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  University of the Philippines Manila BIO 160 Lec- Part 1-B The Organism and its environment: Adaptability, Nutrients and Soil 1: What is the modern view of species? Species are not static, they are changing and evolving 2. Nothing makes sense in Biology without? Evolution 3. A kind of soil that is not sorted by size? Till 4. Inherent character for evolution to take place Genetic Variation 5. The physical environment variables changes daily and seasonally. This includes latitude, region and locality. Implication? Organisms are in a changing environment 6. Refers to the mechanism to maintain a constant internal environment Homeostasis 7. When does an organism learn to adapt and be integrated in prevailing environment? When environment pressures become intense and unbearable 8. Adaptation is yielded by? Evolution (Genetic Change) 9. It is altered with superior genotype as they stay Genetic Equilibrium 10. What is the continuing process in nature? Evolution yields adaptation 11. What resulted to the process of evolution? Genetic Drift, Speciation, Natural Selection 12. What is the essence of the previous statements? Species are able to adapt due to evolutionary past not to current conditions 13. In the example provided in the book, what is the role of the bird to bugs? Selection pressure 14. Is it possible for evolution not to take place? Yes, when conditions exceed homeostatic plateau 15. What limits the abundance, distribution and over-all ecology of biotic components? Abiotic components 16. Organisms adapt so as to reduce the limiting effects of abiotic factors Factor Compensation 17. What are the two great ecological laws? Law of the Minimum; Law of Tolerance 18. Who authored the law of the minimum? Justus von Liebig 19. Nutrient that is primary to growth of crops? Boron 20. Least available to diatoms? Silica 21. For aquatic systems? Phosphate (PO4) 22. What is the law of the minimum? The growth/survival of the organism is primarily dependent on the nutrient that is least available 23. Who authored the law of tolerance? Victor Ernest Shelford 24. What is the statement of the law of tolerance? Existence of the organisms are within definable range of conditions 25. What is the implication of the law of tolerance? Organisms live between conditions of too much and too little 26. What corresponds to the optimum range? Preferred niche, peak of curve as the max or optimum range 27. Zone for unavailable niche Zone of death or avoidance 28. Marginal niche zone Zone of Physiological stress 29. Describe the zone of Physiological stress Unviable, no movement 30. What do diatoms use as substitute for Silica? Strontium 31. Range of tolerance determines what? Survival and distribution 32. What increases the range of tolerance? Adaptation 33. Why we don’t take factors in isolation? Because there is interaction between variables 34. What interacts with temperature in terrestrial e? Relative humidity 35. in aquatic e? Oxygen concentration 36. When is the narrower range observed? Reproductive Age 37. Explain why fishes exist in springs of volcanic geysers Range of tolerance is not a fixed point due to evolutionary or genetic change, physiological or behavioral changes 38. Pertains to the self-world of animals where they live Umwelt 39. Who defined Umwelt? Jacob von Uexkull 40. Narrow, high-peaked tolerance curves Stenotopic 41. Broader, flatter curve Eurytopic 42. Refers to stenotopic condition in the higher region Polytopic 43. Refers to stenotopic condition in lower region  Oligotopic 44. Organism that eat wide-range of food Euryphagic 45. What are the energy elements Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen 46. Why are they called energy elements? Because they take part in photosynthesis 47. Describe a plant that has Oxygen deficiency Protoplasm is not built, ATP less (no final acceptor) 48. What is the result of excess N? Algal bloom due to eutrophication from nitrogen fertilizers 49. How and why N shall be fixed? It is an inert gas and can be fixed by bacteria as ammonium ions or nitrates 50. Why is carbon seen more in terrestrial environment? Decomposition 51. Why is ashfall from fires different from that from volcanoes? From fires, it is Ca and K rich 52. What are the main sources of nutrients? Atmosphere, Geologic sources, plant uptake, decomposition 53. Why is warmer climate better source of nutrients than cool climate Greater leaching may occur 54. What kind of transport is cation-exchange? Active transport 55 PAGOD NA AKO
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