The model thentranslates these inputs into quantifiable environmental impacts.The description of the base case is the result that concernsthe products (Bill of Materials), including packaging, theestimated volume of the packaged product, the consumption of energy and other resources during the production phase, theuse phase and finally a scenario for recycling, re-use anddisposal (Tables I and II and Appendix C).Table III shows the life cycle impact of an 8/6 SRM, for which a lifetime of 12 years, 4000 hours per year of operationand an average load factor of 60 % are considered. The lifecycle indicators are divided into three blocks: main indicators,emissions to air and emissions to water. It is important to pointout that the Table presents a loss-based impact analysis because an SRM is considered to be an energy converter    andnot an end use device . Therefore, only losses are consumedinside the SRM, with the remaining energy being transmittedas mechanical power.The life cycle costs are summarized in Table IV. In thistable the product list price is just an estimate. The electricalenergy costs are computed considering 4000 hours of operation per year and the price of electricity in Spain. The repair andmaintenance costs are negligible because motors of less than 5kW are not generally repaired upon failure. TABLE I B ILL OF MATERIALS  M ATERIALS  kgElectrical steel 7.46Other steel 1.50Aluminium 4.48Copper 2.50Insulation material 0.01Impregnation resin 0.20Paint 0.06Plastics 0.53Electronics 0.36Packing material 1.50TABLE IIU SE PHASE   V ARIABLES  Lifetime (years) 12Global efficiency (%) 82.6Operating hours 4000  Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines3  TABLE III E NVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ( PER PRODUCT )M AIN I NDICATORS  Total energy GER  (1) (MJ) 162071Of which, electricity (in primary MJ) 160066Water process (l) 10804Waste, non-hazardous landfill (g) 256458Waste, hazardous incinerated (g) 4889 (1)   Gross energy requirements E MISSIONS TO A IR  Greenhouse gases in GWP100 (kg Co 2 eq) 7128Ozone depletion emissions (mg R-11 eq) negligibleAcidification potential (g SO 2 eq) 42395VOCs (g) 75Heavy metals (mg Ni eq) 3197Particulate matter (g) 3832 E MISSIONS TO W ATER  Heavy metals (mg Hg/20) 1116Eutrophication (g PO 4 ) 11TABLE IV LCC FOR SRMM AIN I NDICATORS  Product list price    €384Electrical energy €5795Repair and maintenance costs   --- IV.   C ONCLUSIONS  An environmental and life cycle cost analysis of an 8/6 SRMdrive that can be considered to be representative of the small power range is described in this paper. The analysis wascarried out according   to EuP 2005/32/EC and following theMEEUP methodology. From the analysis it can be concludedthat SRMs could generate large savings, mainly due to their high efficiency. In the use phase, the savings generated bySRMs are comparable to or even better than those of   Eff1  three-phase induction motors. Unfortunately, a drawback of theMEEUP methodology is that it does not reflect one of the mainadvantages of SRMs, which is the ease with which its various parts and materials can be separated in the disposal phase.SRMs have not yet reached the status of standardcommodity products; as a result, OEMs, who are mainlyinterested in motor prices as they do not pay operating costs,do not consider them to be a good choice [5]. The production phase of SRMs must improve so that initial costs can bereduced—a clear disadvantage is the high waste of magneticsteel in punching—but this is difficult to achieve if there arefew potential purchasers. Regulatory measures focusing onminimum efficiency standards for motors would be a first stepto removing inefficient motors from the market and pushingSRMs to the forefront.A CKNOWLEDGMENTS  This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education and   Science and the ERDF (DPI2006-09880).R  EFERENCES   [1]   A.T. de Almeida, F.J.T.E. Ferreira, D. Both. “Technical and EconomicalConsiderations in the Application of Variable-Speed Drives withElectric Motor Systems”  IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,  Vol. 41, No.1, January/February 2005, pp 188-198.[2]   http://ec.europa.eu/energy/demand/legislation/eco_design_en.htm[3]   VHK, DG ENTR (European Commission) “Methodology Study Eco-design for Energy using Products. November 2005.[4]   A.T. de Almeida, F.J.T.E. Ferreira, J. Fong, P. Fonseca. “EUP Lot 11Motors – FINAL”, February 2008.[5]   A.T. de Almeida, P. Fonseca, H. Falkner, P. Bertoldi. “MarketTransformation of Energy-Efficient Motor Technologies in the EU.Energy Policy” 31 (2003), pp. 563-576. A PPENDIX A L AMINATIONS OF THE FOUR - PHASE 8/6   SRM  Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines4   A PPENDIX B SRM DATA  P ARAMETER   S YMBOL   V ALUE  Stator outer diameter D 0  150 ± 1 mmStack length L 95 mmStator inner diameter D i 132 mmStator airgap diameter D s 80.8 mmRotor airgap diameter D 80 mmAirgap g 0.4 mmStator pole arc β s 20.68ºRotor pole arc β r  23.07ºStator pole width b s 14.5 mmRotor pole width b r  16 mmStator yoke thickness h y 9 mmRotor yoke thickness h n 9 mmStator slot depth h s 25.6 mmRotor slot depth h r  16 mmShaft diameter D e 30 mmShaft diameter (drive’s end) D out 24 mmLamination steel FeV 270-50 HA Number of coils per pole N  p 97Wire diameter d c 1.18 mmInsulation class H A PPENDIX C G LOBAL E FFICIENCY OF THE F OUR -P HASE 8/6   SRM   D RIVE

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