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ABC of Motors. Motors. Answers for industry. Manual October PDF

Manual October 2009 Motors Answers for industry. Related catalogs Low-Voltage Motors D 81.1 IEC Squirrel-Cage Motors Frame sizes 56 to 450 Power range 0.06 to 1250 kw E86060-K5581-A111-A High-Voltage
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Manual October 2009 Motors Answers for industry. Related catalogs Low-Voltage Motors D 81.1 IEC Squirrel-Cage Motors Frame sizes 56 to 450 Power range 0.06 to 1250 kw E86060-K5581-A111-A High-Voltage Motors D 84.1 Three-Phase Induction Motors H-compact H-compact PLUS E86060-K5584-A111-A Three-Phase Synchronous Motors D 86.2 Three-phase synchronous motors based on permanent magnet technology HT-direct 1FW4 E86060-K5586-A121-A Industry Automation CA 01 and Motion Control Interactive Catalog (DVD) E86060-D4001-A510-C Selection Tool, DT Configurator The selection tool DT Configurator is available in conjunction with the electronic catalog CA 01 on DVD. In addition, the DT Configurator can be used in the Internet without requiring any installation. The DT Configurator can be found in the Siemens Mall under the following address: Engineering Tool SINAMICS MICROMASTER SIZER The tool permits SINAMICS and MICROMASTER 4 drive families to be engineered in a user-friendly fashion - as well as the SINUMERIK solution line CNC and SIMOTION motion control systems. SIZER encompasses the engineering of the complete drive system and allows simple singlemotor drives up to complex multi-axis applications to be engineered. SIZER supports all engineering stages in one workflow: Engineering the line supply infeed Selecting and dimensioning motors and gear units, including the calculation of the mechanical transmission elements Engineering the drive components Selecting the required accessories Selecting the line-side and motor-side power options, e.g. cables, filters, and reactors Results of the engineering process include: A parts list of the required components (export to Excel, use of the Excel data sheet for import into VSR) Technical data of the system Characteristics Comments on line harmonics Layout diagram of drive and control components and dimension drawings of motors Further information can be found on the Siemens Intranet at: Motors ABC of Motors Table of contents Manual October 2009 Technology (index) Requirements based on specifications We reserve the right to make technical changes. October 2009 Answers for industry. SiemensIndustry answers thechallenges in the manufacturing and the process industry as well as in the building automation business. Our drive and automation solutions based on Totally Integrated Automation (TIA) and Totally Integrated Power (TIP) are employed in all kinds of industry. In the manufacturing and the process industry. In industrial as well as in functional buildings. Siemens offers automation, drive, and low-voltage switching technology as well as industrial software from standard products up to entire industry solutions. The industry software enables our industry customers to optimize the entirevalue chain from productdesign and development through manufacture and sales up to after-sales service. Our electrical and mechanical components offer integrated technologies for the entire drive train from couplings to gear units, from motors to control and drive solutions for all engineering industries. Our technology platform TIP offers robustsolutions for power distribution. Check out the opportunities our automation and drive solutions provide. And discover how you can sustainably enhance your competitive edge with us. October 2009 Contents Technology (index) 1 A...1 Ambient temperature...1 Anti-condensation heating...1 Asynchronous generator...1 ATEX...2 Axial eccentricity...2 B...3 Balancing...3 Bearings...3 Belt drive...3 Brake lining wear...4 Braking...5 Built-in motors...5 C...6 Cantilever force - radial force...6 CEMEP...6 Concentricity...7 Condensation drain hole...7 Converter operation of three-phase motors...7 Cooling types...9 Cosφ...10 Couplings...10 Cradle dynamometer...11 Critical speed...11 CSA...12 Cylindrical rotor machine...12 D...13 Dahlander connection...13 Deckwater-proof motors...14 Degrees of protection...14 Die-cast rotor...15 Dimension drawings...15 Direction of rotation...15 DURIGNIT IR Duty cycle...16 Duty types...17 E...19 Effective power at the motor shaft...19 Efficiency...19 Efficiency classes...20 EISA Energy-saving motor...22 EPAct...22 European standards for firedamp and explosion-protected electrical equipment...23 Explosion protection...23 Explosion protection in the North American market...26 October I - F Fail-safe brake Fan and blower drives Fans and blowers Firedamp protection Flexible coupling Flywheel effect Forced cooling Foundation vibration Frame material Frame size (FS) Frequency Frequency change G Gear ratio Geared motor Grease Grease lifetime Grease slinger Grounding stud H Harmonics Heavy-duty starting Height above sea level Heyland diagram High-resistance squirrel-cage rotor High-voltage motors I IEC IEC regulations Impregnation Incremental encoder Inline pumps Inrush current Insulation class K KTY temperature sensor L Line supply (UK: Mains) Linear motor Load torque Locating bearing Low-voltage squirrel-cage motors for three-phase line supplies Lubrication instruction plate M Marking obligation MLFB Modular mounting technology Moment of inertia Motor losses II - October 2009 Motor protection...43 Motor range according to IEC , CEMEP and NEMA EPAct...43 Motors with thermally critical rotor...43 Motors with thermally critical stator...44 Mounting coupling halves...44 Multi-voltage motors...44 N...45 National and international regulations...45 NEMA regulations...47 Noise...48 No-load current...49 No-load starting time...49 Nominal values...50 Non-sparking version...50 Non-standard motors...50 Notes and certifications...51 Number of poles...51 O...52 Open-circuit cooling...52 Overload capability...52 Overspeed test...52 Overtemperature...52 P...53 Paint finish...53 PAM winding...55 Performance value...55 Pole-changing...55 Power...56 Power at the shaft at 50 Hz...56 Power split...57 Pre-loaded bearings...57 Protective canopy...57 Protective class...58 PTC thermistor (PTC)...58 Pull-in method...58 Pumps...58 R...59 Radial eccentricity...59 Radial sealing ring...59 Radio interference suppression...60 Rating plate...60 Reactive current...61 Reactive power...61 Reduction factor...62 Regreasing system...62 Reinforced bearings...62 Required motor power in kw...62 Residual voltage...62 Reversal braking...63 Roller bearings...63 October III - Roller table motors Rotor class Rotor locking device Running connection Rush torque S Safety couplings Salient pole Second standard shaft extension Service factor Service life Shaft seals Shaft-mounted fans (integral fans) Siemosyn motor Single-phase motors Single-phase operation Slide rails Slip Slipring rotor motor (induction) Soft starting Speed Speed monitor Squirrel-cage rotor Stamped values/power rating Standard voltage Standards and regulations for low-voltage motors Star-delta starting Star-double-star starting Starting performance Starting time Surface cooling Switching operation Synchronized induction motor T Tachometer dynamo t E time TEFC Temperature class Temperature rise Temperature rise measurement TENV Terminal board Terminal box Tests Thermal class Three-phase induction motor/machine Three-phase synchronous machines Torque Types of construction Types of protection IV - October 2009 U...88 UNEL-MEC...88 V...89 V ring...89 Varying load...89 VDE regulations...89 Vibration amplitude...90 Vibration immunity...90 Vibration severity...91 VIK...91 Voltage changes...92 Voltage drop in the feeder cable...92 Voltage tolerance...93 W...94 Winding...94 Winding protection...94 Working current brake...95 Requirements based on specifications 96 A...96 Armored cables or screened cables...96 AWG...96 B...96 Bearing insulation...96 Bearing temperature detectors...96 b/l...96 Breakdown torque...96 C...96 Cable entry thread in NPT / thread hub size in NPT...96 Cable glands in NPT...97 Class I Division 1 group A - D...97 Class II Division 1 group E - G...97 Class III Division Class I Division 2 group A - D...97 Class II Division 2 group E - G...97 Class III Division Code letter acc. to NEMA MG Conductor size acc. to AWG...98 CT or ct...98 D...98 DE...98 DIP E...98 Enclosure made of ferrous metals...98 External earthing (grounding)...98 F...99 FLC...99 FLT...99 October V - IJ I a /I n = 6.5/6.0 or similar Jacking bolts K KTA L L10 lifetime acc. to ISO R LHS Locked rotor time LRC LRT Lubrication data M Methods of cooling Mil norm Motors acc. to MN Mounting of half-coupling N Name plate in acc. with IEC Name plate made of stainless steel NDE NEMA NEMA design A - D NEMA MG NLC NPT P Polarization index PTC Pull-in torque R Residual field 100 % RHS RMS current RTD S Service factor Squirrel cage rotor Successive starts cold T Temperature rise 80 K Terminal box shall be segregated from the motor enclosure VW Vibration severity limits acc. to IEC Winding temperature detectors VI - October 2009 October VII - - VIII - October 2009 Technology (index) A Ambient temperature All motors in the standard version can be used in ambient temperatures extending from -20 C to +40 C. Further, standard motors can be operated with a coolant temperature up to 55 C and utilized according to thermal class 155 (F). For motors with options C11, C12 and C13, the winding is already utilized according to thermal class 155 (F); however, only one option is permissible and no converter operation. Motors have thermal class 155 (F) and are utilized in accordance with thermal class 130 (B). If this utilization level is to be retained and the conditions deviate, the permissible power must be reduced according to the following table. The DT Configurator (see cover page 2) automatically takes into account these factors and indicates the reduced motor power. Coolant temperature Reduction factor 40 C C C C C 0.82 Anti-condensation heating Anti-condensation heating can be provided for motors where there is a danger that moisture condensation will form on the winding due to the climatic situation. This involves an additional cost. This anti-condensation heater warms up the air in the motor to a temperature that is higher than the external temperature in order to prevent condensation forming inside the motor. The motors are always ready for operation. The anticondensation heating must not be switched on while the motor is operational. Version: e.g. a heating element attached to the winding overhang. Another possible solution is to connect a voltage to the stator terminals U1 and V1 that should be between 4 and 10 % of the rated motor voltage. Approximately 20 to 30 % of the rated motor current is sufficient in order to achieve an adequate temperature rise so that moisture condensation does not form. Asynchronous generator If an asynchronous (induction) machine is to be operated as generator, then it must be driven at above synchronous speed with a negative rated slip. When in the generating mode the reactive current required for magnetization must also be fed in. There are two options to do this: Operation in parallel with an existing line supply from which the magnetizing reactive power can be taken and into which the active power generated is output. Isolated operation with capacitor excitation. A saturable-core reactor is required in order to keep the voltage constant. Especially for reasons relating to stability, the power must be derated for standard three-phase motors. October ATEX»ATEX«is the abbreviation of the French name for explosive atmosphere -»atmosphères explosibles«. In the European Union, explosion protection is regulated by directives and laws. In 1994, the EU issued the EC Directive 94/9/EC»to harmonize the laws of Member States concerning equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres«for this purpose. Article 95 of this directive (before 1997: 100a) addresses manufacturers and importers of explosionprotected equipment and regulates the marketing of such equipment by defining the type of construction, certification, manufacturing and quality assurance, marking, operating instructions and declaration of conformity. In technical circles, this directive is inofficially known as ATEX 95 or 100 a. Beyond this, there is also the Directive 99/92/EC ( ATEX 137 , before 1997 this was still called ATEX 118a ). This addresses companies operating equipment (work stations and places of work) and makes them responsible for evaluating the danger of explosion at the place of use, i.e. companies must precisely define which type or category of explosion protection it actually requires. Axial eccentricity The following are specified in DIN with tolerance N (Normal) and tolerance R (Reduced): 1.) Concentricity tolerances for the shaft extension 2.) Concentricity tolerances of the shaft extension and flange centering 3.) Axial eccentricity tolerance of the shaft extension and flange surface Re 3.) Axial eccentricity tolerances for the shaft extension and flange surface Mounting flange according to DIN Axial eccentricity tolerance for machines with Outer diameter a 1 (mm) Tolerance N (mm) Tolerance R (mm) 80 to to to to to See also Radial eccentricity, Concentricity October 2009 B Balancing After they have been constructed, rotors of Siemens standard motors are dynamically balanced with a half feather key. This involves positive balancing, i.e. additional weights are attached when necessary. VDI Directives 2056 and DIN ISO 2373 are fulfilled with this balancing type. Directives and standards to restrict the vibration severity have been issued for the following reasons: 1. Component of the noise generated by motors (environmental protection). 2. Mechanical vibration at the bearing locations reduces the bearing lifetime. 3. Machining quality at machines and equipment, e.g. machine tools. 4. Ensuring disturbance-free and smooth operation, that can be possibly diminished e.g. as a result of inadmissible rotor deflections (vibration amplitude) when passing through resonant points, release of friction connections as a result of vibrational force etc. 5. Physical and psychological stress on personnel at the place of work. See also Vibration severity, Vibration amplitude. Bearings The bearings are especially important in order that the motor runs perfectly. The roller bearings - used for the individual motor frame sizes - are listed in the tables showing the bearing assignment in the relevant sections of the D 81.1 Motor Catalog. Siemens standard motors have pre-loaded deep-groove ball bearings without any play in order to fulfill the requirements of state-of-the-art drive technology. These can be used in motors with types of construction IM B3 and IM B5, IM B6, IM B7, IM B8, IM V5, IM V6 or IM V1 and IM V3. They guarantee long lubrication intervals, low noise, low-vibration operation and a nominal bearing lifetime of at least 40,000 operating hours for a coupling output. For drives with belt outputs, the deep-groove ball bearings can be replaced by roller bearings or double bearings. See also Roller bearings. Belt drive A belt drive is used to connect two parallel shafts, the motor shaft with the shaft of the driven machine, whereby the speed can be simultaneously changed corresponding to the ratio between the two belt pulley diameters. The belt must be pretensioned so that it can transmit the circumferential force through friction. The pretension factor indicates how much higher the actual tension load (cantilever force) is than the circumferential force (peripheral force). Today, flat belts are almost always manufactured out of plastic with an adhesive coating (e.g. chrome leather). Pre-tension factor, approx. 2 to 2.5. The pre-tension factor for V-belts is approx. 1.5 to 2.5. The belt must be able to transmit the power at the defined circumferential velocity. This defines the belt thickness and width. The belt supplier specifies the pre-tension factor. The recommended circumferential velocity is approx. 35 m/s for flat belts and approx. 25 m/s for V-belts. Steel belt pulleys must be used for circumferential velocities greater than 26 m/s due to the centrifugal force which occurs. The actual cantilever force (belt tension) must be compared with the cantilever force permissible for the motor to select the correct motor size. See also Cantilever force - radial force. October Brake lining wear The braking energy W B is required when braking increases the brake temperature and causes the brake linings to wear. The brake manufacturer does not know the amount of braking energy that is required for a particular braking operation. This is the reason that he specifies the thermal and mechanical limits of the brake as the sum of the possible braking energy Nm. They include: Lifetime of the brake lining The interval for adjusting the air gap between the brake lining and the frictional surface The maximum possible braking energy per hour The maximum braking energy per braking operation Users are mostly interested in understanding these limits in the form of the maximum number of braking operations. Users can obtain this by dividing the braking energy for each braking operation (W B ). The braking energy per braking operation: The braking energy W B comprises the energy of the moments of inertia to be braked W Kin and the energy W L that must be applied to brake against a specific load torque: W = W + W (Nm) B Kin L a) Energy stored in the moment of inertia J n W Kin = (Nm) n J Motor speed before braking (rpm) Total moment of inertia (kgm²) In order to obtain the total moment of inertia, all moments of inertia must be referred to the motor speed n N before they are summed: n J ref = J (Nm) n N 2 b) Braking energy when braking against a load torque: ±M L n t M L Load torque positive, if it is in the opposite direction to the braking torque W = Br L (Nm) negative, if it supports braking 19.1 t Br Braking time October 2009 Braking The following braking techniques are generally used for induction motors: Mechanical braking This is generally realized with a mechanical brake mounted on the motor (motors equipped with brakes). Block brakes (shoe-type brakes) are predominantly used for cranes and lifting equipment, these are released using a centrifugal brake operator. The motor is not electrically stressed. Reversal braking This involves braking the drive using the rotating field, which after changeover, rotates in the opposite direction to the rotor. DC braking This involves braking the drive with DC current that is fed into the stator winding from the line supply. The magnitude of the DC voltage depends on the braking torque required and the motor phase resistances. Capacitor braking This is a version of DC braking. A capacitor is connected through a small rectifier to the line supply that keeps it continually charged. When the motor is shut down, the capacitor is switched across the winding and therefore generates a field that brakes the motor. This technique is rarely used. Regenerative braking In this case, the motor operates as a generator and feeds back into the line supply. This type of braking is mainly used for vehicles as braking is only possible up to a maximum of the synchronous speed. All of the electrical braking techniques listed have, when compared to mechanical brakes, the advantage that they operate wear-free. Their disadvantage is that they thermally stress the motor and are only active while the motor is still spinning (a holding brake cannot be implemented). See also Reversal braking. Built-in motors A built-in motor normally comprises a stator core with winding and the rotor core without shaft. In addition, an external fan and rating plate can also be supplied. A built-in motor can be directly integrated into the driven machine. In order to achieve the operating values, it is necessary to maintain the standard cooling conditions. For larger unit quantities, special versions are also possible, e.g. with shaft according to customer's specifications and freon-proof winding. October C Cantilever force - radial force This force acts
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