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Control Systems in Medical

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Application of Control Systems in Medical Field
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 R$$4 %)- $S.1C'$4 ,#$ 8&5&C$(&. $+,-0 %)- *&)/#, .)')528   3&#$%&/ *# 9*&/&:*)2/ +6-$,7-   E-)1K ! # @+6-,/ )% J)./0)' !#, .)')52  4 B R.1.( .+( PBTB P++./6.10 G$(/BI4 >Q99B PD.&'.2'$ ., 666B&$$$*//B)-3B    $%%$*,4 *.-(&.* .//&/, ($D&*$/ .-$ 1$*#.+&*.' C?1C/ ,#., /?CC'$1$+, $+()3$+)?/ *.-(&.* )?,C?, ., .+ appropriate pressure to allow normal circulation through the patient’s body. The control challenges include the changing demands for cardiac output as a function of the patient’s “state” (for ex .1C'$4 '$D$' )% $S$-*&/$4 $1),&)+4 C)/,?-$IB #$ %&-/, /?*# &1C'.+,.2'$ ($D&*$ ,) -$*$&D$ .CC-)D.' 20 ,#$ EUP G9::AI &/ ,#$ @.S,$-V7)D.*)- '$%, D$+,-&*?'.- .//&/, ($D&*$ GWXPUIB ='$.-'04 ,#$ &($.' ($D&*$ 6)?'( 1&1&* the body’s own mechanisms for maintainin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`I .',#)?3# /,?(&$/ /#)6$( '$// D.-&.2&'&,0 &+ 2'))( C-$//?-$ ,#.+ 6&,# 1.+?.' *)+,-)'4 ,#$ $%%$*, )% ,#$ -$(?*$( D.-&.2&'&,0 )+ C.,&$+, )?,*)1$/ 6./ ?+*'$.- N9^OB R)1$ /,?(&$/ /?33$/,$( ,#., C.,&$+,/ 6$-$ .2'$ ,) -$(?*$ #)/C&,.' /,.0/ 20 . (.0B 8&,# +$6 *)11?+&*.,&)+ /,.+(.-(/ .+( .(D.+*$/ &+ 1&*-)C-)*$//)-F2./$( C?1C ,$*#+)')304 . *')/$(F'))C 2'))( C-$//?-$ /0/,$1 *)?'( C-)2.2'0 /?**$$( &+ ,#$ 1.-5$,C'.*$ ,)(.0B  (3,)*4,)% +,/%-,#5    #$ $%%$*, )% ,#$ &+,-.D$+)?/ .+$/,#$,&* C-)C)%)' &/ (&-$*,'0 -$'.,$( ,) &,/ *)+*$+,-.,&)+ &+ ,#$ 2'))(B .-3$,F*)+,-)''$( &+%?/&)+ G =LI &/ . 1)($'F2./$( )C$+F'))C /,-.,$30 ($/&3+$( ,) -$3?'.,$ ,#$ *)+*$+,-.,&)+ )% . (-?3 &+ ,#$ 2'))( 20 3&D&+3 .+ &+&,&.' &+,-.D$+)?/ 2)'?/ G/#),I4 %)'')6$( 20 ,&1$F($C$+($+, &+%?/&)+B P *)11$-*&.' ($D&*$4 ,#$ U&C-&%?/)- GP/,-.a$+$*. b#.-1.*$?,&*.'/I4 #./ 2$$+ .D.&'.2'$ ,#-)?3#)?, 1?*# )% ,#$ 6)-'( /&+*$ 9::; N9`O4 N9<O4 6&,# 1&''&)+/ )% /?**$//%?' C-)C)%)' &+%?/&)+/ .(1&+&/,$-$( N9;OB E)- . D.-&$,0 )% -$./)+/4 +) =L ($D&*$ #./ -$*$&D$( EUP .CC-)D.' &+ ,#$ \+&,$( R,.,$/ N9]OB PCC-)D.' 1.0 2$ 1)-$ '&5$'0 &% ,#$ &+%?/&)+ /0/,$1 &+*)-C)-.,$/ . ($C,# )% .+$/,#$/&. 1)+&,)-4 /?*# ./ ,#$ 2&/C$*,-.' &+($S G@LRI 1.+?%.*,?-$( 20 P/C$*, T$(&*.' R0/,$1/4 ,) %)-1 . %?''0 *')/$(F'))C /0/,$1B    ! # 6-,#+-;#07 :&/ KLM7MMM &+6'-./#( 6#0 2#-0 :)0'(:&(#7 &1 - 4*&C4&/)41 *&)+#(&,-' (#3&,# 0#'&-./ ). ,)./0)' -'5)0&/ +1 /) ,)./&.4# %4.,/&).&.58 6*4,# (77/%& *%03) @$0)+( ,#)/$ #&3#'&3#,$( #$-$4 . +?12$- )% 2&)1$(&*.' ($D&*$/ ,#., #.D$ 2$$+ /?**$//%?''0 ,-.+/'.,$( &+,) *)11$-*&.' C-)(?*,/ ?/&+3 *')/$(F'))C ,$*#+)')30 &+*'?($ ,#$ &1C'.+,.2'$ *.-(&)D$-,$- ($%&2-&''.,)- GL=UI4 ,#$ &+,-.*.-(&.* $'$*,-)3-.1 GL[cTI4 .+( ,#$ )S03$+ /.,?-.,&)+ 1)+&,)-B L+ ),#$- 2&)1$(&*.' ($D&*$ .-$./4 /$+/)-/ .-$ ?/$( ,) C-)D&($ %$$(2.*5 ,) *)+,-)' .+( ($'&D$- $'$*,-&* /&3+.'/ ,#., stimulate the brain to ease the tremors of Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy by determining the extent .+( ,&1&+3 )% /,&1?'.,&)+B P((&,&)+.''04 *')/$(F'))C 2&)1$(&*.' ($D&*$/ .-$ ?/$( ,) ,-$., C$-&C#$-.' vascular disease by using sensors to measure blood flow in a patient’s limbs and determine the level of /C&+.' *)-( )- C$-&C#$-.' +$-D$ /,&1?'.,&)+ -$H?&-$( ,) &1C-)D$ 2'))( %')64 ,#$-$20 -$(?*&+3 &/*#$1&* C.&+ &+ ,#$ '&12/B =')/$(F'))C ,$1C$-.,?-$ *)+,-)' #./ 2$$+ $1C')0$( &+ .2'.,&)+ /0/,$1/ G/?*# ./ ,#$ P,.5- %-)1 T$(,-)+&*I 6&,# ,#$-1)*)?C'$ %$$(2.*5 %)- /.%$,0B ;2%<,$ +*=,- 2#' #5,-$7,#$ #$ C),$+,&.' 1.-5$, %)- ,#$ D$+,-&*?'.- .//&/, ($D&*$ &/ -)?3#'0 ^<4QQQ $+(F/,.3$ #$.-, (&/$./$ C.,&$+,/ C$- 0$.- &+ ,#$ \BRB .')+$B #$ 1.-5$, *.C&,.'&d.,&)+ )% XPU *)1C.+&$/ $S*$$(/ e9@ &+ ,#$ \BRB #$ C.*$1.5$-4 6&,# ><Q4QQQ &1C'.+,$( C$- 0$.- 6)-'(6&($ N99O4 &/ . ?2&H?&,)?/ 2&)1$(&*.' ($D&*$ -$'&.+, )+ *)+,-)' .'3)-&,#1/ ,) *)+,&+?$ %?+*,&)+&+3B =.,#$,$- /0/,$1 *)1C.+&$/ #.D$ . *)''$*,&D$ 1.-5$, *.C&,.'&d.,&)+ )+ ,#$ )-($- )% eQB<@B PCC-)S&1.,$'0 9] 1&''&)+ &+(&D&(?.'/ &+ ,#$ \BRB .-$ (&.3+)/$( (&.2$,&*/4 <F9Qf )% 6#)1 #.D$ ,0C$ 9 .+( -$H?&-$ &+/?'&+ ,#$-.C0B R&1&'.- &+*&($+*$ -.,$/ .CC'0 ,) ),#$- -$3&)+/ )% ,#$ 6)-'(B P >QQ< $/,&1.,$ C?, ,#$ +?12$- )% &+/?'&+ C?1C ?/$-/ 6)-'(6&($ ., `QQ4QQQ .+( 3-)6&+3 20 9QF9>f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competition for the artificial pancreas (“Closed Loop Technologies: Clinical and Behavioral Approaches to Improve Type 1 Diabetes Outcomes,” total of $5.5M funding). The EU sponsors  1?',&C'$ &+&,&.,&D$/ )+ the topic of the artificial pancreas, including ”Development of a bio F.-,&%&*&.' C.+*-$./ %)- ,0C$ 9 diabetes therapy” and “AP@home.” The NIH National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and @&)$+3&+$$-&+3 G7L@L@I &/ . 5$0 C'.0$- &+ -$/$.-*# &+D$/,1$+, %)- 2&)1$(&*.' ($D&*$/B R$D$-.' C-&D.,$ %)?+(.,&)+/ %?+( -$/$.-*# &+ ,#&/ .-$. ./ 6$''4 &+*'?(&+3 ,#$ J&''2')1 E)?+(.,&)+ G$+()*-&+$ .+( +$?-)($3$+$-.,&D$ (&/)-($-/I .+( ,#$ g?D$+&'$ U&.2$,$/ Z$/$.-*# E)?+(.,&)+ GgUZEIB #$ gUZE %?+(/ ,#$ P-,&%&*&.' b.+*-$./ =)+/)-,&?1 ., . '$D$' )% )D$- e<B<T C$- 0$.-B P -$'.,$( ,)C&* &/ *')/$(F'))C *)+,-)' )% 2'))( 3'?*)/$ &+ ,#$ &+,$+/&D$ *.-$ ?+&,M /$D$-.' *)1C.+&$/ G/?*# ./ W?1&+)?/ T$(&*.'I .-$ %?+(&+3 ,#$ ($D$')C1$+, )% /$+/)-/ .+( *')/$(F'))C *)+,-)' .'3)-&,#1/ %)- ,#&/ .CC'&*.,&)+B T$(&*.' ,$*#+)')30 *)1C.+&$/ .-$ #&-&+3 &+ ,#&/ %&$'(4 &+*'?(&+3 g)#+/)+ _ g)#+/)+4 Z)*#$4 T$(,-)+&*4 .+(   ),#$-/B R1.'' /,.-,F?C/ &+ ,#&/ %&$'( #.D$ .,,-.*,$( D$+,?-$ *.C&,.' GX=I %?+(&+3 ., /&3+&%&*.+, '$D$'/K 8)-'( J$.-, -$*$&D$( e^QT &+ X= /?CC)-, &+ >QQ:4 .+( T.3+$,$*/ #./ .'/) .,,-.*,$( X= /?CC)-,B >11&%$(#*$*,- .&% ?,@ 011/*)2$*&#- 2#' A,-,2%)B “Red” biotechnology is an emerging and vibrant area for research in control systems. Below we discuss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bUI .'3)-&,#1/ ,) $1?'.,$ ,#$ +.,?-.'&/,&* 2&C#./&* &+/?'&+ /$*-$,&)+ C-)%&'$B R)1$ )% ,#$ $.-'&$/, 6)-5 &+*'?($/ ,#$ 3'?*)/$F*)+,-)''$( &+/?'&+ &+%?/&)+ /0/,$1 Gc=LLRI N9:O4 6#&*# ?/$( /)1$ C.,&$+, (.,. G9QF/$* 3'?*)/$ /.1C'&+3 6&,# . `F ,) <F1&+ ($'.0IB #$ @&)/,.,)- N>QO .'/) %$.,?-$/ . +)+'&+$.- bU .'3)-&,#14 6&,# ,#$ .(($( +?.+*$ )% . %&D$F1$./?-$1$+, 6&+()6 %)- %&',$-&+3 3'?*)/$ 1$./?-$1$+,/B L, 6./ &1C'$1$+,$( 2$(/&($ .+( -$H?&-$( /C$*&%&* C.,&$+, *?/,)1&d.,&)+B P +&*$ -$D&$6 )% ,#$ $.-'0 .'3)-&,#1/ &/ C-)D&($( 20 P'2&//$- N>9O4 .')+3 6&,# /)1$ C.,&$+, (.,.B P+),#$- ($,.&'$( -$D&$6 &/ 3&D$+ 20 @-)$5#?0/$ $, .'B N>>OB #$/$ -$D&$6/ *)+*'?($( ,#., +) *)+,-)''$- 6./ ?+&%)-1'0 /?C$-&)- .+( ,#., 1?*# 1)-$ ($D$')C1$+, 6./ +$$($(B T)-$ -$*$+,'04 .(D.+*$( *)+,-)' ,$*#+)')3&$/ #.D$ 2$$+ ($D$')C$( %)- ,#$ .-,&%&*&.' C.+*-$./4 &+*'?(&+3 D.-&.,&)+/ )+ bLU *)+,-)' N>^O4 -?+F,)F-?+ *)+,-)' N>`O4 .+( 1)($' C-$(&*,&D$ *)+,-)' N><OB L+ ,#$ './, /$D$-.' 0$.-/4 *'&+&*.' /,?(&$/ )% .(D.+*$( *)+,-)' 1$,#)(/ #.D$ /#)6+ C-)1&/$ %)- %?,?-$ ($D&*$ ($D$')C1$+,/ N>;OFN^9OB T)/, )% ,#$/$ ,-&.'/ ?/$ /)1$ ($3-$$ )% #?1.+ &+,$-D$+,&)+4 %)- $S.1C'$4 ,) &+C?, ,#$ /&d$ )% . 1$.' &+ .(D.+*$ )% $.,&+3 ,#$ 1$.'B ) (.,$4 #)6$D$-4 ,#$ /,.,$ )% ,#$ .-, &+ %$$(2.*5 *)+,-)' ,$*#+)')30 %)- &+/?'&+ C?1C/ .+( 3'?*)/$ sensors is limited mainly to bolus “wizards” and hypoglycemic alarming. The bolus wizards are $%%$*,&D$'0 %$$(%)-6.-( 1.+?.' *)+,-)' .'3)-&,#1/ ,#., .'')6 . C.,&$+, ,) *.'*?'.,$ .+ .CC-)C-&.,$ 2)'?/ of insulin to “cancel” the expected glucose rise from an  .+,&*&C.,$( 1$.' )- ,) -$*)D$- %-)1 .+ $'$D.,$( E&3?-$ 9B =)1C)+$+,/ .+( *)11?+&*.,&)+ C-),)*)'/ %)- ,#$ .-,&%&*&.' C.+*-$./ N^>OB Notebook Computer (APS, controller, and in silico  patient model) Sensor Cradle RS-232/USBUSB DAQ RS-232 CSII PumpInvestigationalPDMSensor ReceiverSerial IR InterfaceGlucose Sensor and Transmitter AP S / C o nt r o l l er  / P at i ent  M o d el  R F   S i  g n a l   I  R     R  F   S  i g n a  l Notebook Computer (APS, controller, and in silico  patient model)   Sensor Cradle RS-232/USBUSB DAQ RS-232 CSII PumpInvestigationalPDMSensor ReceiverSerial IR InterfaceGlucose Sensor and Transmitter AP S / C o nt r o l l er  / P at i ent  M o d el  R F   S i  g n a l   I  R     R  F   S  i g n a  l
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