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September 2013 s133 Volume 12 ã Issue 9 (Supplement) Copyright © 2013 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Journal of Drugs in Dermatology SPECIAL TOPIC Cosmetic Benefts of Natural Ingredients: Mushrooms, Feverfew, Tea, and Wheat Complex Whitney P. Bowe MD SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY Natural ingredients are frequently used in an effort to address cosmetic concerns such as fne lines, wrinkles, uneven tone, and tex- ture. Many of these ingredients found in nature possess potent antioxidant
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  S󰁥󰁰󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁥󰁲 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀳 s133 V  ã I  (S) C󰁯󰁰󰁹󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴 © 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀳 ORIGINAL ARTICLE  J  D  D SPECIAL TOPIC Cosmetic Benefits of Natural Ingredients: Mushrooms, Feverfew, Tea, and Wheat Complex Whitney P. Bowe MD   SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY Natural ingredients are frequently used in an effort to address cosmetic concerns such as fine lines, wrinkles, uneven tone, and tex-ture. Many of these ingredients found in nature possess potent antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Some, such as mushroom extracts, are even capable of accelerating the skin turnover rate and repairing dermal molecular components that provide structure and elasticity to the skin. Others, such as green tea, provide photoprotection against ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. In this manuscript, the cosmetic benefits of mushrooms, feverfew, and tea are discussed in the context of their ability to improve the appearance of the skin. The healing effects that wheat complex can have on damaged hair are also addressed. J Drugs Dermatol  . 2013;12(suppl 9):s133-s136.  ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION T he cosmetic patients who enter our practices today do not appear to be the typical cosmetic patients we were seeing just a decade or two ago. The modern cosmetic patient is younger, perhaps even in her twenties or thirties, and she puts as much focus on prevention as on correction. She is also far more concerned about the source of her products, frequently requesting natural or organic alternatives to pre-scription medications. She might even perceive products that are not natural as unsafe, and peruses the ingredient list for chemicals and preservatives that she has read are “toxic” on the Internet. Sales of products claiming to be “organic,” “natural,” or “natu-rally derived” have soared in recent years. But what do these terms really mean? Certifying products as organic has become a trend of late, but there are a number of worldwide organi-zations that have differing definitions of “organic.” A common misconception among patients and consumers alike is that or-ganic is better, but, in reality, organic is not necessarily better. Naturally derived ingredients are not invariably organic, rather they contain plant-derived elements that are actually improved upon in the laboratory setting. One of the reasons why natural ingredients have gained such popularity is their abundance of antioxidants. Oxidative stress is a major driving force behind aging. Free radicals are highly reactive species, capable of damaging biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA, and they are continuously formed during our normal metabolic processes. Their production is increased with exposure to environmental factors such as sun-light and cigarette smoke. As a result, humans have evolved an antioxidant defense system to minimize the potential for free radical damage. However, we need to keep replenishing our antioxidant stores, and natural ingredients are an excel-lent source of these desirable antioxidants. Several natural ingredients that exhibit antioxidant and photoprotective ef-fects on the skin include, among others: shiitake mushrooms, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), feverfew parthenolide-free ex-tract (PFE), tea extracts (green and black), coffeeberry, grape seed extract, and licorice. In this article we will focus on shii-take mushrooms, feverfew, and tea, and then shift gears and discuss the benefits of wheat for damaged hair. Shiitake Mushroom Complex Mushroom extracts, including shiitake mushroom extract, possess not only antioxidant properties but also anti-irritant properties. Therefore, the right combination of mushroom extracts could be the ideal ingredient in anti-aging skin formula-tions. Shiitake mushrooms and mannetake (reishi) mushrooms contain polysaccharides, triterpenes, proteins, lipids, phenols, and cerebrosides. 1  These serve as anti-irritants and antioxidants, and stimulate the skin’s natural renewal process. Mushroom extract skin care applications include protection against pho-toaging and improved skin elasticity. 2  Natural shiitake complex inhibits elastase activity. As we age, enzymes such as elastase diminish our elastin, compromising the integrity of the der-mal layer. Natural shiitake complex has been shown to inhibit elastase in a dramatic fashion. The degree of elastase enzyme inhibition increases as the concentration of the shiitake com-plex is increased (Figure 1). 3  Shiitake derivatives also display potent antioxidant activity, which is critical for anti-aging be-cause oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species are major JO0913 To order reprints or e-prints of JDD articles please contact sales@jddonline.com  s134  J  D  DS 2013 ã V 12 ã I 9 (S) W.P. Bowe Wheat Complex for Damaged Hair There are 2 naturally active components of wheat that make it unique: wheat protein and wheat germ oil. Wheat protein has the ability to bond to the damaged areas on the hair shaft, whereas the wheat germ oil can provide benefits with regards players in the aging process. 4  Miller et al have demonstrated that twice daily use of cleansing pads containing a mushroom extract lead to significant improvements in a number of param-eters including roughness, sallowness, tone, fine lines, pore size, and mottled pigmentation. Significant improvements were detected by both dermatologists and the subjects themselves, with a number of improvements seen within the first 4 weeks. 5 Feverfew Feverfew is a flowering plant from the daisy family, and it has a long history of use in traditional European medicine and folk medicine. Feverfew was srcinally named for its fever-reduc-ing properties, but was also commonly used for headaches and arthritis. The feverfew plant, Tanacetum parthenium  , has anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, and antioxidant properties. Its skin care applications include treatment of sensitive skin and shaving-induced irritation or redness, and photoprotection. 6  In its completely natural or organic state, feverfew contains an ingredient known to be a contact sensitizer, called parthe-nolide. Purified feverfew extract (PFE) is a purified extract that has been developed by extracting the beneficial components of feverfew while removing the harmful parthenolide component. This is an example of how naturally derived products can be more beneficial and less irritating than organic products, de-spite what many consumers believe. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, trial, sub- jects applied either PFE or placebo to their back skin for 2 days prior to ultraviolent (UV) exposure and then for 2 days following the UV exposure. Feverfew treatment significantly reduced erythema vs placebo after UV exposure. 7  Figure 2 demonstrates a subject who used a topical feverfew product on her face for 3 weeks. The significant reduction in erythema is clearly evident. 8   Teas All teas (green, oolong, and black) are derived from the plant Camellia sinensis  , but they differ in the degree of fermenta-tion of the leaves. The manufacture of green tea does not involve fermentation and, as such, the polyphenols of the plant are preserved. Teas contain flavanols, which include epicatechin, epacatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, and epigal-locatechin-3-gallate. 9  They function as antioxidants (lipid radical scavengers) and provide anti-inflammatory and photoprotec-tive benefits. 10  Topical treatment with green tea polyphenols prior to UVB exposure inhibited the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of human skin. 11 In a clinical trial of 40 women who were randomized to receive 8 weeks of treatment with a combination oral-topical green tea regimen or a placebo pill and placebo cream, skin biopsies demonstrated significant improvement in the elastic tissue content of those on the green tea regimen ( P  <.05). 12   FIGURE 1.  Natural shiitake complex inhibits elastase activity. FIGURE 2.  Purified feverfew extract: benefits for sensitive skin. JO0913 To order reprints or e-prints of JDD articles please contact sales@jddonline.com  s135  J  D  DS 2013 ã V 12 ã I 9 (S) W.P. Bowe charged site. This wheat complex technology provides a benefi-cial protective function on the hair shaft.Repeated coloring of hair can cause damage to the hair cu-ticle. The images in Figure 3 show the surface of a hair fiber captured using Scanning Electron Microscopy. These images show the cuticle on the surface of the hair fiber. The untreated hair seen in the top 2 photos is called “virgin hair” because it has never been colored. The cuticle structure is uniform, thick, and undamaged. The images on the bottom represent hair fi-bers that were color treated twice. They show damage to the cuticle including wearing-away, pitting, and non-uniformity of the cuticle structures. The images in Figure 4 demonstrate how the wheat complex can nourish and repair damaged hair. The hair was treated with wheat-complex–containing shampoo and conditioner 3 times. The images on the right show the improvement to the cuticle struc-ture. It looks smooth and uniform. Smoothing of the surface of the hair evens out the reflectivity of light, allowing the hair to look shiny, which patients perceive as healthier hair. This technology provides the damaged hair shaft with a lubricated layer to help protect against damage, which can be caused by chemical treat-ments or even by grooming the hair with combs or brushes.  CONCLUSIONS Interest in natural ingredients continues to rise, and numer-ous products claiming to be natural in srcin continue to enter the marketplace, finding shelf space in local pharma-cies, department stores, and beauty boutiques. However, only a select few of these products contain ingredients that have scientific studies backing the claims made on their la-bels. Furthermore, confusion remains about the definition of terms such as “organic.” As more and more of our patients seek natural remedies to address their cosmetic concerns, our advice will be sought regarding which ingredients to choose and which products are not only effective but safe. While further research is needed to better understand the full scope of the properties these natural ingredients possess, clinicians should have a working knowledge of which ingre-dients appear to provide a true benefit. We want to be in a position to best assist our patients, arm them with knowl-edge, and help them to become savvy consumers.to shine and lubrication of the hair shaft. When hair is damaged through coloring, blow-drying, or perming, bonds in the hair break and create a negative charge. The wheat protein in the Nourishing Wheat Complex (Aveeno ®  positively nourishing™ Hair Care Collection; Johnson & Johnson Inc, Skillman, NJ) has a naturally positive charge that is attracted to the charge on damaged hair. Wheat protein deposition is targeted to the most damaged areas of the hair (the tip region, rather than the root region), helping to prevent future build-up. Wheat protein is unique because it is non-hydrolyzed protein (not soluble in water and so not broken down with use in the shower).In the interaction between the wheat complex and the surface of a hair fiber, damaged areas on the hair shaft have a nega-tive charge due to the presence of sulfhydryl groups. The wheat complex has a positive charge, and so it binds to the negatively FIGURE 3.  How does coloring affect hair? As more and more of our patients seek natural remedies to address their cosmetic concerns, our advice will be sought regarding which ingredients to choose and which products are not only eective but safe. FIGURE 4.  Effects of shampoo and conditioner with wheat complex. Bleach-Damaged Hair Treated with shampoo and conditioner Bleach-Damaged Hair Untreated5,000X10,000X2X ColoredUntreated JO0913 To order reprints or e-prints of JDD articles please contact sales@jddonline.com  s136  J  D  DS 2013 ã V 12 ã I 9 (S) W.P. Bowe  DISCLOSURES Whitney P. Bowe MD has served as a consultant for Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, on an advisory panel for Galderma Labs, and as a consultant for Procter and Gamble.  REFERENCES 1. Sliva D. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Mini Rev Med Chem.  2004;4(8):873-879.2. Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem . 2002;50(21):6072-6077.3. Wallo W, Nebus J, Nystrand G, Southall M. New approaches demonstrate the skin care benefits provided by natural ingredients in topical formula-tions. Poster presented at: 21st World Congress of Dermatology; Sept 30-Oct 5, 2007; Buenos Aires, Argentina.4. Southall M. Anti-oxidant activity of natural shiitake complex. Unpublished raw data. 2006. http://www.activenaturalsinstitute.com/library_shiitake. Accessed July 15 2013.5. Miller D, Wallo W, Leyden JJ. Clinical evaluation of exfoliating cleansing pads containing a complex of mushroom extracts for improving photoaged skin. Poster presented at: 67th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Der-matology; March 6-10, 2009; San Francisco, CA. 6. Brown DJ, Dattner AM. Phytotherapeutic approaches to common dermato-logic conditions. Arch Dermatol  . 1998;134(11):1401-1404.7. Martin K, Sur R, Liebel F, et al. Parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) protects skin from UV irradiation and external aggression. Arch Dermatol Res  . 2008;300(2):69-80.8. Nebus J, et al. Poster presented at: 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology; February 18-22, 2005; New Orleans, LA. 9. Camouse MM, Domingo DS, Swain FR, et al. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin. Exp Dermatol.  2009;18(6):522-526. 10. Camouse MM, Hanneman KK, Conrad EP, Baron ED. Protective effects of tea polyphenols and caffeine. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther  . 2005;5(6):1061-1068. 11. Katiyar SK, Perez A, Mukhtar H. Green tea polyphenol treatment to human skin prevents formation of ultraviolet light B-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Clin Cancer Res  . 2000;6(10):3864-3869.12. Chiu AE, Chan JL, Kern DG, Kohler S, Rehmus WE, Kimball AB. Double-blind-ed, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol Surg  . 2005;31(7 Pt 2):855-860. AUTHOR CORRESPONDENCE Whitney P. Bowe MD E-mail:................……........................................wpbowe@gmail.com JO0913 To order reprints or e-prints of JDD articles please contact sales@jddonline.com
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