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1. HI! 2. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGEin MEMORY: Concepts,Categories,NetworksandSchemas 3. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts,…
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  • 1. HI!
  • 2. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGEin MEMORY: Concepts,Categories,NetworksandSchemas
  • 3. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas 1. How are representations of words and symbols organized in the mind? 2. How do we represent other forms of knowledge in the mind? 3. How does declarative knowledge interact with procedural knowledge? INTRODUCTION
  • 4. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
  • 5. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE -CONCEPT – thefundamentalunitofsymbolicknowledge (knowledgeofcorrespondencebetween symbolsand their meaning forexample, thatsymbol“3”means three),anidea aboutsomething thatprovidesa means ofunderstandingtheworld. -CATEGORY- is agroupofitemsintowhich different objects orconceptscanbeplacedthat belong togetherbecausetheysharesome commonfeatures,orbecausetheyare similar toacertainprototype.
  • 6. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Concepts and categories can bedivided in various ways: NATURAL CATEGORIES ARTIFACT CATEGORIES are groupings that occur naturallyinthe world like birds or tree. are groupings that are designed or inventedbyhumansto serve particular purposes or functions. NaturalandArtifact Categoriesarerelatively stableandpeopletendtoagree oncriteriaformembership.
  • 7. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories On the contrary.. -CONCEPTS- arenotalwaysstable butcan change. Theyaredescribed notin wordsbut ratherin phrases. theyalsoappearto havea basiclevel (sometimes termed asanaturallevel) of specificity,a level within ahierarchythat is preferredtootherlevels.
  • 8. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 9. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In general, thebasic levelis neitherthemost abstract nor the most specific. This basic level can be manipulatedby contextor expertise.
  • 10. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 11. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Thebasic level is the one that most peoplefind to be maximally distinctive. By means of training, the basic level can be shifted to a more subordinate level. For example, the more a personlearns about cars, the more he orshe is likely to make elaborate distinction among cars. Research suggests that the difference between experts and novices are not due to qualitative mechanisms but rather quantitative differences in processing efficacy.
  • 12. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories So, how do we decidewhat objects to put into a category?
  • 13. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories -FEATURE-BASEDCATEGORIES -PROTOTYPE THEORY -THEORY BASED VIEW OF CATEGORIZATION -SEMANTIC-NETWORK MODELS -SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATIONS
  • 14. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories FEATURE-BASEDCATEGORIES: A DEFINING VIEW the classicview of categoriesdisassemblesa conceptintoaset offeatural components.All thosefeaturesarethen necessary(andsufficient) to definethe category.This meansthateach featureis anessential element ofthe category.Together,thefeaturesuniquelydefinethe category;they aredefining features. For a thing to be anX, it must have that feature. Otherwise it is not an “X”.
  • 15. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories BACHELOR MALE UNMARRIED ADULT
  • 16. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories WIFE FEMALE MARRIED ADULT
  • 17. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories TheProblem: 1. Somecategories do not readily lend themselves to featural analysis. 2. A violation ofthose defining features does not seem to changethe category we useto define them.
  • 18. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 19. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 20. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 21. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In sum, the feature-basedtheory has some attractive features, but it does not give a complete account of categories.
  • 22. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories PROTOTYPETHEORY: A CHARACTERISTICVIEW grouping thingstogethernotbytheir defining featuresratherbytheir similaritytoanaveragedmodel ofthe category. PROTOTYPE is anabstract average of all the objects the category we have encounteredbefore CHARACTERISTICFEATURE describe (characterizeor typify) prototype but are not necessary for it.
  • 23. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 24. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories So what exactlyis a characteristicfeature? whereasa defining featureis sharedbyevery single object in acategory,a characteristicfeatureneed nottobeInstead,manyor mostinstancespossess each characterfeature..
  • 25. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Psychologistsdifferentiatetwokindsofcategories: Classicalconcepts andFuzzyConcepts. CLASSICAL CONCEPTS FUZZYCONCEPTS -Canbe readilydefined through defining features -May be built on defining features -Cannotbe so easily defined -Built aroundprototypes
  • 26. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Real-World Examples: UsingExemplars SomePsychologistssuggeststhatinsteadof using asingle abstractprototypeforcategorizingaconcept, weusemultiple, specific exemplars. EXEMPLARS aretypicalrepresentativesofa category In particular,categoriesareset upbycreating arule andthenbystoringexamplesasexemplars. Objectsarethencomparedtothe exemplarstodecide whetherornottheybelong in the category the exemplarsrepresent.
  • 27. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories ASYNTHESIS: COMBINING FEATURE-BASEDandPROTOTYPETHEORIIES A full theoryof categorization can combine both defining and characteristic features, so that each category has both prototype and aCORE. CORE refersto the defining features something must haveto be considered anexample of category. Theprototype encompasses thecharacteristic features that tend to betypical of an examplebut that are not necessary for being considered as an example. Thecore requiresthat someone labeled as a robber bea person who takes things from otherswithout permission. Theprototype, however, tends to identify particular people as more likelyto be robbers.
  • 28. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories “ROBBER ”
  • 29. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 30. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 31. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories A departure from feature-based,prototype-based, and exemplar-based views of meaningis a THEORY BASED VIEW of meaningalso sometimes called an EXPLANATION- BASED VIEW.
  • 32. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories HOW DO PEOPLEUSE THEIR THEORIES FOR CATEGORIZATION?
  • 33. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories A THEORY BASED VIEW OFMEANING hold that people understand and categorize concepts in terms of implicittheories, or generalideasthey have regarding those concepts. For example, what makes a GOOD SPORT?
  • 34. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In thePROTOTYPEVIEW, youwouldtryto findcharacteristicfeaturesofa good sport. In theCOMPONENTIALVIEW,youwouldtrytoisolate featuresof agoodsport. In theEXAMPLARVIEW,youmight trytofindsome goodexamplesyouhaveknownin yourlife.
  • 35. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In thetheory-based view, you would use your experience to construct an explanationfor what makes someone a good sport.
  • 36. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories SO what does it means to bea GOODSPORT in a theory-based view? A good sport is someone who, when he or shewins, is gracious in victory and dos not mocklosers orotherwise make them feel bad about losing. It is also someone who, when heorsheloses, loses graciously and does not blame the winner, the referee, or find excuses. Rather, heorshe takes the defeat in stride, congratulates the winner, and then moves on.
  • 37. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories FINDINGTHE “ESSENCE”OF THINGS
  • 38. to be continued…
  • 39. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories SEMANTIC-NETWORK MODELS Semantic Network Models suggests that knowledge is represented in our minds in the form of concepts that are connected with each other in a web- like form
  • 40. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Collins and Quillan’s NetworkModels Knowledgeis representedin termsofhierarchalsemanticnetwork. A SEMANTIC NETWORK is a web of elements of meaning (nodes) that are connected with each otherthrough links.
  • 41. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories ORGANIZED KNOWLEDGE representation takes the form of a hierarchal tree diagram. Theelements are called nodes they are typically concepts. Theconnections between the nodes are labeled relationships. Theymay indicate category membership, attributes, orsome other semantic relationship. Thus a network provides a means of organizing concepts.
  • 42. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories INHERITANCE This concept implies that lower-level items inherit the properties of higher- level items. Whateverwasknownaboutitems athigher levels in ahierarchywasapplied toall items at lower levels in thehierarchy
  • 43. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 44. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC FEATURES Knowledge is organized based on a comparison of semantic features, rather than on a strict hierarchy of concepts
  • 45. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 46. REPRESENTATIONand ORGANIZATIONof KNOWLEDGEinMEMORY: Concepts, Categories, NetworksandSchemas ORGANIZATIONOF DECLARATIVEKNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
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