BULLET. by Pete Snidal

BULLET by Pete Snidal This Manual is Also Available on CD ROM Ask your local Royal Enfield dealer or visit: Copyright by Pete Snidal. All Rights Reserved
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BULLET by Pete Snidal This Manual is Also Available on CD ROM Ask your local Royal Enfield dealer or visit: Copyright by Pete Snidal. All Rights Reserved No portion of this anual ay be reproduced in any for without perission. unless the reproduction is for the sole use of the purchaser. And Rnally, a brief word fro our solicitor: The author accepts NO responsibility, expressed or iplied. for any andlor all daages to persons or property as a result of following any of the instructions laid out in this anual. I I The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal O 2002 INDEX Chapter 6. Engine Work Engine Exploded View (also see Appendix) The Cork Quill Seal.. 59 Reove and Replacing the Tiing Cover - 60 The Tllng.. Gears Checking and Setting lgnltlon Tllng Decldlng.. on Top End Work Reoving Cylinder Head Replacing Cylinder Head Reoving Cylinder Barrel. 83 Replacing Cylinder Barrel Spllttlng.. the Crankcase 9 I Chapter 7. Suspension Operation of The Front Suspension The Casquette/Fork Crown/Steering Head The Stanchion/Maintube-Slider Asseblies 98 The Rear Suspension I Chapter 8 -The Priary Drive Reoving the Clutch -. I03 Replacing the Clutch I05 Exploded View - the 350 Clutch Reoving the Alternator Rotor Replacing the Alternator Rotor I07 The ES Starter Drive Syste. I07 Chapter 9. Gearbox Work Exploded View of Gearbox I08 Adjusting The Neutral Finder. I09 Reoving and Replacing Countershaft Sprocket Reoving The Gearbox Covers I I 0 Coplete Strip I 13.. Exalnatlon of Gearbox Parts Gearbox Reassebly... - I I5 Correcting Gear Changing Probles Solving Kickstarter Probles. 123 Conversion Back to Right Foot Gearshift. 124 The 5 Speed Gearbox - Overview, Trouble Shooting, Disantling, Assebly Chapter 9 Appendix IV The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal Q 2002 Chapter I 0 -The Carburetors The VM24 Mikcarb - 350cc odels I32 The VM28 Mikcarb - 500cc odels 133 The Bing Carbureto The Aal Monoblo 135 The Aal Concentric Carbureto 136 Carburetor Adjustent 137 Chapter I l - Electrical Work Electrical Troubleshooting The US/Canada Models ( The US Models (Post Mid-99) - Wiring Diagra 143 The Hoe (Indian) Models - Wiring Diagra The UK Models (Pre ES) - Wlrlng Diagra 146 Export Electric Start Models - Wiring Diagra 146 Connections - Colours and Terinals 153 Chapter Perforance... Perforance Mod~f~catlons I 60 Chapter 13 - Clean Air Additions The Pulse Air Syste 1 65 Crankcase Breather Condenser Tank 1 67 APPENDIX Engine Tightening Torques 1 70 Chassis Tightening Torque 17 1 Service Liits and Clearances 172 Inch/Metric Conversion Table I73 Engine Exploded View - - I77 What Year is My Bullet Troubleshooting. The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal O 2002 v FORWARD HOWTHIS MANUAL CAMETO BE 'There are two things I've been for ost of y 6 1 years on this planet. One is a wanna-be technical writer; the other a Royal Enfield Bullet fan. Other otorcycles, too, but the first otorcycle I was able to get y hands on (that could be ade to run) was an ex-wd 350 Royal Enfield Bullet - the CanadiadBritish Ary bike fro WWII. By that tie, I had already learned that the second thing you have to have, after you acquire just about any piece of achinery is a good anual. Unfortunately, I couldn't find any anual for y new otorcycle. The situation was coplicated soewhat by the fact that ost of it cae in a couple of cardboard boxes - it was in a state of soe assebly required. The only book(s) I could find on the subject were one afficionado anual, which assued a widespread and general knowledge of otorcycles, and was a sort of pocket-size coffee-table agazine, called Book Of The Royal Enfield. It offered up lots of esoteric inforation, such as what years the faous pre-war Enfield V-Twins were produced, but very few specifics on y undane little workhorse 350. The only other book I could find that even entioned Royal Enfields was the excellent, but not particularly detailed due to its universal coverage, the Nicholson Brothers' Modern Motorcycling, an early '50's edition. This was only the first of any Royal Enfields that seeed to coe y way as a young enthusiast in Vancouver, BC, Canada in the '50's. Although there was only one Enfield dealer in Vancouver ever, and hi for only part of one year, there were a few pre- unit Bullets - odels G and 12 - and a half-dozen of the post-'53 swingar frae unit odels, like the Indian-ade /500 bullets of today. Although I owned a half-dozen Bullets in The Day, I never did find a decent service anual. Most anufacturers of British Motorcycles in the '50's seeed to assue a high degree of echanical ability on the part of any owners, dealers, or their echanics. The only even odestly coprehensive Shop Manuals I ever ran across were for A]S/Matchless Singles (AMC) and for the Triuph Twins. These were, don't forget, the days before Clyer, Haynes, et al., and the only suppliers of anuals of any kind were the factories theselves. The Royal Enfield anual was a toolbox-sized paphlet, which contained a few of the ost necessary things to know, if you could read between the lines, and had enough basic echanical know-how to be able to understand the. It was enough, though, and I worked y way through repair and restoration of a nuber of fixer-uppers, ostly but not confined to Bullets, over the next few years. Your Author and Ralph, 1962 I sold Ralph, y last running Bullet - a 1957 MX350 Moto Cross Bullet, which I had painstakingly restored in 196 a few years later while in college. Although a few years aftel that, I got back into otorcycling - ostly dirt copetition for soe tie, finally back into street riding, ostly on Triuph twins - I never ran across another Bullet. Finally, about 1975,l began to hear ruours that they had been transplanted to India, and had been being ade there, on original Redditch tooling, since the late '50's. This got e The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal O 2002 VI FORWARD interested, and by the tie the internet started to coe alive, in the late '801s, I was in ore or less constant contact with any Bullet owners all over the world, with who I found yself exchanging reas of inforation about y first otorcycle love. One of the things I found was that there was still no really satisfactory anual, especially for beginners - and there were plenty of people buying new Bullets, priarily for the nostalgia value. Nostalgia over a tie of sipler otorcycles, that looked and sounded like otorcycles, and over a isspent youth that didn't spend enough tie in Auto Shop, and too uch tie in Bookkeeping classes, gynasius, Physics and Che labs, and the like. And soe of those with this kind of youth now wanted to aster the black (fingered) arts of otorcycle echanics, with particular interest to aintaining their new instant collector pieces. After a tie, I began to toy with the idea of writing a coprehensive anual, a sort of Idiot's Guide To Volkswagen Repair, soething that would enable the coplete newbie to get a grip on the esoterics of aintaining his RE Bullet, yet hold all the inforation needed for the experienced echanic to do any and everything necessary, fro basic tune-up to coplete overhaul. This is especially iportant, not only because of the unique deographic to which these achines appeal, but also since the few Dealers are so thin on the ground. Even for those not copletely desirous of becoing late-in-age echanics, the appeal of being able to avoid trips of hundreds of iles to have a 15 inute procedure done on your otorcycle sees to e unbeatable. Hence this anual. It is the product of any hundreds of hours of dedicated work on y part, having taken a lot of y spare tie in the last couple of years. My bibliography/credits ust include any sources, beginning with the two books entioned above, any years of Bullet work of all kinds, conversation with owners face to face, and especially, via the internet, fro all over the world, the original Redditch anuals, such as they were (fortunately, I still have ine), the REM anual, Gopi and friends with their very generous anual project (, and particularly to a few Enfield Bullet professionals. I nae one of the partners of the Canadian Enfield Dealer, Terry Sith, Guru Nandan, of Bulletech in India ( and Dan Holes of DRS Cycle, in Goshen, Indiana, all of who have been very helpful consultants in this project. (Dan's Very Useful Enfield FAQ, fro his DRS Cycle website, Thank you also to y Beta Testers, who provided the necessary proving ground for e to evaluate the usefulness of various sections of the anual. This anual is also available on CD. If you find yourself in possession of a bootleg copy, and you feel that the poor slob who spent so uch of his tie aking your life easier is worth a contribution, please reit a cheque in the currency of your country, in the aount of your choosing, to: Thank you. I have faith that I'll be repaid by the ajority of Bulleteers, honest fun-lovers that they are. Peace be with you! We're All In This Together1' Pete Snidal, VII The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete 2002 CHAPTER I - FOUR STROKE ENGINE BASICS CHAPTER I - FOUR STROKE ENGINE BASICS The Related Botto End Bits The Enfield Bullet engine uses the four stroke design. Each full up or down oveent of the piston within the cylinder has a specific function, and is referred to as a stroke. The piston is connected to the crankshaft flywheels by the connecting rod, and up-and-down oveent is translated into rotary oveent of the central crankpins by the eccentric ounting of the rod journal at the extreity of the flywheels. The Power Stroke is the reason for the whole thing. The full four strokes are as follows: Intake: Intake valve is open, piston is at top of cylinder at the beginning of this stroke. Piston is pulled downwards by oentu of flywheel, drawing in a ixture of fuel and air through the carburetor. Copression: Intake valve has closed at botto of intake stroke, flywheel oentu forces piston to top of cylinder, copressing the gas ixture drawn in by intake stroke. Power: As piston reaches the top of the cylinder, the spark plug ignites the ixture, resultant rapid burning of fuel ix creates expansion pressure which iparts force to flywheel and drivetrain, propelling the achine and recharging flywheel oentu. Exhaust: at botto of stroke, exhaust valve opens, releasing pressure in cylinder/cobustion chaber, and flywheel oentu carries once again into the intake stroke. I Piston. 6 Connecting Rod Flywheels, Rod journal, 8 Plain Big End Bush (Floating), The essence of otorcycle tuning involves ensuring that these 9 Sall End (wrist pin) Bush,17-23 Crankpins. operations occur with the correct tiing, and that the echanical 19 Crankshaft (priary drive) sprocket considerations - echanical, theral, and voluetric efficiency, are et. & LLGO %&/: Horsepower and Torque Different engine designs result in different power outputs, power being defined as the ability to do work in a given tie. Work is defined as force-distance product. So the faster an object is oved, the greater the distance, or the greater the force, the ore power is required. 'The power potential of the Enfield Bullet engine is atched to the needs of the average rider in average use. The engine is designed to produce the required range of power e.&-9 over a coparatively wide range of rp - engine speed, o&%%utlons per inute. The idle. or tick-over speed of the Bullet engine is about rp. The axiu rp is about the engine can be rewed higher than that, but at a cost in power developent and reliability. Torque is raw twisting ability, and is easured in foot-pounds, or kilogra-eters. If a foot-long lever ounted radially on a rotatable shaft exerts a tangential force on its outer end of I pound, we say it is developing a foot-pound (ft-lb) of torque. If the shaft is continually rotating, as in the case of an engine, the force ust be The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal O 2002 I CHAPTER I - FOUR STROKE ENGINE BASICS easured with soe sort of brake, which applies counter-torque to the shaft and easures the force required. This is the principle of the Prony Brake, a basic torque/horsepower easuring device, which gives HP readings as Brake Horsepower. The torque readings of the Prony Brake, cobined with readings of rp, to introduce the tie factor, result in this BHP reading. A Horsepower is defined as 550 ft-lb/sec. What all this eans to the rider of a otorcycle is that the engine ay be I I I I I I expected to produce various forces with 30 1 I I I various throttle readings at various rps. There will be an ideal rprn for axiu power developent - at full throttle, and 20 a uch wider range of rp for less 15 power at lower throttle readings. This is best deonstrated with a power graph. 10 This is not eant to represent any specific 5 engine, but is an off- the-cuff typical chart. 0 Note the sudden drop of of HP at the o end of its range, the relatively wider RPM x 100 range of peak torque over peak HP, and the lower occurance of the torque peak A Typical HP/Torque Chart (--- ~orse~ower) (- ~or~ue) than that of HP. The torque/hp reading shown would all have been read at the sae throttle opening - generally full open when an engine is tested on a brake or dynaoeter - the throttle is opened fully, and easured counter-torque is applied to hold the engine at given rps in steps and the readings recorded to ake the chart. Of course, in actual general use, the otorcyclist seldo, if ever, uses full throttle, but the shape, placeent, and duration of the curves would be siilar. PERFORMANCE BOOSTING Engine odifications can be ade to boost perforance change the power and torque curves. A highly-tuned racing engine would have a higher HP peak, over a shorter range, higher up the rprn band. Torque would likely suffer, and the torque band would be shorter and also higher up the rprn range. Thus, the price for ore power is easured not only in dollars, but also in tractability and ease of operation - the engine ust be operated within a narrower rprn power band, and at higher rprn in all cases, resulting in lower reliability. Perforance odifications are always a trade-off, in cost, noise, reliability, and ease of riding. So the first thing the new Bullet rider should consider is that his ount has been designed to provide the best all-around power and reliability for ost riders, and that seeking ore power will result in less tractability, and less reliability. Speed tuning is, however, dealt with at the end of this anual in Chapter The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal O 2002 CHAPTER 2 - OPERATION OF THE MOTORCYCLE CHAPTER 2 - OPERATION OFTHE MOTORCYCLE Warning: There is Much More to RidingThan Just Operation The following is a treatise which is designed to help the new owner understand the principles of operation of the otorcycle. Although this will be enough actually to ride the achine, it is strongly recoended that the new rider take advantage of a Motorcycle Training Prograe of soe sort. Statistics prove beyond any reasonable doubt that there is a very significant safety advantage to learning to ride a otorcycle fro a professional trainer - even ore so than with autoobiles. There is uch ore to staying alive in traffic on a otorcycle than just being able to operate the achine. Most insurance copanies reflect this reality by offering preiu incentives to take such courses, and it is a very good idea in any event. There are any considerations involved in operating a otorcycle on the streets which go beyond the scope of a shop anual such as this, but which are nonetheless extreely iportant to your personal safety. Self-taught otorcycle operation is NOT recoended! Failure to heed this warning can get you seriously hurt or worse. Motorcycle training courses are the best investent the new rider can ake. Consider the following inforation advice for off-road riding only. STARTING DRILL Single cylinder Cstroke otorcycles, although not really difficult to start, require that their owners develop a failiarity with the process. A review of the four strokes on the engine, laid out in chapter I, will be a big help to understanding. Breaking the Clutch Free If the achine has been sitting for a tie, it ay be that, once you've got it started, you will have trouble engaging first gear without soe grinding due to the clutch not breaking entirely free on disengageent. This can be ade easier by breaking the clutch free before starting, by hauling in the clutch lever and giving the kickstarter a few strokes before attepting to start. Actual Starting If the piston is slowly brought as far up a copression stroke as operation of the kickstarter will allow, you will then find that you can stand on the pedal, and even bounce your weight on it, and in ost cases it won't continue to turn over the otor. Obviously, this is not the best place for the piston to be when you attept a kickstart. On the other hand, if the piston is at the beginning of a power stroke, and the would-be rider, first having taken up all the slack in the kickstarter echanis, then swings his full weight into a good, long, slow transfer, the crankshaft/flywheel assebly will draw the piston all the way down in a blank power stroke, roll over the botto, at which point the exhaust valve will open, allowing unipeded piston oveent back up the cylinder, whereupon the exhaust valve will close, but the intake valve will open, and the piston will once again travel down-cylinder relatively unipeded, drawing in in air/fuel ixture as it does. At the botto of this intake stroke, the intake valve will close, and the freshly-inducted ixture will be copressed as the piston travels once ore up the cylinder, aided by the flywheel oentu, which has by now built up considerably, and the engine will likely fire on the ensuing power stroke - if not on the first one, on the next one, 2 revolutions later, to which will arrive on flywheel oentu alone. The Enfield BULLET MANUAL by Pete Snidal O CHAPTER 2 - OPERATION OF THE MOTORCYCLE That, in a nutshell, is the trick to starting a big single, which is nothing like the drill for a ulti-cylinder engine, with which you just swing your weight on the kickstarter, paying no attention to engine position. The only reaining question is how to get the piston to the proper position. Here's how: I. Apply pressure to the kickstarter until it stops against the resistance of a copression stroke. 2. Using the decopression lever, apply just an inch or two ore oveent to the kickstart lever, listening as you do for the wheeze of air into the exhaust pipe fro the decopressor valve. (Decopressor cable broken? No proble; just depress the top of the valveste directly with your thub - it ay be hot if the bike's been running lately) 3. Once the piston has been eased over the top of the copression stroke, you're ready to start. Turn on the fuel valve, apply the choke lever, (or tickle the carburetor until fuel drips if equipped with an Aal,) turn on the ignition, and with the slack taken up in the kickstarter echanis, apply a long, deliberate weight transfer to the lever. Throttle opening: although this will vary fro achine to achine, there will be a definite best place for the throttle to be during kickstarting, and it iportant to develop the skill necessary to aintain this precise setting as your body oves up and down during the weight transfer. Often, the best throttle setting is just a bit above idle - about I /8 /3 of cable travel. In soe cases, less will be required, in soe a bit ore. Experient and find the best setting for your achine. That's all there usually is to kickstarting a big single. Done properly, it can be done without taking yourself off the seat - often to the aazeent of the non-cognoscenti. Flooded Starting Soeties, in cases of difficult starting, the achine will flood - induct an excess of fuel without starting. Once you have rolled it over 4 or 5 ties without success, it is often useful to assue that it has now flooded. This con
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