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Divine Protection for Shepherd and Sheep. Apollon, Hermes, Pan and their Christian counterparts St. Mamas, St. Themistocles and St. Modestos. PECUS. 1st International Conference on Man and Animal in Antiquity, Sept. 2002 (2003)

Divine Protection for Shepherd and Sheep. Apollon, Hermes, Pan and their Christian counterparts St. Mamas, St. Themistocles and St. Modestos. PECUS. 1st International Conference on Man and Animal in Antiquity, Sept. 2002 (2003)
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  Divine protection for shepherd and sheepApollon, Hermes, Pan and their christian counterparts st. Mamas, st. Themistocles and st. Modestos  . an an anma n antquty. roceengs o te conerence at te wes nsttute n ome, eptemer -, . . arro anto rze e wes nsttute n ome. roects an emnars, , ome 4. www.svensa-nsttutet-rom.orgpecus by Jutta Stroszeck   stract: he article presents an overview over pagan Greek and Christian pastoral deities: The Greek gods are mainly Apollon, Hermes and Pan with specific epicleses as well as minor shepherd deities such as Aristaios, Daphnis or the mythological shepherd Endymion. The Christian protectors in the Greek area are St. Mamas, St. hemistocles and - for cattle - St. Modestos, whereas in northern Eu-rope the main shepherd saints are St. Bartholomy and St. Wendelin. In southern Italy the shepherd patron is St. Michael. Of these, St. Mamas is presented here in particular, because his cult is the most idely spread one until today. The srcin of his cult lies in Cappa-ocia, from where it spread to Byzance, Cyprus, Armenia, Georgia, Libanon, and Russia. The crusaders brought it into Italy, Germany, France and the Spanish peninsula. Finally, some common elements between the ancient classical and the Christian traditions related to these patrons are summarized. * Shepherds have at all times sought divine protection for flocks and pastures, because their only source of income is easily afflicted by epidemic diseases, wild beasts, such as dogs and wolves, or natural disasters in the form of draughts and floods. A special concern for the well-be-ing of animals and pastures is only to be expected in so-cieties that depend on pastoral products for clothing and nutrition (wool and leather, milk, cheese, meat et al.). The importance of pastoral products for everyday life in antiquity can hardly be overestimated. Their commercial value becomes evident, for instance, by the reference in the tariff laws of Palmyra in Syria (137 AD), 1 of Zarai in Numidia, 2 and of course in the price list edited by Diocletian in 301 AD. 3 Apart from prices for the animals themselves (goats, sheep, mutton, lambs), fixed prices were also given there for meat, hide, leather and wool. From Diocletian’s edict we even learn about the wages set up for shepherds (20 denarii per day) and the sheep-shearers (2 denarii per animal). Milk and cheese were not mentioned in these tariffs, but they represented of course a rather large share of daily nutrition. Another group of inscriptions that throw light on pasto-ral life in the classical period, are the regulations for the use of pastoral land owned by sanctuaries. Such inscrip-tions are preserved from Tegea, Tamynai on Euboea and Ios. 4 From these we learn that pastures were the object of detailed law regulations. At Tegea, for instance, the priest was allowed to keep only 27 sheep, a pair of draught animals and one goat on the land of the sanctu-ary for free - an amount that can have covered only the immediate needs of the household set up by the priest in the sanctuary. The priest was obliged to pay for any ani-mals beyond that number, if he wanted to pasture them on the land of Alea. The other regulations forsee pay-ments per animal in case foreign animals grass illegally Fig. 1. Athens, Archaeological National Museum inv. no. 54, Hermes Kriophoros (LIMC vol. V (1990) 313 s. v. Hermes no. 289).  232 on the land of a sanctuary or even warn that the animals ill duly be confiscated in that case. This kind of regula-tion shows the high value of pasture land in general and one can assess that many detailed oral agreements with shepherds were regulating every day life in the poleis and the land around in a similar way throughout antiq-uity. In short, a large part of daily life was connected to and dependent on the well-being of pastures and shep-herds. It is clear, therefore, that cult for pastoral deities ust have been performed largely. In order to understand the interaction between pastoral-ependent societies and the cult of pastoral deities, it is ecessary in the first place, to investigate which of the ods and saints had the capacity of protecting shepherds, pastures and animals and where they once were and still are honoured. The Pastoral Pantheon In the classical period, there were several gods that spe-ifically cared for the well-being of flocks and pastures.he principal deities were Zeus, Apollon, Hermes and Pan, all linked by family bonds: Apollon and Hermes being half-brothers and Pan being the son of Hermes. In addition, there were also local gods and mythological shepherds. The names of the gods were specified with the epicleses related to their pastoral function. According to mythology, all of these gods were working - at least occasionally - as shepherds themselves. In some places, two or more of these gods were ven-rated together, for instance at Gythion, there were cults for Zeus Ammon, 6 Apollon Karneios and Pan; or at Troi-zen, where cults of Hermes Epimelios, Pan and Aristaios are recorded; or in the Carnasian grove at Oechalia next to the plain of Stenyclerus in northern Messenia, where Apollon Karneios and Hermes Kriophoros had a joint ult (Pausanias 4, 33, 4). There are two epicleses that single out Zeus pastoral god. He may have acquired this function in onnection with his being in charge of rain and vegeta-tion: 7 Zeus Ammon is represented bearded and with rams horns, but his function as a pastoral god was less impor-tant than his capacity as an oracle deity. 8  Zeus Lykaiosas worshipped in the Arcadian mountains, as protector of the sheep from wolves. 9 Zeus could obviously protect herds and pastures, but fathering Apollon and Hermes, his sons seem to have been credited with more potential in the pastoral field. Apollon 10  had of course various other spheres of responsibility, but three major epicleses single out his capacity to protect shepherds and sheep: Apollon Epimelios, 11  that is: “guardian of the flock”, Karneios, 12 the ram god” and Nomios, 13 the protector of pastures and shepherds”. Less common is the epiclesis Poim-ios, 14 he who cares for the herds”. Similar to Zeus, the pithet Lykeios 15 shows that Apollon keeps wolves away from the herds. Macrobius (1,17,45) also includes the pithet Arnokomes, “with hair like sheepwool”, in his comments on pastoral cults on Naxos. Apollon’s pastoral aspect is also emphasized by the fact that sacred flocks were held as property by the sanctuaries of Helios-Apol-lon (see, for example, Herodotus 9, 93 about the flock of sheep that was sacred to the sun at Apollonia and its shepherd Euenios). Apollon Karneios 16  had greater responsibilities than the other deities, being the Dorian ram-god with yearly festivities at Sparta and elsewhere. He also obviously played an important rôle in male rites of passage, but nevertheless, he never lost his important pastoral function. Cult places for Apollon Karneios were for example at the Triopion, the central Dorian sanctu-ary on the Knidos peninsula, 17  as well as in the above-mentioned Carnasian Grove, the central sanctuary of the Dorian dynasty of the Kresphontes in northern Messe-nia. The annual Karneia were celebrated at Sparta in his honor for nine days in the month of August. 18  The name of the month derived from this festival. That time of the year is an important season for shepherds: Transhumant herds come down from their summer pastures towards the valleys and plains, and, even more importantly, the mating season falls into that period or lies immediately ahead, for which fertility is expected and prayed for. We shall see, that it is the time when festivities honouring pastoral patrons are held until today.  Jutta Stroszec Fig. 2. Paris, Louvre CA 626 Boeotian terracotta statuette of Hermes carrying a ram (after LIMC vol. V no. 271 a).  233 Apollon Karneios is represented on coins as a beardless outh with rams horns. 19  He was also venerated in Crete (Knossos and Gortyn), in Kyrene and on Cyprus as well as on the Peloponnesus, in Laconia (Gythion, Las, 20 Pharai, Sparta), 21  on the Mani peninsula (Oitylon and Leuktra) and at Sikyon (Paus. 2,10,2). Apollon is rarely represented with pastoral at-tributes and it is difficult to identify the figures of the od holding the horns of a goat or sheep 22 or the head of a hegoat 23  with one of the above-mentioned pastoral picleses. Hermes’s 24  pastoral function is stressed by the epithets Epimelios, omios 25  and Kriophoros, 26  “the ram bearer” as well as by the less common Melosoos, 27 he who rescues sheep”. Hermes is a son of Zeus and the nymph Maia, who lived on the Arcadian Mt. Kyllene. Hermes as born in a cave. According to myth, Hermes invented the lyre, but gave it to his brother Apollon in exchange for a shepherd’s rod. Apollon also passed extensive pas-toral reponsibilities on to Hermes. 28 His cult as a pastoral god was especially wide-spread in Arcadia and Boeotia. Many myths center round the od in his pastoral function. In many representations as a pastoral god, Hermes is shown young and beardless. In red figure and black figure vases, he is occasionally shown riding a ram. 29 Hermes Epimelios 0  had altars on the agora of Boeotian Koroneia and at Troizen. Hermes Krióphoros, 1 the ram carrying god (Fig. 1), was espe-ially worshipped at Tanagra in Boeotia, where Kalamis had created his cult statue (Paus. 9, 22,1). According to myth, the god saved the city from a disease by carrying a ram on his shoulders around the city walls - an event remembered and repeated annually by the most beauti-ful ephebe in the city during the festival in honour of the god. Another iconographical type is represented in the Hermes statue set up in the sanctuary of Zeus at Olym-pia by the Arcadians from Pheneos. It showed the god wearing a pilos and carrying a ram under his left arm. This statue was made by the sculptor Onatas from Ae-gina and his pupil or son Kalliteles (Paus. 5, 27, 8). This type was especially wide-spread in terracotta and bronze figurines from Boeotia and Arcadia (Fig. 2). 32 Out of the variety of statues showing Hermes with a ram, there is one other type to be singled out: it is the statue Pausanias saw along the street from Korinth to Lechaion (Paus. 2, 3,4): It showed the seated god and next to him a standing ram. Coins from Korinth (2 nd cent. AD) and a marble statue at Kos might reproduce this statue (Fig. 3. 33  Pausanias quotes Homer (Il. 14, 490f.) in order to underline the capacity to protect and enlarge the herds credited to Hermes. Pan or Pan Nomios 34 is a son of Hermes and the Nyph Penelope (Nonnos, Dionysiaka, 14, 67; 5). He  Divine protection or seper an seep Fig. 3. Kos, Museum inv. no 91. Statue of seated Hermes and a ram (Photo V. Scheunert). Fig. 4. Athens, Kerameikos, inv. no. T 1057. Terracotta statuette repre-senting Pan, H: 9.5 cm (Photo J. Stroszeck).  234 as srcinally worshipped in Arcadia. His cult spread all over Greece and especially in Attica after the battle at Marathon in 480 BC, where he is said to have helped the Greeks to conquer the Persians. 35  With his goat’s head and feet he is the only Greek god perceived as a mixed reature, half hegoat and half human (Fig. 4). His cult is often practised in mountain caves, where he appar-ntly is thought to live (Ovid, Metamorphoses 11, 139; 14, 513), for example in Athens, at Marathon (Paus. 1, 32, 7), at Vari, Daphni and Phyli. Many relief anathems show Pan in a cave. 6 His attributes are the syrinx which he plays while guarding the sheep, and the lagobolon. A arble statuette from Gythion shows youthful Pan carry-ing a ram on his shoulders. It is, therefore, the only Pan Kriophoros known so far. 37 Pan Lykaios had a special ult on the Arcadian Mt. Lykaion, closely connected to his power of keeping away wolves from the herds. Also, he and Zeus Lykaios have common cult places. 38 Faunus 39  became the Roman counterpart of Pan. He had a temple on the Tiber island in Rome. On the same island stands today the main basilica for the Christian shepherd saint, St. Bartholomy. Lesser gods 40 Aristaios 41 was a local god worshipped by the shep-herds at Troizen. He is said to be a son of Apollon and the nymph Kyrene. Other mythological shepherds had inor local cult places in the country, like Aegeus, the father of Theseus, Amphion, who is raised by a shepherd and plays the lyre, Daphnis, 42 Endymion, Eumolpos, 3 apaios, 44  Orpheus and, last but not least, there are also female protectresses for sheep, namely the nymphs like Kyrene, 5 the mother of Aristaios, who herded her sheep on the banks of the Peneios, Nomia 6  and a group of ymphs called Epimeliades (Paus. 8,4,1f.) as well asHekate (Hesiod, Theog. 444-447). Christian Saints Many features of shepherd life and the positive quali-ties connected to the profession influenced Christian terminology and were incorporated in the cult. A few xamples must suffice:he birth of Christ in a cave or a barn is first noticed by the shepherds and they, according to Lucas 2, 7ff., are the first to see the newborn child and to spread the good ews. Christ is referred to as the Good Shepherd accord-ing Psalm 23, and the Christians used the iconographic scheme of a shepherd carrying a ram on his shoulders to symbolize Christ. This image was used to represent the haracteristic features of a good shepherd for the growing hristian community: Jesus cares for the Christians indi-vidually like a shepherd for the animals entrusted to him. his idea has been passed on into the Christian church-s and is still today used for bishops 47 and the pope (the bishop’s scepter resembling the curved shepherd’s rod). On the other hand, Christ himself was identified with a lamb (Joh. 1, 29). The qualities of the animal (purity and harmlessness) are used here as a symbol for the sacrifice Christ made to humanity. This image was also widely ac-cepted in antiquity, because the use of sheep as offerings to the gods was a common practice (comp. the story of Phrixos, who was saved by a ram when he was about to be sacrificed in Apollonios Rhodios II 1141-56 and the story of Abraham sacrificing Isaak in 1. Moses 22, 9-14). In addition, shepherds obviously required their own special saints who would know about their needs, having being sheperds themselves, just as the pagan pastoral deities. Their place was taken over by Christian saints. In the 3 rd  century AD, two shepherds suffered martyr-dom and consequently they became the new protectors for Christian shepherds. The most important one is Saint Mamas, less common is Saint Themistokles. A third one, Saint Moestos, became the protector of cattle and other domesticated animals as well as the patron saint of modern veterinarians. t. Mamas Although the name Mamas sounds unfamiliar to us, it was quite a common name in antiquity, already recorded in the 3 rd  century BC in Sicily and widely used in Ro-man Asia Minor. 48 Legend There are several legends of St. Mamas and also local versions as well as miracles that round up the story. The most popular version of his legend runs as follows: 49 The parents of Mamas, Theodotos and Rufina, were Roman citizens and lived at Gangra in Paphlagonia. During the prosecution of Christians exercised by the Roman Emperor Aurelianus (270-275) they were ar-rested for proclaiming to be Christian, the mother being highly pregnant. They were transferred to Caisarea in Kappadokia in order to stand trial there. Mamas was born in prison, and both his parents died there. A rich woman called Ammia raised the boy. She died when the boy was 15, leaving her fortune to him. In the meantime, Mamas had declared his Christian faith and, therefore, in his turn, he was called in front of the governor at Caesarea. He was tortured for refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods but resisted wild beasts and fire. When threatened of being drowned, he escaped with the help of an angel who ordered him to remain on the mountains near Cae-sarea. Mamas lived there in a cave, developing power over the wild animals, to whom he read the gospel. Deer and goat came to him voluntarily and let him use their milk  50 from which he made cheese that he gave to the poor at Caesarea. When called in again by the governor on the charge of being a magician, Mamas was tortured and at last speared by a soldier. Despite his wounds, Mamas managed to get out of town to a mountain cave where he died. Soon afterwards this cave was turned into a church and from there his cult spread rapidly.  Jutta Stroszec  235 he much more recent Cypriot version of the legend akes him a monk living in a cave near Morphou. He was accuse o tax avoance. Beng e to court y te  poce, a on casng a seep crosse s way. On te ca o te sant, te on came to m an et m re to court on his back, the saint holding the sheep in his arm. hen the judge saw this, Mamas was released and freed of his tax obligations. Thus, Mamas became the patron o tax evaers an n tat respect e came cose agan o s ancent preecessor, Hermes wo aso protecte hieves. Cult he great church fathers Dionysios and Basilios from Caesarea and Gregor from Nazianz held panigyric speeches about the martyr and made him known to the Crstan wor. Durng te 4 century, s cut sprea rom Cappaoca to Georga, Lanon an Cyprus an o course aso to Greece. Ater rst transatones n te early 9 h  century to Lyon,he Crusaders brought the worship of St. Mamas to northern Italy, especially to the eneto and the Bassano regions . From there it spread to France an Span. Tere are aso curces n Germany, at Fnnngen an Ta ngen n Bavara. Today, the most numerous churches of Saint Mamas are found on Cyprus (about 60). In Greece they are con- ned to rural areas in Crete, the Peloponnesos and Boeo-a as we as te sans an Maceona ca. 30 ave een counte so ar. Wt very ew exeptons, tey are erecte n te countryse, ar away rom vages an cities and often very difficult to reach (  Fig. 5  ). Some of hem clearly were erected on old transhumance routes. hey are small apsidal churches with perhaps a bell ung somewere n a neary tree. Many are surroune y arge trees an ave an area cose y, were, every year on Sept. 2 the day of Saint Mamas is celebrated with a joint meal of the shepherds. The time of the year and the way these festivals are celebrated with a huge ea uner say trees are remnscent o te cassca rnea at Argos or te Karnea at Sparta, rura estvas ang pace n August an ceerate y te ancent shepherds with meals under  skiades  and with sacrifices of a ram for Apollon Karneios.Recenty, many o te curces o St. Mamas ave een restore. On te newy pante wte was o te churches at Kos and Leuktra in Boeotia (  Fig. 6   ), there are brown stripes visible that are due to sheep gathering aroun te ung an rung ter coat aganst te was. Te oest curces are, o course at Caesarea n Cappadocia (built in the 4 h  century under Julian Apos-tata, *331-363), and at Byzance(at least since the 5centu ry). The church at Ehden in the Libanon 55 has a dedication inscription from 749 AD, whereas in Greece the one at Naxos (9 h  cent.) seems to be the oldest one  preserved.n most areas, te man ceeraton ay or t. Mamas is in August or September  56 (17 August in Germany, Italy, France and Spain, 2 d  September in Greece, 15, September in Russia), while in Persia he s ceerate on te ovemer an n yprus as late as the 26th of December. Iconograpy The earliest preserved representation of St. Mamas is the part of a fresco dated to the 7 century at S. Maria Antiqua in Rome. The head of the saint is identifiable  by the inscription.Other representations in the form of wall paintings are preserved in Cappadocian rock-cut curces, n reece an on yprus. ecent ree icons are simple expressions of rural faith reflecting a standard repertoire: They show three main types of St. Mamas, while a lot of variants do occur. 1. To begin with, a non-specific icon has him standing with a palm branch in one hand, the cross in the other, wearing a tunic with a broad, embroidered rim and a re coa. s epcton s use or a ot o sants tat were martyrs. One characteristic of this and all the other Mamas types is the youthful face, in this case with combed but curly hair. 2. The second type shows St. Mamas standing with the shepherds’ stick or a cross in the right hand and a lamb on his left arm, again in tunic and red cloak. His long ar curs messy aroun te young ace. e s some-times depicted in a mountainous landscape with sheep gathered around his feet and drinking from a small river; sometimes he is wearing the f   sciae crurales  , strps o cot woun aroun te caves, remnscent o the ancient shepherd’s outfit ( ig. ). In a variant he is  Divine protection or seper an seep Fig. 5. Andros, Northern church of St. Mamas (Photo J. Stroszeck).Fig. 6. Leuktra (Boeotia), Church of St. Mamas (Photo J. Stroszeck).
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