Chapter 1: Principles of Government. USG 1.1: Summarize arguments for the necessity and purpose of government and politics.

Chapter 1: Principles of Government USG 1.1: Summarize arguments for the necessity and purpose of government and politics. What is Government? It s an institution in which society enforces its public policies.
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Chapter 1: Principles of Government USG 1.1: Summarize arguments for the necessity and purpose of government and politics. What is Government? It s an institution in which society enforces its public policies. 3 Powers of Gov t: LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL Powers are outlined in a CONSTITUTION! Powers are held by 1 person (Dictator) or the people (Democracy). 1.1: The State: The State: Aristotle was one of the first students of government. Politics, democracy, and republic originated in ancient Greece and Rome. The word state precisely IDs a definite territory and has organized gov t with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from a higher authority. Nation: describes an independent state or country. It is any sizable group of people united by a common bond. Essential Features of a State:. 1) Population, the most obvious essential feature of a state. You need people! 2) Territory- An area with fixed boundaries. 3). Sovereignty, or absolute authority, within its territorial boundaries. 4.) Government which maintains order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that its people must obey. Question? U.S. citizens sometimes complain about government, claiming it has too much power and control over their lives. Why do you think they feel this way? A: People usually complain about government when it affects them directly. Theories of the Origin of the State A. Evolution Theory B. The state evolved from the family group. Force Theory One person or a group used force to establish its authority to govern the people. C. Divine Right Theory The rulers of the people were chosen by the gods to govern. D. Social Contract Theory The people gave the government its power to rule them, and in return the government had to respect the people s rights. Discussion Q? During World War II the government imposed hardships, such as the rationing of gasoline and food, on the U.S. population. Are such measures justifiable? Why or why not? A: When national security is threatened, strong measures are needed. The Purpose of Gov t 1) Form a More Perfect Union 2) Establish Justice 3) Ensure Domestic Tranquility 4) Provide for the common defense 5) Promote the General Welfare 6) Liberty Sect. 2 Forms of Governments Did ya know? The United States Constitution is the oldest written constitution still in use. What does this imply about the stability of government in the world? 3 Types of Classification: Who Participates? Distribution of Powers Relationship between EXEC & LEG. FORMS of GOV T Democracy: Political authority is in the hands of people. DIRECT: Will of the people is LAW. INDIRECT: Representative Democracy. Dictatorship: OLDEST FORM!! Autocracy: Single person holds ALL power. Oligarchy: Small group holds ALL power. EX Nazi Germany FORMS of GOV T Unitary system of government gives all key powers to the national or central government. EX Britain Federal system government divides the powers between the nat l gov t and state or provincial gov ts. (Division of Powers) EX USA MORE FORMS!! Confederate: Alliance of independent states. Defense and Money EX European Union Parliamentary: EX. Branch = Prime Minister & Cabinet. PM is leader of majority party. Presidential: Branches of Gov t are separate, but equal. Chosen independently. 1.3 Basic Concepts of Democracy The American Concept of Democracy: 1) Worth & Dignity of individual. 2) Respect & Equality 3) Compromise 4) Faith in the majority 5) Individual Freedom Worth of Individual: Welfare of the many out weigh the 1/few. Equality: Everyone is free to develop themselves as fully as they can or care to do. Everyone is treated equal under the law. Majority Rule: Majority will be right more often than they are wrong and more often than the person or small group. Democracy is a trial & error and admits mistakes. Compromise: Public decision making gives & takes. Blending of views & interests. Freedom: No such thing as absolute freedom (anarchy). Free to do as one pleases as far as freedom allows. Economics: Free Enterprise System: Private ownership/ Initiative, profit, competition. Mixed Protect the public & preserve private enterprise. Law of Supply & Demand High Quantity= Low Prices Low Quantity= High Prices Constitutions and Government A constitution is a plan that provides the rules for government. B. Whether written or unwritten, a constitution organizes the structure of government and the way it operates. C. Constitutions set out the goals and purposes of government as well as the ideals shared by the people. D. Constitutions provide the supreme law for states and their governments Politics and Government A. Politics is the effort to control or influence the policies and actions of government. B. Individuals and groups use politics to seek benefits from government. C. Although special interest groups seek special benefits, politics also provides benefits for all the people. Governing in a Complex World A. The world today is divided into industrialized nations, developing nations, and newly industrialized nations. B. These groups of nations have many differences, but they are interdependent in many ways. C. Other groups besides nations, including multinational corporations, political movements, terrorist groups and international organizations, are important in today s world. Discuss in groups: What responsibility does the United States bear for the welfare of other nations? CFU: Main Idea In a Venn diagram like the one below, show the similarities and differences between a constitutional government and a government that merely has a constitution. Constitutional government: Constitution authorizes the government to operate within limits set by the constitution. Government with a constitution: Government operates by its own authority with few limits. Both: A written plan exists for organizing and operating the government. Sect. 3 Types of Gov t: A. Governments may be classified according to who governs the state. B. In an autocracy, such as a dictatorship or absolute monarchy, power and authority reside in a single individual. C. In an oligarchy, such as a communist country, a small group holds power in the government. D. In a democracy, such as the United States, the people hold the sovereign power of government. Question? Critics argue that the low voter turnout in recent national elections is a weakness in our democratic system. Do you agree or disagree? Explain your viewpoint. Characteristics of Democracy A. Government works to secure an equal opportunity for people to develop their own abilities. B. Government is based on majority rule through the people s elected representatives, but respects the rights of minorities. C. Government is based on free and open elections in which every citizen has the right to vote, every vote has equal weight, and candidates for office can freely express their views. D. Political parties choose candidates for office, respect the voters decisions in elections, and act as loyal opposition. Republicans Grand Old Party (GOP) Abe Lincoln was the 1 st. GW Bush is 18 th. Conservative: Small Gov Economic Freedom Strong Military Religious Morals and Values Oppose Gay Marriage/ Abortions Gun Rights Democrats Oldest party in the world! Founded by Thomas Jefferson Liberalism (Individual Liberties) Health Care Distribution of power and wealth Public Education Clean Environment Gun Control Support Gay Marriage/ Abortions Gun Control New Deal and Civil Rights era causes Af. Americans to switch parties. The Soil of Democracy A. Certain conditions or environments favor the development of the democratic system of government. B. Countries where citizens participate fully in civic life are more likely to maintain a strong democracy. C. Stable, growing economies with a large middle class help strengthen democracies. D. A public school system open to all people helps promote democracy. E. A strong civil society in which a network of voluntary organizations (including economic groups, religious groups, and many others) exists independent of government helps democracy to flourish. F. The people accept democratic values such as individual liberty and equality for all in a social consensus. CFU: Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, show who rules the state in each of Aristotle s three classifications of government. Review Sec. 3 Vocab 1) A system of government in which a small group holds power 2) A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual 3) An autocracy in which a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government 4) A government in which voters hold sovereign power; elected representatives, responsible to the people, exercise that power. Sect. 4: The Role of Economic Systems: A. Governments provide for many different kinds of economic systems. B. Economic systems make decisions about what goods and services should be produced, how they should be produced, and who gets them. Capitalism A. Capitalism is based on free enterprise, or individual economic choices. B. Capitalism developed gradually from the economic and political changes in medieval and early modern Europe. C. The United States has a capitalist economy, but government plays a role. D. Government s role in the U.S. economy has increased since the early 1900s. E. Today the United States has a mixed market economy, incorporating both free enterprise and government regulation of business and industry. Question? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of capitalism? Advantages: incentives to achieve individual potential, freedom Disadvantages: extremes of wealth and poverty Socialism A. Under socialism, government owns the basic means of production, plans the use of resources, distributes many products and wages, and provides basic social services. B. Socialism developed in Europe during the nineteenth century. C. Some socialists favored taking over the government by means of revolution, while other socialists believed in democratic socialism, in which economic conditions change peacefully and people have some freedoms and rights. D. Socialist governments have taken power in several countries; however, critics argue that this economic system fails to solve most economic problems. Communism A. Communism is based on the nineteenthcentury ideas of Karl Marx, who argued that capitalism exploited workers to benefit a small group of capitalists who controlled the economy. B. Marx predicted workers would eventually rise in a violent revolution, which would result in government ownership of all means of production and distribution; when all property was held in common, there would be no need for government. C. In communist nations, government makes all economic decisions; owns the land, natural resources, industry, banks, and transportation system; and controls all mass communication On a separate sheet of paper: Complete the diagram:
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