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A Review on Energy Scenario and Sustainable Energy in Malaysia

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A Review on Energy Scenario and Sustainable Energy in Malaysia
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  A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Malaysia H.C. Ong*, T.M.I. Mahlia, H.H. Masjuki Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Contents 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6392. Malaysia energy scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6403. Energy mix in Malaysia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6413.1. Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6413.2. Crude oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6413.3. Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6413.4. Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6424. Renewable energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6434.1. Biomass energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6434.2. Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6444.3. Wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6454.4. Mini hydro (small scale hydro) energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6465. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 1. Introduction The global energy consumption is likely to grow faster than theincrease in the population. The fuel consumption was growingfrom 6,630 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 1980 to almostdoubleoftheenergyconsumptionwhichhadreach11,295 Mtoein2008 as shown in Table 1 [1]. According to the estimation done by International Energy Agency, a 53% increase in global energyconsumption is foreseen by 2030. The energy consumption ismainlybasedonfossilfuelswhichaccountfor88.1%wherebywithcrude oil consisting of 34.8%, coal 29.2% and natural gas 24.1%.However the share of nuclear energy and hydroelectricity are verysmall with only 5.5% and 6.4% respectively. At current productionrates, global proven reserves for crude oil and natural gas areestimatedtolastfor41.8and60.3yearsrespectively.Furthermore,the fossil fuels will significantly contribute to the emission of  Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 639–647 A R T I C L E I N F O  Article history: Received 11 August 2010Accepted 15 September 2010 Keywords: Renewable energySustainabilityFossil FuelBiomassHydropower A B S T R A C T Abundantandeconomicalenergyisthelifeblood ofmoderncivilizations.Globalenergyconsumptionin2009 is expected to slightly increase to about 11428.1 Mtoe and around 88% are from fossil fuels. Fossilfuel will become rare and a serious shortage in the near future has triggered the awareness to findalternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Development and economic growth continue toaffect the growing demand of energy consumption in Malaysia. The crucial challenge faced by powersector in Malaysia currently is the issue of sustainability. This study discusses the current energyscenario and explores the alternative energy like biomass, solar, wind and mini-hydro energy to ensurereliability and security of energy supply in this country. It is found that, total hydropower resources andpotentialhydropoweris29,000 MWoutofwhichonly2,091 MWisutilized.Ontheotherhand,Malaysiahas the potential to be one of the major contributors of renewable energy in palm oil biomass andbecome a role model to other countries in the world that has huge biomass feedstock. As a final note, tomake thefuel mix for 2020 secureand environmentally sustainable, Malaysia must strive to increase itsefforts in attaining greater efficiency in energy conversion, transmission and utilization.   2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 16 5903110; fax: +60 3 7967 5317. E-mail address:  ong1983@yahoo.com (H.C. Ong). Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser 1364-0321/$ – see front matter    2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.043  greenhouse gases (GHG) from the combustion and raising theclimate change issue. Thus, the new and renewable energies willbecome one of the main energy sources for the world. Currently,renewable energy contributes only 11% of the total global energyused [2].The energy generates from the combustion of fossil fuels hassimultaneouslycreatedseveralenvironmentalconcernswhichcanthreaten the sustainability of our ecosystem. One of the primaryconcernswillbetheemissionsofgreenhousegasesandothertypesof air pollutants such as hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide and volatileorganic compounds [3]. The major contributor of the greenhousegas is carbon dioxide emissions and the trend has been increasingevery year since 1982 as shown in Fig. 1 [1]. It is shown that the global carbon dioxide emission has risen significantly from19,380 million tons in 1980 to 31,577 million tons in 2008. It ispredicted that carbon dioxide emission will increase to 40 billiontonsinyear2030ifnotremendouseffortarethrowninto mitigateit [4]. It is inevitable that CO 2  emission will continue to climb aslong as fossil fuels remain as the main contributor in the energymix. Huge accumulation of those gases in our atmosphere willeventually lead to drastic climate changes, acid rain and smog.The crucial challenge facing the power sector in Malaysiacurrently is the issue of sustainability. This sector is important toensure the security as well as reliability of energy supply and thediversification of the various energy resources. Therefore, thispaper presents an overview of the current energy scenario in termof primary energy demand, supply and reserves in Malaysia. Thesecurity and sustainability of future energy in various renewableenergy options like biomass, wind, solar and hydro power has alsobeen explored. Besides, the most recent alternative energyscenarioandimplementationinMalaysiahascoveredinthisstudy. 2. Malaysia energy scenario Malaysia is a population with about 27.73 million, covering anarea of 329,750 km 2 based on the latest census in 2008. The GDPgrew at an average rate over 5.7% in Malaysia during the last 6years. As such, being a fast industrializing country, it is expectedthat electricity demand will continue to rise and keep to the sametrend with GDP growth. Like many developing countries,development and economic growth continue to affect the growingofenergyconsumptiondemandinthenation.Totalprimaryenergysupplyhadincreasedsteadilyoverthepast18years.Itisestimatedto reach about 64 Mtoe in 2008 which is more than 200% increasefrom 1990 as shown in Fig. 2. This is considered relatively highamong developing countries. Apart from that, the number of finalenergy consumption has also increased drastically due to rapidurbanization and industrialization. Hence, the final fuel consump-tion has risen at an annual growth rate of 7.2% from 1990 to 2008and reached 44.9Mtoe in 2008. Fig. 3 shows the final energyconsumption by sector from 1990 to 2008 in Malaysia. It alsoindicates that industrial sector is the major energy consumptionwith a record of 19.1Mtoe in 2008 and followed closely bytransportation sector which is mostly powered by petroleumproducts [5]. With future energy demand expected to grow at anannualgrowthrateof5–7.9%forthenext20years,energysecurityis becoming a serious issue as fossil fuels are non-renewableenergy and will deplete eventually in near future.Malaysian energy sector was highly dependent only on a singlesource of energy – crude oil before 1980. The four fueldiversification policy was introduced and implemented inMalaysia after the occurrence of two international oil crisis andquantum leaps in prices in the year 1973 and 1979 [6]. Faced withthe possibility of prolonged energy crisis, the government calledforthediversificationof energyresourcesotherthancrudeoil.Thefuel diversification strategy was incorporated into the MalaysianNational Energy Policy in order to achieve a more balancedconsumption[7].Thealternativeenergyresourcesavailableatthattime were hydropower, natural gas and coal as there were largeuntapped indigenous hydropower and natural gas reserves, while  Table 1 Global primary energy consumption [1].Source 1980 2008Mtoe Share (%) Mtoe Share (%)Petroleum 2,979.8 44.9 3,927.9 34.8Coal 1,807.9 27.3 3,303.7 29.2Natural gas 1,296.8 19.6 2,726.1 24.1Nuclear 161.0 2.4 619.7 5.5Hydropower 384.3 5.8 717.5 6.4Total 6,629.8 100.0 11,294.9 100.0 [ Fig. 1.  Global total carbon dioxide emission from year 1980 to 2008. [ Fig. 2.  Primary energy supply by fuel type in Malaysia [5]. [ Fig. 3.  Final energy consumption by sector in Malaysia [5]. H.C. Ong et al./Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 639–647  640  coal was considered an abundant worldwide resource with a verylow and stable price [8]. Table 2 shows that the contribution of  crude oil in energy supply dropped from 61.1% in 1990 to 38.2% in2008 after the implementation of fuel diversification strategy. Onthe other hand, natural gas has become the main contributor of final energy consumption with 43.4% of total energy supply in2008. Theprimaryenergy supplywerenatural gas43.4%; crudeoil38.2%; coal 15.3% and hydropower 3.1% in 2008. Crude oil is nolongerseenasafeasiblesourceofenergysupplyinMalaysiaduetoits fast depleting supply. Nowadays, crude oil is mainly used as abackup supply for emergency [9]. Crude oil and natural gas stilldominated the energy supply in Malaysia and are expected tocontinue to play a major role in primary energy mix. However, theburning fossil fuel like crude oil and natural gas may totallyexhaust in one day. Besides, it will raise the climate change issueand significantly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. Both of these issues are of major global environmental concerns that willhave disastrous impact on the socio-economic development inMalaysia. 3. Energy mix in Malaysia Malaysia is currently adopting the Five-Fuel DiversificationStrategy energy mix implemented in the year 1999. According tothis strategy, the energy mix in Malaysia is contributed by fivemain sources, namely natural gas, coal, oil, hydro and renewableenergy. Besides, Malaysian government launched the SmallRenewable Energy Power Programme (SREP) in 2001. Thisprogramme was the first step to encourage and intensify theutilisation of renewable energy in power generation.  3.1. Natural gas Naturalgashasbecomeanincreasinglyvaluableresourceandaglobal commodity. Therefore, the demand for natural gas hassignificantly increased. In Malaysia, natural gas has become themainenergycontributorsinceearly20 s.Thevolumeofnaturalgasreserve is 2.49 trillion meter cubic in 2008 and most of the naturalgas production comes from East Malaysia, especially offshoreSarawak [5]. The production of natural gas has risen steadily inrecent years and reaching 198 million meter cubic per day in 2008which is an increase of 22% since year 2002. Besides, domesticnatural gas consumption has also increased substantially with941.6 billion meter cubic in 2008. Natural gas reserve in MalaysiaisthelargestinSouthEastAsiaand12thlargestintheworld.Thereare three LNG processing plants in Malaysia, all located in amassive complex at Bintulu (East Malaysia-Sarawak) and suppliedby the offshore natural gas fields at Sarawak. The Bintulu facility isthe largest LNG complex in the world, with a total liquefactioncapacity of 31 billion meter cubic or 22.7 million metric tons peryear [9]. The natural gas consumption increases drastically from2.5 million tons in 1990 to around 25 million tons in 2008 afterMalaysia implemented fuel diversification strategy. Power stationsector is the major contribution which account for half of the totalnaturalgasconsumption,followedbyindustrialsectorasshowninFig. 4.  3.2. Crude oil The depleting reserves and high price for crude oil havesignificant effect on the role of oil in the energy mix. Thecontribution of oil in the energy mix was once up to 90% in 1980and has declined sharply after fuel diversification strategy wasimplemented in 1981. After the international oil crisis in 1973 and1979, the government had called for the diversification of energyresourcestopreventover-dependencyonoil.In2008,Malaysiahasproven oil reserves of 5.46 billion barrels and 68% are located ineastMalaysiaSabahandSarawak[5].Malaysia’soilproductionhasdeclined in recent years and the average oil production is around690 thousand barrels per day in 2008 with 564 thousand barrelscrude oil and 126 thousand barrels condensates oil. When theproduction rate is consistent at around 700 thousand barrels perday, the ratio between reserve and production of 21 indicated thatMalaysia’s oil reserves will be exhausted in next 21 years.There are five active oil refinery facilities in Malaysia with atotalproductionof592thousandbarrelsperdayasshowninTable3. The largest refinery capacity is 155 thousand barrels per day inPort Dickson, Negeri Sembilan by SHELL Refining Co. (FOM) Bhd.Malaysia’s state-owned national oil company, Petroleam NasionalBerhad (PETRONAS) which dominates the upstream and down-stream activities of the country’s oil sector. PETRONAS operatesthree refineries (249,000 bbl/d total capacity), while Shell(155,000 bbl/d) and ExxonMobil (88,000 bbl/d) operate one plantrespectively. Malaysia has invested heavily in refining activitiesduring the last two decades and is able to meet the country’sdemand for petroleum products domestically, after relying on therefining industry in Singapore for many years.  3.3. Coal Beingthecheapestandmostabundantavailablefossilfuel,coalwill always have a role in the energy mix in certain countries likeUSA and China, where coal is the main source of fuel. On the otherhand, coal in Malaysia only contributes about 8.8% to the energymixin2000andthereisonlyincreaseindemandinrecentyear[6].The total production of coal has accumulated to 1.17 million tonsin 2008 and the primarily production comes from the mines inSarawak. Moreover, Malaysia has huge coal reserves located in thestates of Selangor, Sarawak and Sabah. Total coal reserves are1938.4 million tons of various kinds ranging from lignite toanthracite as show in Table 4. The coal reserve can further dividedinto 280.8 million tons in measured, 378.2 million tons indicatedand the balance of 1279.3 million tons is inferred. There are more  Table 2 Primary energy supply share in Malaysia [5].Primary energy supply Amount (ktoe) Share (%)1990 2008 1990 2008Crude oil 12,434 24,494 61.1 38.2Natural gas 5,690 27,800 27.9 43.4Coal and coke 1,326 9,782 6.5 15.3Hydropower 915 1,964 4.5 3.1Total 20,365 64,040 100 100 [ Fig. 4.  Natural gas consumption by sector [5]. H.C. Ong et al./Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 639–647   641  than80%ofthecoalreservesarelocatedinSarawak,18.5%inSabahand only 1.5% in Peninsular Malaysia. Generally, the coal reservesin Malaysia have heat values ranging between 21,000 kJ/kg and30,000 kJ/kg with low ash and sulfur levels. The largest reserves of coal are located in Kapit & Mukah, Sarawak and in Maliau, Sabah.Malaysia’sdemandforcoalhasbeenontherise,with15 milliontons in 2008 and is expected to rise to 19 million tons by 2010.Most of the country’s requirements are met by imports fromIndonesia, Australia and China [9]. They are consumed mainly bythepowergenerationandindustrialsectorlikecementplants,ironand steel plants. Most of the coal is imported but efforts arecontinuing to enhance the security of supply by exploring thepotential for development of local sources particularly in Sarawak,as well as securing long-term supplies from abroad. There are fourcoal fired plants to which Malaysia’s state-owned power companyand Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) arrange the coal supplies. TNBowns two of the plants, there are Kapar (1600 MW) and Janamanjung (2100 MW) plants. Two others are independentpowerproducers(IPPs),namelyTanjongBin(2100 MW)andJimah(1400 MW).  3.4. Hydropower  Hydropower is the only renewable energy technology that iscommercially viable on a large scale in Malaysia. Moreover,hydropower dams can and have made important and significantcontributions to human development. Firstly, it is a renewableenergy source and produces negligible amounts of greenhousegases.Inlongterm,itstoreslargeamountsofelectricityatlowcostand it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. Furthermore,hydro dams are multipurpose and are built primarily for social–economic development like irrigation, water supply, flood control,electric power and improvement of navigation. In the last twocenturies, hydropower has also played a key role in producinglarge-scale power and electricity [10]. Malaysia has a substantialamount of hydropower resources and potential hydropower isestimatedat29,000 MW[11].However,onlyaround2,091 MWoff the 29,000 MW is utilized in 2008 [5]. This is basically due to thehigh capital investment required to develop the hydropower andoften involves socio-economic issues. The development of ahydropower dam is overwhelmingly complex because the issuesare not confined to thedesign, construction and operation of damsthemselves but embraces the issues of social, environmental andpolitical issues. Table 5 shows the installed capacity of majorhydropower stations in Malaysia with a total capacity of 2,091 MW.Sarawak has abundant hydropower potential with has a totalcapacity of 108 MW installed in 2009. Sarawak plans to increasehydropowercapacityto3500 MWby2015and7723 MWby2020,  Table 3 Refinery licensed capacity [5].Oil company Location Start up date Thousand barrels/daySHELL Refining Co. (FOM) Bhd Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan 1963 155ESSO Malaysia Bhd Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan 1960 88PETRONAS Kertih, Terengganu 1983 49PETRONAS Melaka 1994 100Malaysia Refining Company Sdn Bhd (PETRONAS/ConocoPhillips) Melaka 1998 100  Table 4 Production and reserves of coal in Malaysia.Location Reserves (Million tons) Production (ktons) Coal typeMeasured Indicated InferredSarawak1. Abok, Sri Aman 7.3 10.6 32.4 168.0 Coking coal, semi-anthracite2. Kapit & Mukah 262.7 312.4 916.7 999.0 Sub-bituminous3. Bintulu 6.0 – 14.0 Hydrous ligniteSabah1. Silimpopon 4.8 14.1 7.7 Sub-bituminous2. Labuan – – 8.9 Sub-bituminous3. Maliau – – 215.0 Bituminous4. Meliabau – 17.9 25.05. South West Malibau – 23.2 –6. Pinangan West Middle Block – – 42.6 BituminousSelangor1. Batu Arang – – 17.0 Sub-bituminousTotal 280.8 378.2 1,279.3Grand total 1,938.4 1,167.0  Table 5 Installed capacity of major hydropower stations in Malaysia.Station Installedcapacity (MW)Total (MW)1. TerengganuStesen Janakuasa Sultan Mahmud Kenyir 4  100 400.02. PerakStesen Janakuasa Temenggor 4  87 348.0Stesen Janakuasa Bersia 3  24 72.0Stesen Janakuasa Kenering 3  40 120.0Chenderoh 3  10.7+1  8.4 40.5Sg. Piah Hulu 2  7.3 14.6Sg. Piah Hilir 2  27 54.03. PahangStesen Janakuasa Sultan Yussuf, Jor 4  25 100.0Stesen Janakuasa Sultan Idris II, Woh 3  50 150.0Cameron Highland Scheme 11.94. KelantanPergau 4  50 600.0Kenerong Upper 2  6 12.0Kenerong Lower 2  4 8.05. SabahTenom Pangi 3  22.0 66.06. SarawakBatang Ai 4  23.5 94.0Total 2,091.0 H.C. Ong et al./Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 639–647  642

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