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ASSESSMENT OF MEN S TENNIS CLOTHING: MOVEMENT AND AESTHETIC ANALYSIS By HEEJAE JIN A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Apparel, Merchandising,
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ASSESSMENT OF MEN S TENNIS CLOTHING: MOVEMENT AND AESTHETIC ANALYSIS By HEEJAE JIN A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Apparel, Merchandising, Design and Textiles WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Apparel, Merchandising, Design & Textiles MAY 2010 ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to express her sincere gratitude to her major professor, Dr. Catherine Black, for her expertise, valuable critiques, and guidance. Appreciation is extended to committee members Dr. Joan Ellis, and YooJin Kwon, for their valuable contributions. A special thanks to my family for supporting me in my quest of attaining my master s degree. iii ASSESSMENT OF MEN S TENNIS CLOTHING: MOVEMENT AND AESTHETIC ANALYSIS Abstract by HeeJae Jin, M.A. Washington State University May 2010 Chair: Catherine Black Tennis participation has increased 11% since 2000 as more people are concerned about their health. Although a higher percentage of men play tennis, there has been limited academic research on men s tennis clothing. The purpose of this study is to identify the perceived functional, and aesthetic men s tennis clothing. A questionnaire was distributed to identify needs assessments of men s tennis clothing to participants. The hypotheses in this study were tested to determine significant relationship among tennis commitment, satisfaction with tennis clothing, and interest in functional aesthetic tennis clothing. Also, the hypothesis was tested to determine if there is a significant correlation between satisfaction with functional components and satisfaction with aesthetic componens of tennis garment by using Pearson correlation. The results indicated that: 1) there was a significant positive relationship between level of tennis commitment and tennis clothing satisfaction; 2) there was a significant positive relationship between tennis commitment and interest in functional attractive clothing; and 3) iv there was a significant positive correlation between satisfaction with functional components and satisfaction with aesthetic components of tennis garments. This study found that needs assessment of men s tennis clothing for each tennis movement phase reported dissatisfaction with sleeve and crotch fit. Also, in the aspect of aesthetic, dissatisfaction with fashion, attractiveness, and color were reported. Respondents indicated their preferred tennis garment design for shirt type and shorts type. For shirt type, respondents preferred their T-shirt type with a round neckline, set-in sleeve, and hip length. The short style preferred was baggy shorts with an elastic only, and 2- inch waistband width. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS... iii ABSTRACT... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS... vi LIST OF TABLES... viii LIST OF FIGURES... ix CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 PURPOSE... 2 OBJECTIVES... 2 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY... 3 LIMITATIONS... 3 ASSUMPTIONS... 3 DEFINITION OF TERMS REVIEW OF LITERATURE... 5 FUNCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS... 5 COMMITMENT... 7 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS... 8 NEEDS ASSESSMENT NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF SPORTSWEAR DESIGN FOR ENHANCEMENT OF THE MOVEMENT DESIGN FOR AESTHETICS AESTHETIC PREFERENCE vi 3. METHODOLOGY CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION PRE-STUDY OBSERVATION INSTRUMENT DATA ANALYSIS FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSESSING TENNIS COMMITMENT SATISFACTION OF MEN S TENNIS GARMENT DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS TESTING OF HYPOTHESES SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY OF THE STUDY SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS APPENDICES A.RESEARCH APPROVAL LETTER B. QUESTIONNAIRE ASSESSMENT OF MEN S TENNIS CLOTHING QUESTIONNAIRE C. ASSESSMENT OF MEN S TENNIS CLOTHING QUESTIONNAIRE REFERENCES vii LIST OF TABLES 1. Age of the Participants Ethnicity Distribution of the Participants Height Distribution of the Participants Weight Distribution of the Participants Number of Years of Participating in Tennis Number of Hours per Week of Participating in Tennis Tennis Commitment Overall of Level of Tennis Commitment Overall of Satisfaction with Tennis Clothing Satisfaction with Tennis Clothing Fit Issues for Selected Movement Phase of Tennis Garment Design Preferences by Men Tennis Players Correlation of Tennis Commitment and Tennis garment satisfaction Correlation of Tennis Commitment and Functional Attractive Tennis Clothing Interest Aesthetic Component Matrix a Functional Component Matrix a Correlation of Satisfaction with Functional and Aesthetic viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Functional, Expressive, and Aesthetic Consumer Needs Model ix CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Tennis participation has increased 11% since 2000 as more people are concerned about their health benefits, social interaction, and competition (Active Marketing Group [AMG], 2007). According to AMG (2007), 68% of sports players indicate tennis is their favorite sport, and tennis can be played by participants of all ages since tennis play is considered a lifetime sport. Tennis participants have a high level of education and affluence, also tennis is used to reach active consumers from both genders, as 52% of participants are male and 48% are female (AMG, 2007). These various reasons are why marketers regard tennis players, particularly male tennis players, as attractive customers. Active sportswear, such as tennis clothing, must allow for movement (Porter, 1976). Even though sports clothing has to allow for ample movement to enhance athletic performance, sports players report they are not satisfied when their body movement is restricted by apparel (Watkins, 1977). Because sports players satisfaction with garments is adjusted by the movement demands of their sport (Watkins, 1977), the researcher of this thesis focuses on the satisfaction of players with tennis clothing as a movement analysis. Wheat and Dickson (1999) indicate that aesthetic attributes are essential to the first decision for sale and overall success of a garment. Aesthetic characteristics of sports clothing is important, as is the need for enhancing physical performance. Thus, the aesthetic factors for the preferred clothing of male tennis players are also a focus of this study. 1 Based on the limited research, male tennis clothing needs to be designed for physical performance and aesthetic attractiveness. Therefore, specific garments for male tennis players will be assessed in this research study. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is five-fold: a) to assess satisfaction with fit and aesthetics of tennis clothing by level of tennis commitment b) to assess satisfaction with fit and comfort of tennis clothing by movement; c) to assess preference of garment features for men s tennis clothing; d) to assess interest in functional attractive appearance of tennis clothing of men tennis players; and e) to investigate the relationship between functional and aesthetic satisfaction of tennis garments for men players. OBJECTIVES Key objectives are to: 1. Identify a level of satisfaction for fit and aesthetics of tennis clothing; 2. Identify a level of satisfaction of tennis clothing based on body positions; 3. Identify a level of interest in functional attractive appearance of tennis clothing; 4. Identify a level preference of the aesthetic of tennis clothing; and 5. Investigate the relationship between functional satisfaction and the aesthetic satisfaction with tennis garments. 2 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY As the number of participants involved in sports increases, sport clothing has been a high-growth product for manufacturers and retailers (Feitelberg, 1996). However, there has been limited academic research on sport clothing, particularly tennis clothing. Moreover, the lack of literature on men s tennis clothing has made it difficult to investigate the need assessments for male players. Since a higher percentage of men play tennis than women, male tennis player will be the focus of this study. This research, therefore, will contribute to the limited academic research regarding tennis clothing and deepen the understanding of design for male s tennis clothing through needs assessment. LIMITATIONS Limitations for this study are that the sample purposely will be selected from three regional tennis clubs in northwestern United States. Thus, findings from this study may not be generalizable. ASSUMPTIONS Assumptions of the study include: 1. That male tennis players are able to recognize their clothing needs related to movement; and 2. That male tennis players want specific tennis garments. 3 DEFINITION OF TERMS Aesthetic: To deal with the human desire for beauty as art elements, design principles, and body/garment relationships (Lamb & Kallal, 1992). Commitment: The level of priority given an activity (Mitchka, Black, Heitmeyer, & Cloud, 2009, p. 32). Fashion: Timeliness of visual form of the apparel-body construct (DeLong, 1987, p. 144). Fit satisfaction: The extent the consumer is satisfied with fit and selection of ready-to wear in her size (Feather, Ford, & Herr, 1996, p. 23). Functional sports clothing: Any sports apparel where task related or functions are emphasized over fashion or aesthetic functions (Black & Cloud, 2008). Movement analysis: Collect data by notating or recording body movement so that movement data from many participants can be compared and a complete cycle of movement can be charted (Watkins, 1995, p. 226). Need assessment: A tool to identify gaps between current products and required or desired products, places these gaps in priority order, and selects those gaps (needs) of the highest priority (English & Kaufman, 1975). Performance enhancement: Aspect of the uniform that enhance athletic performance (Wheat & Dickson, 1999, p.7). Preference aesthetic: Aesthetic attributes related to style and shape (Chataraman & Rudd, 2006, p. 48). Style: Popular in the present or a set of trends (Brannon, 2005, p. 398). 4 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE The review of literature includes the design process model of functional design, commitment, movement analysis, needs assessment of sportswear, design for enhancement of the movement, and aesthetic design. FUNCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS For development of functional garments, design process is used to address and analyze wearer needs. DeJonge (1984) proposes the design process to identify a needs assessment for improved functional clothing. The full design process includes seven stages: request made, which is making the project by designer; design situation explored, which is gathering information to understand the design problem and to identify user needs; problem structure perceived, which is to develop a design concept; specification described, which is to decide a range of solutions for solving the problem; design criteria established, which is to provide a solution; prototype development, which is making the project process; and design evaluation, which is to judge the project (Dejonge, 1984). Black and Cloud (2008) follow the concept of the design process to identify a needs assessment for bicycle patrol officers. For improved bicycle patrol uniforms, police officers needs are identified by stages two and three of the design process, and followed by identifying 5 criteria and specifications. For example, thermal discomfort and fit issues affecting mobility are identified by users, and re-design for bicycle patrol uniforms is proposed (Black & Cloud, 2008). Fowler (2003) applies the functional design process as five steps to help identify ways of improving ballistic vests. The five steps were based on Dejonge s seven steps, including general request; exploration of the design situation; problem structure perceived; design specifications; and interaction of design criteria established (Fowler, 2003). Mitchka et al. (2009) address three steps of the functional design process for adult female dance practicewear. To investigate dance practicewear expectations, it is framed in the first step of the Dejonge process. Also, the importance of dance practicewear attributes is developed in the second step, and satisfaction with dance practicewear garments of adult female dancers at different levels of dance commitment is assigned at the third step of the functional design process (Mitchka et al., 2009). Watkins (1995) proposes the functional design process for application in selected research for specific needs. Various researches follow the concept of the functional design process for example, police bicycle patrol uniforms (Black & Khan, 1995), a prototype of an athletic girdle (Walde-Armstrong, Branson, & Fair, 1996), an athletic ankle brace (Labat & Sokolowski, 1999), protective ice hockey equipment (Watkins, 1977), and clothing for the neonate (Bergen et al., 1996). Lamb and Kallal (1992) propose the Functional, Expressive, and Aesthetic (FEA) Model as a conceptual framework for the study of consumer needs. The FEA model includes a six-step process that expands on the previous functional design process: problem identification; preliminary ideas; design refinement; prototype development; evaluation; and implementation. Bye and Hakala (2005) use the FEA model integrated with the DeJonge (1984) design 6 process for designing a satisfying prototype garment for sailing. Sailors needs are identified through personal interviews and participant observation, and prototype designs for sailing garments are developed, such as the one-piece design in a female flattering silhouette, during the select and implement step of design process. In the evaluation step, functional, expressive, and aesthetic categories are then used to meet the final design (Bye & Hakala, 2005). Holland (2007) performs a needs assessment of soccer uniforms by following the concept of the FEA model. The FEA design criteria for soccer uniforms include three categories: functional properties, such as thermal comfort and fit properties; expressive property, such as status property; and aesthetic property of art elements (Holland, 2007). The design process can be applied to develop a needs assessment for functional clothing, such as military apparel, sports uniforms, and apparel for people with disabilities (Wakins, 1995). To identify a needs assessment for men s tennis clothing, this study follows the concept of FEA model. COMMITMENT Sports commitment is defined as a state of mind that represents aspiration to participate in a specific sport (Casper, Gray, & Stellino, 2007). Sports commitment is constructed by five determinants: (a) sport enjoyment as a positive affective response; (b) involvement alternatives as the attractiveness of other activities; (c) personal investments as personal resources such as time, effort, and energy; (d) social constraints as the social expectations or norms; and (e) 7 involvement opportunities as the anticipated benefits such as friendships and skill mastery (Weiss, Kimmel, & Smith, 2001). In the study of the determinations of adult tennis players participation frequency and purchase intention, Casper et al. (2007) indicate that the more committed tennis players play, the more they spend on tennis equipment. Similarly, Dickson and Pollack (2000) indicate that the level of commitment in inline skating includes five factors: frequency of play, happiness, priority over other activities, relaxation, and spending time and effort to become competent. The more committed skaters report spending more on skating clothing (Dickson & Pollack, 2000). Female dance students of different commitment levels report different expectations for their dancewear, as dancers with higher levels of commitment are more interested in the attractiveness, style, design, and color of their garment (Mitchka, Black, Heiteyer, & Cloud, 2009). MOVEMENT ANALYSIS Movement analysis is to collect data by notating or recording body movement so that movement data from many participants can be compared and a complete cycle of movement can be charted (Watkins, 1995, p. 226). According to Brennan (1999), movement analysis involves what parts of the body are moving and how the movement is executed and can be applied to the form of movement, such as hitting a tennis ball. Also, Brennan (1999) suggests Laban Movement Analysis, which includes the study of the relationships between the body and its spatial environment and the functions for achieving efficient and integrated movement for analytic techniques in movement. This aspect of the Laban Movement Analysis deal with such 8 concepts as spatial designs, the relationship between the limbs and torso in moving, and movement scales built on linear dimensions, planes or three dimensional forms (Brennan, 1999, p. 288). DeLong (1987) indicates that body movement, such as raising the arms and bending, is affected by all aspects of clothing design as body movement interacts with and can be restricted by the materials on the body. Ashdown (1989) proposed movement analysis for the study of protective coveralls that is, each movement category, such as a reaching movement, a bending movement, and a kneeling movement, were chosen through videotape segments viewed repeatedly. These chosen movements were executed to find out how to design more fitting coveralls for the body. Huck and Kim (1997) show that each range of motion (ROM), such as shoulder flexion and trunk flexion, is measured for developing a coverall for grass fire fighting. For example, to allow greater movements for the grass fire-fighters, the prototype coveralls incorporate stretch panels in the crotch area for upper leg flexion. To increase range of shoulder movement, the upper back also has stretch panels. Choi and Ashdown (2002) classify working movements by movement analysis for female pear workers clothing. These working movements are classified into four body positions, such as looking upward with arms at 90 angles in a standing posture adopted by the pear farmers. Observation Skill for Movement Analysis Kreighbaum and Barthels (1985) indicate that human movement relates particularly to sport, dance, and adaptive activities in the analysis of human movement. In the aspect of a movement performance, they suggest discrete skill for observing skill that has a definite 9 beginning and end, such as a tennis serve, and in addition, has the variability among the performances. A discrete skill is divided into the preparation phase, which is a preparation for executing the actual movements, an execution phase, that results in the projection, and the recovery phase, which is the next body movement of the execution phase. In these movement performances, especially in sports, swing occurs in the diagonal motions, and they have peculiarities in the specific body part for example, hip, shoulder, and elbow have flexion, extension, and hyperextension for the segment doing the moving (Kreighbaum & Barthels, 1985). Watkins (1995) suggests that participant observation in the analysis step is valuable for understanding the needs of the individual and efficiently reading the data collected. Philip (1987) used observation skill to analyze movements of premature infants and critically ill full-term infants, and the result of movement analysis reported less muscle tone and lying in the extended position as opposed to the flexed position for the well full-term infants. Likewise, in this study, tennis participant observation for movement analysis was used to select movement phases for addressing participant needs. NEEDS ASSESSMENT English and Kaufman (1975) define a needs assessment as a tool which formally harvests the gaps between current results (or outcomes, products) and required or desired results, places these gaps in priority order, and selects those gaps (needs) of the highest priority for action, usually through the implementation of a new or existing curriculum or management procedure (p. 3). Stevens and Gillam (1998) suggest that user needs for a product or service may propose a new design model and needs assessment of participants may lea
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