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Access to Health 13th Edition Donatelle Solutions Manual

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  Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  15 CHAPTER 2 Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health Overview Psychological health is as important to health as our physical biology. Psychological health contributes to our quality of life and our ability to enjoy ourselves, those around us, and our environment. Chapter 2 discusses the essential parts for overall psychological health: the mental, emotional, social, and spiritual qualities of health that make up the very heart of how we perceive all that we experience. This chapter also covers important issues such as depression and suicide, helping the student to understand important warning signs, when to get help, and what questions to ask when seeking help. Learning Objectives 1.  Define each of the four components of psychological health, and identify the basic traits shared by psychologically healthy people. 2.  Learn what factors affect your psychological health; discuss the positive steps you can take to enhance psychological well-being. 3.  Identify psychological disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia, and explain their causes and treatments. 4.  Discuss warning signs of suicide and actions that can be taken to help a suicidal individual. 5.  Explain the different types of treatments and mental health professionals, and examine how they can play a role in managing mental health disorders. Lecture Outline I. What Is Psychological Health? A. Psychological health is the sum of how we think, feel, relate, and exist in our day-to-day lives. 1. Psychosocially healthy people are emotionally, mentally, socially, and spiritually resilient. See Figure 2.1. 2. There are several basic elements shared by psychosocially healthy people: a.  They feel good about themselves. b.  They feel comfortable with other people, respect others, and have compassion. c.  They control tension and anxiety. Access to Health 13th Edition Donatelle Solutions Manual Full Download:  This sample only, Download all chapters at:  16 INSTRUCTOR MANUAL FOR  ACCESS TO HEALTH, 13e   Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.   d.  They meet the demands of life. e.  They curb hate and guilt. f.  They maintain a positive outlook. g.  They value diversity. h.  They appreciate and respect nature. 3. In the 1960s, human theorist Abraham Maslow’s developed a hierarchy of needs  to describe the theory that certain basic needs must be met in order to achieve the characteristics of psychologically and socially healthy people (Figure 2.2). a. Survival needs  include food, water, and sleep. b.   Security needs  include shelter, safety, and protection. c. Social needs , if met, provide a sense of belonging, affection, and acceptance. d.    Esteem   needs  include self-respect, respect for others, and accomplishment. e. Self-actualization  includes creativity, spirtiuality, or fulfillment of potential. B. Mental Health 1. The term mental health  describes the “thinking” or “rational” dimension of our health. 2.  A mentally healthy person perceives life in realistic ways, can adapt to change, can develop rational strategies to solve problems, and can carry out personal and profes-sional responsibilities. 3.  A mentally healthy individual can intellectually sort through information, messages, and life events; attach meaning; and respond appropriately and make decisions, often refered to as intellectual health . C.  Emotional Health 1.  The term emotional health  refers to the feeling, or subjective, side of psychosocial health. 2.  Emotions are intensified feelings or complex patterns of feelings that we experience on a regular basis. 3.  Emotions are described as the interplay of four components: a. Physiological arousal, feelings, coognitive (thought) processes, and behavior reactions. 4. Emotionally healthy people are able to respond in a stable and appropriate manner to upsetting events. 5. Emotional health affects social and intellectual health. 6.  Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage one’s emotions in a positive and constructive way. D. Social Health 1. Social health refers to our interactions with others on an individual and group basis, and our ability to adapt to use social resources and support in times of need and to adapt to a variety of social situations. 2. Socially healthy people have a wide range of social interactions with family, friends, acquaintances, and intimate partners. a. Socially healthy individuals are able to: i. Listen ii. Express themselves  Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.   CHAPTER 2   Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health  17 iii. Form healthy relationships iv. Act in socially acceptable and responsible ways v. Find the best fit for themselves in society 3. Social bonds reflect the level of closeness and attachment that we develop with indi-viduals and are the very foundation of human life. 4. Social bonding provides intimacy, feelings of belonging, opportunities for giving and receiving nurturance, reassurance of one’s worth, assistance and guidance, and advice. 5. Social support refers to networks of people and services with whom and which we interact and share social connections. a. Such services can be tangible support   or intangible support  . b. Common descriptions of strong social support include the following: i. Being cared for and loved, with the opportunity for shared intimacy ii. Being esteemed and valued; having a sense of self-worth iii. Sharing companionship, communication, and mutual obligations with others; having a sense of belonging iv. Having “informational” support—access to information, advice, community services, and guidance from others E. S  pirituality  is broader in meaning than religion and is defined as an individual’s sense of  purpose and meaning in life.   1. Spiritual health refers to the sense of belonging to something greater than the purely  physical or personal dimensions of existence. Key Terms:  psychological health, mental health, emotional health, emotions, emotional intelligence, social health, social bonds, social support, spiritual health Figures: Additional Instructor Resources:  PPT slides: 1–12 Digital Transparency Masters:  Figures 2.1–2.3 II. Factors That Influence Psychological Health A. The Family 1. Healthy, nurturing families help develop the cognitive and social skills necessary for a  person to solve problems, communicate emotions in socially acceptable ways, manage stressors, and develop both a sense of self-worth and purpose in life. Figure 2.1 Psychological Health   Figure 2.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs   Figure 2.3 Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy and Unhealthy People  18 INSTRUCTOR MANUAL FOR  ACCESS TO HEALTH, 13e   Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.   2. Children brought up in dysfunctional families—in which there is violence; distrust; anger; dietary deprivation; drug abuse; parental discord; or sexual, physical, or emotional abuse—may have a harder time adapting to life. B. Social Supports 1. Our initial social support may come from family members, but as we grow and develop, the support of peers and friends become increasingly important. 2. Studies show that the availability of social support predicts overall well-being. C. Community 1. The communities we live in can have a positive impact on our psychological health through collective actions. 2. Communities can support and care for your psychological health by creating a safe environment to explore and develop your mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions. D. Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem 1. Self-efficacy  describes a person’s belief about whether he or she can successfully engage in and execute a specific behavior. 2. Self-esteem  refers to one’s sense of self-respect or self-worth. a.  See the Skills for Behavior Change box on page 33 for suggestions about small things you can do every day that can make a difference in how you feel about yourself. b.  The Health Headlines box on page 34 discusses the downside of having too much self-esteem. 3. Psychologist Martin Seligman has proposed that people who continually experience failure may develop a pattern of responding known as learned helplessness. a.  Learned helplessness is a response to continued failure, where people give up and fail to take action to help themselves. Seligman ascribes this response in part to society’s tendency toward victimology  —blaming one’s problems on other people and circumstances. b.  Today many people have developed self-help programs that use elements of Seligman’s priniciple of learned optimism—teaching oneself to think positively. E. Personality 1.  Personality is the unique mix of characteristics that distinguish you from others. Personality determines how we react to the challenges of life, interpret our feelings, and resolve conflicts. 2.  In general, the following personality traits are often related to psychological well-being: extroversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and resiliency. F. Life Span and Maturity 1. Although our temperaments are largely determined by genetics, as we age, we learn to control the volatile emotions of youth and channel our feelings in more acceptable ways. Key Terms:  dysfunctional families, self-efficacy, self-esteem, learned helplessness, learned optimism Lecture Launcher Videos:  The Study of Happy Brains  Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.   CHAPTER 2   Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health  19 Additional Instructor Resources:  PPT slide: 13–14 III. The Mind–Body Connection A.  Researchers propose a connection between emotions and health, especially in conditions of uncontrolled, persistent stress. B. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is the study of interactions of behavioral, neural, and endocrine functions of the body’s immune system. C.    Happiness  is a collective term for several positive states in which individuals actively embrace the world around them. 1. Happiness appears to reduce the risk or limit the severity of cardiovascular disease,  pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, colds, and other infections. 2. Laughter can promote increases in heart and respiration rates and can reduce levels of stress hormones in much the same way that exercise can. D.  Subjective well-being refers to the uplifting feeling of inner peace, wonder, and happi-ness that gives us bursts of energy and satisfaction. It has three components: satisfaction with present life, relative presence of positive emotions, and relative absence of negative emotions. 1. People with subjective well-being are resilient and are able to look at the positive side of negative events. E. Scientists suggest that some people may be biologically predisposed to happiness. Oth-ers suggest that we can develop happiness by practicing positive psychological actions. 1.  See the Skills for Behavior Change box on page 36 for things you can do to incorpo-rate positive psychology principles into your own life. Key Terms:  psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), subjective well-being Additional Instructor Resources:  PPT Slides: 15–16 IV. Strategies to Enhance Psychological Health A. Attaining self-fulfillment is a lifelong, conscious process that involves enhancing each of these components. 1.  One of the best ways to promote self-esteem is to develop a support system. 2.  A good way to boost your sense of self-efficacy is to learn new skills and develop a history of success. 3.  To form realistic expectations, set small, incremental goals that you can actually meet. 4.  Taking time to enjoy yourself is another way to boost your self-esteem and psycho-logical health. 5.  Regular exercise fosters well-being. 6.  Examining problems and seeking help when necessary are important factors in  boosting self-esteem. 7.  Getting enough sleep on a daily basis is a key factor in physical and psychological health. a. See Focus On: Improving Your Sleep, beginning on page 58, for more information on the importance of sleep. Additional Instructor Resources:  PPT slide: 17
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