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    Amoud University Communication skills For Undergraduates Lecture Notes Juliana 4/9/2016  AMOUD UNIVERSITY “A Vehicle for Peace and Development”   Page 2  of 131    AMOUD UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF COMPUTING AND ICT: “Electronic Hub For Peace & Development”   Chapter One Communication Skills Introduction Communication is a key element in any human activity. Communication is a learned skill. However, while most people are born with the physical ability to talk, not all can communicate well unless they make special efforts to develop and refine this communication skill. Very often, we take the ease with which we communicate with each other for granted, so much so that we sometimes forget how complex the communication process actually is. Communication takes place when we are supposedly at the same level of understanding and comprehension as other interlocutors. Common forms of communication include speaking, writing, gestures, touch, using pictures and broadcasting. Communication is therefore not what is said whether verbally or non-verbally, but what is understood. What is communication? Communication is a word derived from the Latin word communis or commūnicāre  ,  which means ‘to make common’ or ‘to share’ . Communication is the act of conveying intended meaning to another person through the use of mutually understood signs and language. Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another. Communication is the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. The basic steps of communication are: the forming of communicative intent, message composition, message encoding, and transmission of signal, reception of signal, message decoding and finally interpretation of the message by the recipient.  AMOUD UNIVERSITY “A Vehicle for Peace and Development”   Page 3  of 131    AMOUD UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF COMPUTING AND ICT: “Electronic Hub For Peace & Development”   Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. When you call or talk verbally to your friend, then you are said to be communicating with your friend. Characteristics of Communication The characteristics of communication include: 1.   Communication is a process: Communication is a 2 way process which involves; listening to others (Receiving) message Asserting/Expressing (Sending). 2.   Communication is a dynamic: it is ever changing depending on the variables at play. 3.   . Communication is a complex a process. 4.   Communication is a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share meaning. 5.   Communication involves the sharing of information using a code. 6.   Communication occurs between people and sometimes animals 7.   Communication is irreversible: once one has communicated something it cannot be recalled back. 8.   Communication is a system 9.   Communication must have the elements of communication: Source, receiver, channel, message, noise, feedback. 10.   Communication can be verbal/ non verbal or visual. 11.   Communication can be accidental especially in non-verbal Functions of communication Human beings communicate for various reasons. Here are some of the reasons why we must communicate:  AMOUD UNIVERSITY “A Vehicle for Peace and Development”   Page 4  of 131    AMOUD UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF COMPUTING AND ICT: “Electronic Hub For Peace & Development”   1.   To change in behavior 2.   To influence others 3.   To express our thoughts and emotions through words & actions. 4.   It is a tool for controlling and motivating people. 5.   It is a social and emotional process. 6.   Communication for improving self-confidence 7.   Entertain 8.   Educate 9.   Establish relationships 10.   Inform 11.   Solve problems 12.   Make orders 13.   Give directions Forms of Communicating Verbal Communication All forms of communication can be categorized as either verbal or nonverbal. Both verbal and nonverbal communication can be subdivided into either vocal or non-vocal. Verbal communication involves using speech to exchange information with others. We usually communicate verbally in face-to-face conversations such as; meetings, interviews, conferences, speeches, phone calls e.t.c. Much of the communication that takes place between people is both verbal and non-verbal; that is, it is based on language and gestures. Verbal communication of the vocal category includes spoken language, while non-vocal verbal communication involves written communication as well as communication  AMOUD UNIVERSITY “A Vehicle for Peace and Development”   Page 5  of 131    AMOUD UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF COMPUTING AND ICT: “Electronic Hub For Peace & Development”   that is transmitted through transmitted through sign language, finger spelling, Braille, or other similar alternatives to verbal language. Paraverbal/paralinguistic/ paralanguage features Paralinguistic or paralanguage features are the aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words. They add emphasis or shades of meaning to what people say. Paralinguistic features accompany verbal communication and are the vocal signals beyond the basic verbal message. Paralinguistic elements in a person's speech, convey meaning beyond the words and grammar used. Examples of paralinguistic features include pitch, rate, quality of voice and amplitude. Other forms of paralanguage can also include laughter or imitative speech. Prosody, which is the rhythm, pattern, stress, rate, volume, inflection and intonation of a person's speech, is also a form of paralanguage. People express meaning not just in what they say but in the way they say it. The paralinguistic features employed by a speaker provide hint to the meaning, communicate the speakers’ attitudes and convey their emotion. Paralinguistic features also alert the listener as to how to interpret the message. Many of these paralinguistic features are culturally coded and inherent in verbal communication, often at a subconscious level. Non-Verbal Non-verbal communication is a type of communication that employs gestures and body language. The term "body language" is sometimes used to denote non-verbal communications. "Body Language" is the communication of personal feelings, emotions, attitudes, and thoughts through body-movements such as gestures, postures, facial expressions, touch, smell, walking styles and positions among
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