A Study on the Impact of Training on Unemployed Women and Changes in their Attitude for Starting a Kudumbasree Unit for their Livelihood [With Special Reference to Palakkad Municipality]

Dr. M. Dhanabhakyam & S. Mufliha
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  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 1, No. 5, November-December 2013   ISSN: 2321  –   242X © 2013 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 142   Abstract   —  Training is a process of acquisition of skills and knowledge for an improved performance. It is important to point out that unemployed women may hold different approach towards various motivational factors related to their attitude through the impact of training. In this article researcher focuses on the objectives of awareness among women regarding various categories of training and made a quantitative evaluation on the impact of training on unemployed women in acquiring skills and knowledge and changes in their attitude for starting a Kudumbasree unit for their livelihood. For this purpose of study, a random sampling survey was conducted among 100 respondents from Palakkad Municipality who attended the training programs on self employed jobs conducted by Government of Kerala in association with Kudumbasree projects with the help of a structured questionnaire. The tools used for this study are Percentage analysis, Likert‟s point scale analysis, Mean, Ranking method, Correlation, Z  –   test, Chi  –   Square test. The study reveals that there was a great impact of training in acquiring and upgrading skills and knowledge and through which almost of the unemployed women are empowered and enhanced their individuality and performance towards setting up of Kudumbasree unit for their livelihood. Keywords   —  Acquisition of Skills and Knowledge; Change in Attitude; Impact of Training; Kudumbasree Units; Livelihood. I.   I NTRODUCTION   RAINING is an organized activity aimed at imparting information and instructions to improve the recipient‟s  performance or to help them to attain a required level of knowledge and skills [Training, 2013]. The purpose of training can be explained as tightening up the slack, toughen the body and polishing the spirit [Peter Branley, 1991]. Thus the process of training encompasses three main activities namely training, education and development. Hence training has specific goals of improving one‟s capability, productivity and performance. It forms the core for change in their attitude through acquisition of skills and knowledge and act as a  backbone for improved performance and helps in maintaining, upgrading and updating the skills and knowledge throughout the working life [Rathan Reddy, 2009]. Unemployed women must be empowered through proper training which enhances their awareness, skills and knowledge and there by facilitating them to empower  psychologically and enable them to contribute more to their family and for the overall development of the society. In various highlights of national policies and development  programs emphasis has been given on organizing unemployed women in a self help group and thus mark the  beginning of a major process of empowering women through the mission of Kerala Government in association with Kudumbasree projects. Mission aims at the empowerment of women through forming self help groups and encouraging the entrepreneurial or other wide range of activities through  proper skill training. Kudumbasree project view micro enterprise development as an important tool for poverty eradication and was launched on 17 th  may 1998 T *Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, INDIA. E-Mail: **PhD Scholar (FT), Department of Commerce, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, INDIA. E-Mail: Dr. M. Dhanabhakyam* & S. Mufliha** A Study on the Impact of Training on Unemployed Women and Changes in their Attitude for Starting a Kudumbasree Unit for their Livelihood [With Special Reference to Palakkad Municipality]  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 1, No. 5, November-December 2013   ISSN: 2321  –   242X © 2013 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 143   [Kudumbasree, 2013]. The purpose of the mission is to ensure that the women should no longer remain as passive recipients‟ of public assistance but act as an active leaders among women who takes initiatives. It is stated that empowerment of women is the prime motto of Kudumbasree. The decision making power must rest solely in the hands of  poor unemployed women. In order to exercise this power, they need proper orientation and training. To achieve this objective a number of specially designed training programs are being conducted within the focus of improving the skills and knowledge, roles and responsibilities, thrift and credit operation [Devika & Thampy, 2007]. These massive training  programs made an impact on unemployed women and help them to change their attitude towards self employment and strengthen their self confidence to start a Kudumbasree unit for their livelihood. II.   S TATEMENT OF P ROBLEM   In India, women are regarded as the better half of the society. In reality still our society is male dominating one. Due to our traditional socio-cultural convention and taboos, most of the women remained as unemployed and their development are very low in our country. It is unfortunate that because of ignorance and conservatism, the actual and potential role of women in the society has been ignored, preventing them from making their rightful contribution to social progress. Through  proper training, unemployed women with greater potential can be mould into powerful empowered women and there by their inherent skills and knowledge can be developed. In this context it is relevant to study about the impact of training on unemployed women through the mission of Kerala Government in association with Kudumbasree project and how they are being empowered and inspired which brought a change in their attitude towards self employment which results in starting a Kudumbasree unit for their livelihood [Agrawal, 2003]. Hence the following research questions are raised in the minds of researcher through the transit of study:    What are the reasons and motivated factors that influenced unemployed women for attending the training programs conducted by Kudumbasree?    What is the level of perception of unemployed women in various categories of self employment training?    What are the changes that brought into the attitude of unemployed women after attending the training  program through the acquisition of skills and knowledge?    Whether the unemployed women are able to start Kudumbasree unit for their livelihood successfully after the training and the assistance provided by the agency?    What kind of supports have to be provided as further suggestions for the improvement of training program to enhance the self confidence regarding self employment to the unemployed women? III.   O BJECTIVES OF THE S TUDY      To analyze the perspective of unemployed women on various categories of training on self-employed  jobs.    To study about the various reasons and motivated factors that affects the level of interest of the respondents on attending the training program.    To study about the skill and knowledge acquired through training by unemployed women and the changes in their attitude towards empowerment.    To explore the extent of impact of training program on unemployed women and the level of satisfaction obtained by them on self-employed job after attending the training program.    To find out the relationship between the level of satisfaction and percentage of respondents who started Kudumbasree units and received benefits after attending the training program.    To offer concrete suggestions to trainers of Kudumbasree for improving the services of association in future avenues. IV.   S IGNIFICANCE OF THE S TUDY   Women constitute nearly half of nation population. They have tremendous potential to contribute in harnessing technology for human and social development. Primarily women are means of survival for their families but are generally unrecognized and are placed at the bottom. They have lesser access to asset, resources, technology and credit. At present women movement focuses its attention on equality and empowerment. Empowerment is a process of awareness and capacity building, leading to greater participation, greater decision making power and control the transformative action. Empowerment of women covers both individual and collective transformation. It strengthens their mental ability through acquiring knowledge, power and experience through  proper training [Senthil Vadivoo & Sekhar, 2004]. Theoretically and empirically, the effectiveness of Kudumbasree has been widely documented in global context. The “helper  - therapy principle” pointed to the process by which helping others has a therapeutic effect on the helper and the Kudumbasree provides the context for members to gain the unique benefits that may arise from helping someone who has the same problem as that of the helper. Kudumbasree provides opportunity for growth and social experimentation and thus brought change through training  program on self employed jobs. Past researches has identified several outcomes through training which includes emotional support, acceptance, enhancing self confidence, attitude of optimism and strongly moulds the individuality, spirit of hope, attitude towards need for achievement and proper time management. All these create empowerment among unemployed women towards decision making power on self employment [John, 2009]. In short, this study has been  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 1, No. 5, November-December 2013   ISSN: 2321  –   242X © 2013 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 144   conducted within the stipulated framework and on the support of review of literature available on impact of training. Hence strengths of such training program helps in changing the attitude of unemployed women towards self employment and such practices are enlighten to wish that they should exist in Indian context and should continue their operations. V.   R EVIEW OF L  ITERATURE   Mohana Rao (2000) concluded in his study that self help group showed a positive impact on the households of the members in respect of building of self-confidence and helped in skills formation for social empowerment of members. Goldstein & Ford (2002) they described in their study that training is a process of systematic acquisition of rules, concepts, skills or attitude resulting in improved performance of a person in another environment. Jose & Dr. Krishnakumar (2004) they evaluated that the kudumbasree brought a dramatic change in this scenario and their mission was empowering women to reach an ultimate goal of self employment. Weekly meetings, discussions,  participation in planning and implementation process of developmental activities, social and cultural activities conducted under the aegis of Kudumbasree enhances the confidence and capacity of poor women. The training  programs provided by Kudumbasree trainers help the unemployed women to acquire skills and knowledge and  brought a change in their attitude towards their life style and help to set up their own business units. Moreover, these activities alleviated the economic status of the poor women in families and society. Dr. Raghavan (2006) revealed in his study that a new  paradigm of participatory economics has been found emerging in “God‟s own country” that is th e Kudumbasree  presented a unique model of participatory development for  poor women in rural and urban areas and such projects helped to wipe out poverty completely from the state. Thus the study concluded by saying that the strategy of participation and empowerment adopted in Kudumbasree mission ensures sustainable livelihood to many number of poor women and created a positive outcome. Dr. Chandrasekar & ShivaPrakash (2010) concluded in their study that the opportunities of information, communication and technology initiative for women under the leadership of Kudumbasree was a potential tool for their empowerment and it can also overcome the socio-economic  barriers effectively. The study indicates that the poor women through this initiative had made an entry into the IT enabled  jobs and also ensured a minimum level of income adequate to meet the family needs. Manjusha (2012) described that the tribal women through the Kudumbasree units had some remarkable achievement in their development and there is a strong  positive sign of social empowerment among women. The study revealed that the leadership quality is lacking in majority of respondents which indicates the necessity of training in soft skill and for enhancing the leadership quality and they also suggested that the skill development program should be conducted for better advancement. Chithra.N.Nair & Lalitha (2012) they highlighted in their study that the majority of the beneficiaries and non  beneficiaries of Kudumbasree program belongs to medium level of age group, higher secondary level of education, nuclear family type and those who are having annual income less than `24000. They pointed out that the majority of constraints faced by the beneficiaries during the participation were the family background (66.7%),difficulty in bringing members together (80%), disturbance of daily household work (86.7%), delay in availing benefits (75%), lack of  proper marketing place (90%) and thus the beneficiaries suggested for the effective implementation of Kudumbasree  program were training should be given on a needed oriented  basis and follow up should be conducted on a regular basis. VI.   S COPE OF THE S TUDY   The purpose of the study may help to develop the effective intervention in the study area on impact of training for the acquisition and upgrading the skills and knowledge for improved performance through which unemployed women received benefits on starting a Kudumbasree units and helps in enhancing the status of the family by earning income for their livelihood. The scope study also provides the awareness among women about their situation of rights and opportunities as towards self employment also facilitates for skill development especially the ability to plan, make decisions, organize, manage and carry out activities to deal with people and the society around them [Vijayashanthi, 2002].The findings and suggestions will throw light on certain broad features of training and its impact on change in attitude and as such the study may be a practical guide in formulating better plans. VII.   R ESEARCH M ETHODOLOGY   The research design used in this study was descriptive in nature. The size of the sample selected was 100 respondents from Palakkad Municipality who attended the training  programs conducted by Kudumbasree on self employed job  by using simple random sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data were collected for the completion of this study. Primary data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire and secondary data was collected from various  book, journals, thesis and websites [Dipak Kumar Bhattacharya, 2007]. Collected data was analyzed with the help of various statistical tools like percentage analysis, Likert‟s point scale analysis, mean, ranking method and testing of hypothesis by using Z-test, Chi-Square test and through correlation analysis [Kothari, 2004].  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 1, No. 5, November-December 2013   ISSN: 2321  –   242X © 2013 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 145   VIII.   H YPOTHESIS F ORMULATED FOR THE S TUDY      There is no significant difference between the mean of the sample and the srcinal mean of 60% of respondents acquired special skills and knowledge through training.    The two attributes namely elements of motivation and change in attitude of respondents after attending the training are independent. IX.   L  IMITATIONS OF THE S TUDY   When this study is passed through the tunnel of research, it has lime lighted poorly on the following aspects:    This study is very much limited to Palakkad Municipality which may fail to give a correct picture of the study.    This study is limited to 100 respondents, a small sample in size which represents the whole universe.    The time period for the study is also a limited factor.    Only a limited category of training programs were selected for conducting this study.    The researcher faces some difficulty due to the lack of co-operation from some respondents and the bias of respondents cannot be completely ruled out.  X.   A NALYSIS AND I NTERPRETATION   Table 1: Preference of Respondents for Self Employed Jobs and Duration of Training Programs Category of Training Programs No. of Participants from the 100 Samples Selected Duration of Training Programs Tailoring and embroidery works 25 1 month Screen printing and DTP 12 15 days Animal husbandry 10 5 days Beautician courses 20 1 month Handicraft and jeweler making 15 10 days Training on food processing 18 5 days Figure 1: Preference for Self Employed Job Training From the above table and graph, it was obvious that the  participants of training program give first preference for the tailoring and embroidery works. Second and third preference was towards training on beautician course and food  processing respectively. Fourth preference was given to  jeweler making. Fifth and sixth preference of respondents for self employed job was for screen printing and desktop  publishing and training on animal husbandry respectively. Duration of training program for tailoring and beautician course was one month and for screen printing was 15 days. 10 days training was given for handicraft making and 5 days for the training on food processing and animal husbandry. Thus it can be concluded that most of the respondents give importance for tailoring and embroidery work (25) as their self employed job and the least preference was given to animal husbandry (10). Table 2: Ranking of Reasons that makes a Level of Interest for Attending the Training Programs by the Respondents Reasons for Attending the Training Programs Level of Interest of Respondents in % Rank Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total Economic independence 64 16 20 0 0 100 4 Profit made by others in similar type of business 48 24 18 7 3 100 7 Financial assistance provided by the government like loan facility and subsidy 72 17 11 0 0 100 3 Previous work experiences 20 24 16 20 40 100 9 Related to family profession 10 12 8 28 42 100 10 To increase the status of family by earning income 78 22 0 0 0 100 1 Self interest 56 25 14 3 2 100 5 Encouragement by family members and by friends 28 38 23 4 7 100 8 Urge to achieve a self prestige 60 20 10 5 5 100 6 To gain skill and knowledge 82 12 6 0 0 100 2 25%12%10%20%15%18%TAILORING AND EMBRODIERY WORKSSCREEN PRINTING AND DTPANIMAL HUSBANDRYBEAUTICIAN COURSESHANDICRAFT AND JEWELLERY MAKINGTRAINING ON FOOD PROCESSING
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